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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That wall karren is these are found on vertical walls as a result of water flowing down the walls without any area-wide moistening although area-wide sprinkling occasionally influences their development [3]. see also meandering karren; humus-water grooves.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for karst plateau (Keyword) returned 43 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 43
On hypogean Roncocreagris (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones: Neobisiidae) from Portugal, with descriptions of three new species, , Reboleira Ana Sofia P. S. , Zaragoza Juan A. , Gonalves F. , Orom P.

Three new hypogean species of the Iberian genus Roncocreagris Mahnert, 1974 are described from mainland Portugal: R. borgesi sp. nov. and R. gepesi sp. nov. from caves in the Sicó massif, and R. occidentalis sp. nov. from caves in the Montejunto and Cesaredas karst plateau. This brings to nine the number of known hypogean species of the mostly Iberian genus Roncocreagris: five from Portugal and four from Spain. Ecological comments and new localities for some of the previously known species are also included.


MATHEMATICAL-MODELING OF CATCHMENT MORPHOLOGY IN THE KARST OF GUIZHOU, CHINA, 1992, Ming T. ,
This paper establishes statistical relationships describing the morphology of three contrasting drainage areas in the karst plateau of Guizhou. A landscape model proposed takes as its basis a two-tiered morphology: an upper tier of peaks and cols which maintains a dynamic equilibrium; and a lower tier defined by depression or valley bases which can evolve differentially in time and space. Thus equilibrium and evolutionary processes coexist in this type of karst landscape within the same timespan. The evlution of subcatchments is shown to be not necessarily the same as that of the total catchment because of tectonic factors

Karst origin of the upper erosion surface in the Northern Judean Mountains, Israel, 1993, Frumkin, A.
The upper erosion surface in the northern Judean Mountains is actively karstified, in the vadose zone and on the surface. The karst valleys become gradually covered with Terra Rossa which inhibits further denudation underneath the impermeable cover. Higher solution rates in the elevated areas keep the erosion surface relatively flat. The main characteristics of the area which dominate karst processes are fissured carbonate rocks with some insolubles and aeolian contribution, non arid climate and moderate relief. The erosion surface developed probably since the Oligocene regression. The Pleistocene uplift of the mountain backbone increased the relief and reduced the area of the karst plateau.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FRACTURES AND KARSTIFICATION - THE OIL-BEARING PALEOKARST OF ROSPO MARE (ITALY), 1994, Soudet H. J. , Sorriaux P. , Rolando J. P. ,
The Rospo Mare oil field is located in the Adriatic Sea, 20 km off the Italian coast. The reservoir lies at a depth of 1300 m and consists of a paleokarst oi Oligocene to Miocene age which developed within Cretaceous limestones, now covered by 1200 m of Mio-Pliocene sequences. The oil column is about 140 m 8 high. The karstic nature of the reservoir was identified through vertical, cored drill holes which allowed us to analyse the various solution features and the sedimentary infilling (speleothems, terra rossa, marine clays), as well as their vertical distribution. Erosion morphology at the top of the karst is highly irregular, including in particular paleovalleys as well as many pit-shaped sink holes. Detailed geophysical knowledge of that morphology helped to optimize the development of the field through horizontal drilling. Observations concerning the upper part of the reservoir were compared to a palaeokarst of the same age, outcropping widely onshore, in quarries located nearby. The Rospo Mare paleokarst is an integral part of the ante Miocene paleokarst assemblages of the periphery of the Mediterranean which were formed in tropical conditions. Only the fractures enhanced by meteoric water during the formation of the karat are important for reservoir connectivity. During the formation of the karst there were several phases of dissolution and infilling which modified the geometry of the open fissures and only these fractures play an important role in the reservoir drainage. Vertically we can distinguish three very different zones from top to bottom: at the top the epikarst (0-35 m) in a zone of extension. All the fractures have been enlarged by dissolution but the amount of infilling by clay is substantial. The clays are derived either from alteration of the karat fabric or by deposition during the Miocene transgression; the percolation zone (15-45 m) is characterized by its network of large fractures vertically enlarged by dissolution which corresponds to the relict absorption zones in the paleokarst. These fractures, which usually have a pluridecametric spacing, connect the epi-karst with the former sub-horizontal river system. This zone has been intersected by the horizontal wells during the field development. In this zone there are local, horizontal barriers oi impermeable clay which can block vertical transmissibility. In these low permeability zones the vertical fractures have not been enlarged due to dissolution hence the horizontal barrier; the zone of underground rivers (35-70 m) is characterized by numerous horizontal galleries which housed the subterranean ground water circulation. When these fissures are plurimetric in extent this can lead to gallery collapse with the associated fill by rock fall breccia. This can partly block the river system but always leaves a higher zone of free circulation with high permeabilities of several hundreds of Darcys. These galleries form along the natural fracture system relative to the paleohydraulic gradient which in some cases has been preserved. The zone below permanent ground water level with no circulation of fluids is characterized by dissolution limited to non-connected vugs. Very locally these fissures can be enlarged by tectonic fractures which are non-connected and unimportant for reservoir drainage. Laterally, only the uppermost zone can be resolved by seismic imaging linked with horizontal well data (the wells are located at the top of the percolation zone). The Rospo Mare reservoir shows three distinct horizontal zones: a relict paleokarst plateau with a high index of open connected fractures, (area around the A and B platforms); a zone bordering the plateau (to the north-east of the plateau zone) very karstified but intensely infilled by cap rock shales (Miocene - Oligocene age); a zone of intensely disturbed and irregular karst paleotopography which has been totally infilled by shales. The performance of the production wells is dependent on their position with respect to the three zones noted above and their distance from local irregularities in the karst paleotopography (dolines, paleovalleys)

