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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That dripstone is calcium carbonate deposited from water dripping from the ceiling or wall of a cave or from the overhanging edge of a rock shelter; commonly refers to the rock in stalactites, stalagmites, and other similar speleothems; in some places composed of aragonite or gypsum [10]. synonyms: (french.) concretions; (german.) tropfstein, stalagmit, stalaktit; (greek.) stalaktitis, stalagmitis; (italian.) concrezione; (russian.) kapeljnik; (spanish.) concrecion (estalagmitjca o estalactitica); (turkish.) damlatasi; (yugoslavian.) sige, smugori. see also flowstone.?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for languedoc (Keyword) returned 9 results for the whole karstbase:
La Grotte des Demoiselles [Languedoc, France], 1949, Marres Paul

Present Karstic base level in the main canyons of oriental Languedoc and Plans of Provence., 1978, Fabre G. , Nicod Jean
In a karstic country cut by a canyon in which runs an allogenic river, there are several base levels (karstic, fluvial...); chiefly if the limestones develop greatly under the bottom of the gorge. The difficulty of characterizing them appears in all the definitions given. From the example of the three most important canyons of the Eastern Bas Languedoc (South-East of France) and with the different geological controls (s.l.) one ascertains that at present: a) When an allogenic and surface river is perennial without important loss there is a total connection between fluvial level and karstic base level. b) When an allogenic and temporary surface river doesn't flow and has losses, there is no connection between the major fluvial and base level and the karstic base level.

Les msaventures des sources de l'Estavelle et de l'Inversac en Languedoc Mditerranen, 1987, Gze Bernard
The Estavelle and the Inversac are two celebrated springs in the Mediterranean Languedoc (South of France). Unfortunately, the first one has been chosen as a type for the karstic cavities alternatively absorbing or discharging the waters, according to the season, which has never been the case. On the opposite, the second one can be taken as model for this alternation as swallow hole or emergence.

Spectacular towers (average 130 m high) are to be seen in the Lijiang plain near Guilin in middle and upper Devonian limestone forming a downthrown structural panel surrounded by the high relief of a cockpit karst. The limestone was fractured by at least three Triassic and Tertiary tectonic episodes. Statistical analysis of the altitudes of tower summits shows that they are distributed according to a log-normal law with a well marked mode at 250-280 m. This mode is very similar to that of the depression altitudes of the cockpit karst. It was deduced that tower summits and cockpit bottoms show that there was an ancient, relatively flat surface which was the basic level for flow in the surrounding karstic relief (water table at ground level). Fall in this ground water caused preferential karstic breakdown in very fractured zones, leaving the stronger blocks. This subsidence must have taken place in stages, as is shown by Pliocene and lower Quaternary fossil cavities at various altitudes of the towers. Observation of fracturing in the field, in aerial photographs and satellite images show that the edges of the towers are mainly transverse faults with sub-vertical planes

Modeling of the complex karstic system in Saint-Chaptes (Gard, France): A tool for the synthesis of geological and hydrogeological data, 2000, Josnin J. Y. , Pistre S. , Drogue C. ,
Numerous software packages allow the efficient modeling of the hydrodynamic behaviour of aquifers in continuous media. To study pressure transfer in discontinuous media like karsts, the black-box models are restrictive and the models that consider discrete conduit networks are unsuitable for reservoir scale. We show that the utilization of a continuous media model can lead to useful results, even in the case of complex systems, but needs to be adapted to karst specificity. The problem is approached by studying a hydrogeological system located in the Mediterranean Languedoc region: the S-t-Chaptes basin. This system consists of three superposed aquifers included in four different stratigraphic series. The main aquifer is a karst formation in contact with two other karst formations that belong to different hydrogeologic systems. Considering geological data in addition to hydrological data and with the hypothesis of a relative homogenization of the karst's hydraulic behaviour on a large spatial scale for daily to monthly increments, the model that takes into account the relations with the other aquifers allows (i) a preliminary identification of the main heterogeneities inside the reservoir; (ii) the location of barriers and low-permeability zones that isolate some parts of the aquifer; (iii) the observation of a curious behaviour of the piezometric levels in the confined zones of the aquifer; and (iv) the characterization of the exchanges with the other low-volume but existing aquifers

Quaternary tectonics: Influence on the structure of two karstic aquifers of Languedoc (France), 2001, Josnin J. Y. ,
Our research focuses on the effect of Quaternary tectonics on the organization of the conduit network of karst ground water flow. In the Languedoc region, the major karstic systems are developed in Malm and Lower Cretaceous platform limestones. Most of these systems are polygenetic, their genesis and evolution having been controlled by fracturing that occurred during major tectonic phases (ante-Senonian, Eocene, Oligocene, Aquitanian, Pliocene). These complex karst systems were reactivated following Messinian eustatic events, under tectonic conditions which are not well-known, particularly those that occurred during the Quaternary. Small scale deformations and a lack of seismic activity make characterization of current tectonics in Mediterranean Languedoc difficult. The presence of vertical offsets, however, demonstrates that there are active faults in the interior of or in proximity to karst systems. In two karst aquifers within the Garden basin, we have observed a correlation between the orientations of active faults and the principal karst conduits. In the Mialet basin, we demonstrate that erosion resulting from post-Miocene uplift (and so changes of boundary conditions) divides the aquifer into smaller, independent units. In the St Chaptes basin, we reconstruct the history of the karst, proposing that tectonic and eustatic events were predominant in the karstification process and that the climatic conditions were only of secondary importance. We also show how the reactivation of faults can lead to the unblocking of abandoned karst conduits, allowing their reintroduction into the active flow system, a phenomenon that can be explained by the combined influence of the present stress field and hydraulic gradients. This work, which represents a preliminary study, leads to hypotheses that we will subsequently validate through different successive modelings