Some notes about landscape evolution in the Trieste Karst. Reading of the topographic maps time series (map 1:25000 "Poggioreale del Carso", foglio 40a iiso) , 1998, Castiglioni, Benedetta

Three editions (1915, 1926, 1962) of the same topographic map - 1:25,000 scale - were analysed in order to obtain some information about karst landscape evolution during the present century. Both natural and human landscape were observed, expecially landforms, vegetation and soil use. The analysis gives prominence in particular to progressive forest growing. Two main difficulties were met in this analysis. First, the scale 1:25,000 is not very suitable for looking at the extremely fragmented karst plateau landscape. Second, the comparison between the three maps is not always possible because they are drafted with different mapping techniques.


Agriculture and nature conservation in the Moravian karst (Czech Republic), 1999, Balk Ivan, Bosk Pavel, Jano Jozef, Stefka Leos
Moravian Karst is a narrow strip of limestone with long history of settlement, agricultural use and man impact to karst. It is naturally divided into smaller units; karst plateaus; separated by deep valleys (glens). Each plateau has different proportion of land use, i.e. the percentage of agricultural land, forests, etc. The agricultural land constitutes now up to 70% in the north and max. 30% in the centre and south of the total area of plateaus. Intensive agricultural use of the arable land since 60ties of this Century caused great impact to quality of soils and groundwater by overdoses of fertilisers and other artificial chemical substances. Detailed research in 1980 to 1997 resulted in a plan of care based on the zonation of land. There were defined zones with different degree of restriction of land use, agricultural activities and application of fertilisers and biocides. Arable lands has been gradually changed to meadows and pastures by introduction of grass since 1987 in the most strictly protected zone to protect especially subsurface karst forms.

Impacts of agricultural transformation on the principal karstic regions of France, 1999, Nicod Jean, Salomon Jeannoel
The recent extension of intensive agriculture on the karst plateaus has caused different types of impact: soil management, generalised and/or localised pollution. Yet paradoxically rural depopulation can also have negative impacts, which largely depend on the characteristics and the hydrological function of the different karst environments. They are often negative, particularly as far as the water quality is concerned, which is why protection measures are undertaken, either in a defined area for a catchment, or in the framework of regional parks. But this is not always the case, so it is appropriate to analyse the problem of karst pollution as a whole, and to propose to experiment new solutions to mitigate the impacts.

Investigations of the vegetation and soil in the dolinas of Mecsek mountains, South Hungary, 1999, Hoyk, Edit

The data of karst ecological study in Mecsek Mountain (South Hungary) can be compared by the analyses in Bükk Mountain and Aggtelek (North Hungary). The western part of Mecsek Mountain is rich in karst forms, the rock base being in strongly fissured Triassic limestone. From a morphometric point of view these dolines are significantly different from those in the karst areas of Bükk and Aggtelek; they are smaller, more shallow and funnel shaped. The amount of 700 mm precipitation per year and increased CO2 production of root systems play an essential role. Soil research studies also support the juvenility of these dolines. Dolines in the Orfü karst plateau are in a natural state, more or less free from anthropogenic influences; however, indirect effect can be shown by the fact that the soil pH is turning sour. This state close to its natural condition is of great value of the landscape, as nowadays it is an important task to conserve the natural conditions of the environment, especially in karst regions. The karst is a highly vulnerable natural system that reacts with great sensitivity to anthropogenic influences, so it requires increased protection; this is why it would be reasonable to include the Orfü karst region in conservation projects.


Reconstruction of the development history of karstic water networks on the southern part of the Gšmšr-Torna karst on the basis of ruined caves and landforms, 1999, Já, Nos Mó, Ga

The author demonstrates the surface development of the Gomor-Torna karst situated on the Hungarian-Slovakian border from the Tertiary until the present day. He follows the process of transition from the covered karst conditions to the open karst on the karst plateau, and its effect upon the landforms and the karstic water network. He studied the evolution of surface and sub-surface water networks, and the regularity of the movements of underground rivers based on water tracing. He reconstructed the ancient surface outflow directions of the covered karst from the scarce remains of the epigenetic valleys inherited from cover deposits onto the limestone surface, from ruined swallow hole lines in valleys, as well as from decaying water conducting tubes generated in earlier phases.


The protection of karst water resources: the example of the Larzac karst plateau (south of France), 2001, Plagnes Val, Bakalowicz M. ,

The Dachstein paleosurface and the Augenstein Formation in the Northern Calcareous Alps - a mosaic stone in the geomorphological evolution of the Eastern Alps, 2001, Frisch W, Kuhlemann J, Dunkl I, Szekely B,
The central and eastern areas of the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) are characterized by remnants of the Dachstein paleosurface, which formed in Late Eocene (?) to Early Oligocene time and is preserved with limited modification on elevated karst plateaus. In Oligocene time, the Dachstein paleosurface subsided and was sealed by the Augenstein Formation, a terrestrial succession of conglomerates and sandstones, which are only preserved in small remnants on the plateaus, some in an autochthonous position. Thermochronological data suggest a maximum thickness of the Augenstein Formation of >1.3 km, possibly >2 km. The age of the Augenstein Formation is constrained by the overall geological situation as Early Oligocene to earliest Miocene. Fission track age data support an Early Oligocene age of the basal parts of the formation. The source area of the Augenstein Formation consisted predominantly of weakly metamorphic Paleozoic terrains (Greywacke Zone and equivalents) as well as the Late Carboniferous to Scythian siliciclastic base of the NCA to the south of the depositional area. To the west, the Augenstein Formation interfingered with the Tertiary deposits of the Inntal. Sedimentation of the Augenstein Formation was terminated in Early Miocene time in the course of the orogenic collapse of the Eastern Alps. The Augenstein sediments were eroded and redeposited in the foreland Molasse zone. From Pannonian times (similar to 10 Ma) on, the NCA and the denuded Dachstein surface experienced uplift in several pulses. The Dachstein paleosurface has been preserved in areas, in which thick limestone sequences allowed subsurface erosion by cave formation and thus prevented major surface erosion