Anomalies des teneurs en oxygne atmosphrique mesures dans le rseau Fanges-Paradet (Aude / Pyrnes-Orientales), 2002, Ourni Bernard, Ostermann Jeanmichel
Measures of atmospheric O2 and CO2 in the cave system of Fanges-Paradet (French Eastern Pyrnes) - In the cave system of Fanges-Paradet and in several caves of Region Languedoc-Roussillon (in Corbires mountains, High Aude Valley and Larzac Causse), successive measuring of atmospheric O2 and CO2 contents have been taken in 1997, 1998 and 2001. The aim of the paper consists in getting more accurate composition of endokarstic atmosphere. Abnormally low contents in O2 appear, especially in the deep parts of puits de lOurs, grotte de la Coume dels Adoutx and grotte TM 71. Several explanations may justify these anomalies.

Speleothem rupture in karst: tectonic or climatic origin? U-Th dating of rupture events in Salamandre Cave (Gard, southeastern France), 2004, Ponsbranch, Hamelin B. , Brulhet J. , Bruxelles L. ,
Caves are relatively protected from the main external erosional factors. Therefore, they constitute potentially reliable places for long-term conservation of continental history. Moreover their secondary carbonated deposits, the speleothems, can be dated precisely on the 0-500 ka time-scale using U-series isotopes measured by thermo-ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS). Tectonic events (tectonic displacements and earthquakes) may change cave morphology and induce speleothem breaking or displacement as has been shown by previous studies performed mainly in Italy [Forti et Postpischl, 1984; Postpischl et al., 1991 for example]. Nevertheless, collapses of speleothems observed today in caves are difficult to interpret as their origin may be linked to several other natural processes. We studied the Aven de la Salamandre cave located in southeastern France (Gard), an area between the Cevennes fault and the Nimes fault, where evidence of Quaternary vertical movements was previously described. However, this region is not considered to be a seismic active zone. The Aven de la Salamandre cave is characterized by numerous broken speleothems. Some of them are very large and a lot of them are covered by growth of new calcite or new speleothem generation. We report here 13 TIMS U/Th analysis performed on two broken speleothems recovered by second generation calcite growth. Dating results are discussed through time corrections due to detrital content of calcite. In the first sequence, a 7 0.35 ka fracture event is identified. In the second sequence, the age of the breakdown is between 1.1 0.1 and 6.3 2 ka. These events could thus be contemporary. Hypotheses for the origin of this fracture event are presented and discussed: (i) karstic catastrophic event due to intense climatic changes or to cavity collapse (break down of hanging wall, gravity, landslide...); (ii) co-seismic ruptures. The first conclusion of this study is that these collapse episodes in the Aven de la Salamandre cave cannot be due to the direct effect of an earthquake or climatic event. Only indirect effects of flooding (by mobilization of the argillaceous components of the floor and consecutive destabilization of the speleothems growing upon it) or earthquake effects (more likely by local effects than by wave front passage) are privileged. By comparing our dating with regional destructive known events (in other karsts, in cliffs and scarps), dated by relative chronology, we are lead to propose a regional generalized event precisely dated here at 7 ka. This second conclusion doesn't contradict the presence of unbroken speleothems older than 100 ka found in other caves in the neighborhood as local effects is one of the predominant factors relative to speleothem stability. As a final conclusion, this paper promotes the use of speleothems as reliable datable tools for assessing regional stability problems (sensitivity to seismic hazards, to destructive intense climatic events...) as is done for paleoclimatic reconstruction

Origin of the interstitial isopod Microcharon (Crustacea, Microparasellidae) from the western Languedoc and the northern Pyrenees (France) with the description of two new species, 2013, Nicole Coineau, Claude Boutin, Malvina Artheau

The interstitial groundwater genus Microcharon (Crustacea, Isopoda, Microparasellidae) is highly diversified in southern France. A new species,Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. is described from the Aude River, whereas specimens from the Lachein River in the central Pyrenees are reassigned to another species, M. ariegensis new to Science. Microcharon boulanouarin. sp. is closely related to the species of the group rouchi and may belong to the phylogenetic western Mediterranean lineage. The two-step model of colonization and evolution provides an understanding of the origin and age of this stygobite. Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. is derived from marine ancestors that lived in the interstitial littoral shallow bottoms of the Atlantic embayment which covered southwestern France at the very beginning of the early Eocene period. Both the regression of this gulf at the start of the Eocene and the Pyrenees uplift may have played a major role in the evolutionary history through vicariance of Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. and of the northern Pyrenean species of the grouprouchi.

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