A model of the early evolution of karst aquifers in limestone in the dimensions of length and depth, 2001, Gabrovsek F, Dreybrodt W,
A new model of the early evolution of limestone karst aquifers in the dimensions of length and depth is presented. In its initial state the aquifer consists of a rock massive with evenly spaced fractures of about 50 [mu]m aperture widths with an hydraulic conductivity of 10-7 ms-1. In addition to this a coarser network of prominent fractures with aperture widths of several 100 [mu]m is also present. Boundary conditions of constant recharge 450 mm/year, or constant head from the input of allogenic streams are imposed. First the position of the water table in the aquifer is calculated, then dissolutional widening during a time step in all the fractures below the water table is found by use of the well-known nonlinear dissolution kinetics of limestone. This is iterated and the position of the water table as well as the fracture widths are found as a function of time. In the case of constant recharge to a karst plateau, the water table in any case drops to base level and conduits there propagate from the spring headwards. If constant head conditions are valid the position of the water table remains almost stable and conduits propagate along the water table from the input towards the spring. There is competition between conduit evolution along prominent fractures and along tight fissures close to the water table. In any case under constant head conditions one of these pathways wins, and early karst evolution is terminated by a breakthrough event with an explosive increase of the flow through the aquifer until constant head conditions break down. Depending on the boundary conditions of constant head or constant recharge or a combination of both it is possible to describe models of cave genesis, which have been derived from field evidence, such as the water table models of Swinnerton and Rhoades as well as the four-state model by Ford and Ewers (Can. J. Earth Sci., 15 (1978) 1783)

The speleological objects in the area of the Rjecina nappe structure., 2001, Kuhta M.
According to the new geotectonic concept of the Dinarides (Herak 1986, 1991), the investigated carbonate region of the Rjecina nappe structure is locate along the margin of the mega-structural unit of the Adriatic carbonate platform, the Adriaticum. Folds and numerous reverse faults and thrusts of the Dinaric strike manifest the main structural and tectonical features. These structures are incised by younger diagonal faults. The whole structure is inclined towards the north-west, with a succession of younger deposits towards that direction and the structure terminates with flysch beds. The flysch forms a rim around the structure in contact with the Obruc nappe, which represents the boundary with the Dinaricum mega-structural unit. In a geomorphologic sense the studied area is a part of a karst plateau situate at an altitude of 580 m above sea level. The typical karst morphology on the surface extends to the underground were it is manifested by the existence of caves and pits formed by karstification. During the most recent speleological investigations 10 up to now unknown caves and pits were studied. For six objects located in the vicinity the data used was presented from previous studies (Bozicevic, 1969, Biondic and Dukaric, 1986). Together with four objects which were not investigated as jet in the studied region of the Rjecina nappe structure there are 20 registered speleological objects. The main data concerning these objects are given in the table and the morphological features are presented on topographic maps.

Surface and Groundwater Interaction of the Bela Stream and Vipava Springs in Southwestern Slovenia, 2001, Baker Gerry, Petrič, Metka, Parkin Geoff, Kogovš, Ek Janja

Previous studies suggest a hydrogeologic link between the Vipava springs and the neighbouring Bela surface stream. The Vipava springs drain the Nanos karst plateau. The Bela stream drains the very low permeable flysch to the north west of the Nanos plateau before flowing onto limestone where it gradually sinks along its course. A tracer, uranine, was injected into the Bela upstream of the village Vrhpolje and hydraulic connection with all the Vipava springs was proved. A dispersion model was used to characterise the tracer breakthrough curve of one of the springs where the highest concentrations were found. The hydrology of the Bela was analysed by measuring the discharge of the stream at 8 different sections and analysing the difference in flow between each section. The conclusion drawn from the analysis was that the Bela stream has a different hydrological response related to whether the majority of recharge comes from the karstic or flysch area of the catchment. A flow separation analysis based on hydrochemical measurements indicated that the hydrological response of the Vipava springs also depends on the recharge source area. Proved connection leads to environmental concern for the water quality of the Vipava springs, which are the main water supply of the area, because untreated wastewater is discharged into the Bela stream.


Morphogenesis of the Garlika Shaft in conditions of the contact karst, 2001, Baron, Ivo

The Garlika Shaft is located in at about 2 km long W-E depression in southern part of the Silica Plateau (the Slovak Karst Biosphere Reservation, Slovak Republic). The origin of the Garlika shaft is different than most of the other shafts of the Slovak Karst plateaus. Formerly a sinkhole of an ephemeral stream has developed to the shaft due to several factors. A thin water film corrosion and a wall water stream corrosion extended the former fissure. Then, after the stream decrease, thin water film corrosion and a tectonic breccia crumbling has modelled the deeper parts of the shaft. The entrance part of the shaft has been influenced with frost weathering, corrosion of the condensed water and corrosive action of lichens, moss and rotting organic detritus.


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