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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That discharge, maximum is the maximum discharge of a river or spring during high flow conditions [16].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for laser (Keyword) returned 42 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 42
Die Korallenkluft im Laserwald (Salzburg)., 1958, Abel, G.

Die Korallenkluft im Laserwald (Salzburg), 1958, Abel, G.

Der Lasererwaldschacht II am Ladenbergkpfl (Salzburg)., 1960, Abel, G.

Der Lasererwaldschacht II am Ladenbergkpfl (Salzburg), 1960, Abel, G.

Eishhle (2067 m) und Labyrinthhhle (2035 m) - Entdeckungen im Steinernen Meer (Salzburg)., 1961, Koppenwallner, F(ranz). X(aver).
[Eishhle (1331/26), Labyrinthhhle (1331/28), jetzt Teile des Monster-Kolkblser-Systems]

Die Knochenfunde aus dem Glserkogelschacht (Schneealpe, Steiermark)., 1963, Trimmel, H.
[(1851/11), Elch, Wisent,]

Die Knochenfunde aus dem Glserkogelschacht (Schneealpe, Steiermark), 1963, Trimmel, H.

Ein neues Gert zur Messung von Entfernungen in Hhlen., 1973, Riegl J. , Spiegler A.
[Dokumentation, Laser]

Laser luminescent microzonal analysis: a new method for investigation of the alterations of the climate and solar activity during the Quaternary, 1987, Shopov Y. Y.

Comparaison entre les lamines luminescentes et les lamines visibles annuelles de stalagmites, 1997, Genty D, Baker A, Barnes W,
ResumeLes sections polies de plusieurs stalagmites provenant de France et de Belgique ont ete observees apres une excitation en lumiere ultraviolette (LTV) et en lumiere naturelle pour etudier les lamines annuelles luminescentes et visibles. La luminescence la plus forte se trouve dans les lamines sombres et compactes, ce qui signifierait que ces deux types de lamines se formeraient a la fin de l'automne et au debut de l'hiver, lorsqu'il y a une brusque augmentation du debit et un apport important de matiere organique. Sous excitation laser UV, la calcite blanche et poreuse est beaucoup plus luminescente que la calcite sombre et compacte. Cette luminescence est soit, liee a la porosite, soit a la presence de lamines sombres et compactes plus luminescentes.AbstractPolished sections of stalagmites from France and Belgium were examined using UV excitation and natural light in order to examine their annual growth laminae. The most prominent luminescence occurs in the dark compact laminae, this would signify that both types form at the end of Autumn or the beginning of Winter when soil organic matter is flushed into the cave. Under UV excitation, and at a weaker magnification, white porous calcite fabric is found to be much more luminescent than the dark compact one. These results could be due either to optical effects associated with porosity or to the higher luminescence of dark compact laminae

Les stalagmites : archives environnementales et climatiques haute rsolution, prsentation des protocoles dtudes et premiers rsultats sur des splothmes du Vercors, 1999, Perrette, Yves
Since the late 80's, the detailed study of speleothem has deve_loped from the crossing of two main approachs; one comes from the ques_tions of speleologists confronted with magnificent cave scenery, the other comes from citizen questions about climatic and environmental changes. The aim of this paper is to show the diversity and the relevance of the data collected by such studies on stalagmitic samples from the Vercors -France. The knowledge of the chemical processes of the H20 - CaCO3 - C02 system in the perspective of the karst infiltration leads to ques_tions about the role of the "supstrat". This word has been used to describe the "roofrock" rather than the bedrock. So, to better unders_tand the different modes of drainage in karst, a global hydrologic study of the Choranche cave vadose zone has been realised, e.g. seepage water rates have been monitoring. These recent studies allow us to model the structural and functional hydrologic network of such a well developed karst system. Actually we demonstrated the hierar_chisation of the drainage and the relation between a transmissive system and a capacitive one. They have been used to propose a graphical typology leading to a better appreciation of the various environmental interests of speleothems. Understanding the processes of speleothem environmental and climatic archiving, needs to know the processes of calcite crystal growth. They are briefly presented through some usual fabrics like columnar, palissadic or dendritic ones and through the optical relation between macroscopic colours and crys_talline porosity. It is the evolution of these crystalline features, which creates the laminae. To explain what are laminae, the diffe_rent type of emission by a solid after a laser irradiation are shown. It justifies the choice of two kinds of laminae measurement i.e. reflectance and fluorescence. Then, results of spectroscopic studies which show a covariation between Mn2+ concentration, the maximum intensity wave length of fluorescence spectra and the reflec_tance trend, allow us to consider reflectance measurement as a water excess proxy. This experimental approach is confirmed by the infra annual laminae. The hydrological interest of "visible" laminae (i.e. reflectance one) is increased by the fluorescence "invisible" lami_nae. In fact, the presence of a wide diversity of organic molecule in the calcite lead us to consider the fluorescence lamina as a temporal proxy controlled by the annual leaf fall and biopedological degradation. To measure these two proxies, an original experimental set has been developed in collaboration with the PhLAM laboratory (Lille, France). Particularly, this experimental set up permits to realise simultaneously a reflectance and a fluorescence image. The data collected are processed and are analysed in the frequency domain. All these data allow us to extract different proxies from speleothems. These proxies have been studied for some Vercors samples. We present the global environmental and climatic data archiving of the post_wurmian (isotopic stage 1) warming. At a higher resolution, the Vercors climate forcing is shown through the spectral analysis of the reflectance of a well laminated sample. The solar (T=22y) and atmospheric (NAO, T=17y) forcings are clearly distinguished. The climate analysis of this sample is limited by an anthropic mask. We show the similarity of the crystal facies evolution of two samples located around the Alps but far from more than 100 km. We would like to interpret this changes as an archiving of the post Little Ice Age warming but here too, Man interfere with climate to induce environmental changes. We show an example of the possibility for distinguishing climate from anthropic changes in environmental evolutions. The wealth of data of the speleothem allows us to appreciate the environ_ment stability of the Vercors which is confirmed in the spectral analysis of the growth rates of a Gouffre Berger sample. The diversity of the data collected in speleothems is directly linked to the diversity of the way of archiving in a karst system. It is why only a global approach seems to be relevant for answering environmental hydrological or morphological karst questions.

Trace element variations in coeval Holocene speleothems from GB Cave, southwest England, 1999, Roberts Mark S. , Smart Peter L. , Hawkesworth Chris J. , Perkins William T. , Pearce Nicholas J. G. ,
We report trace element (Mg, Sr and Ba) records based on laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) from three coeval Holocene speleothems from Great Chamber in GB Cave, southwest England. The trace element records are placed on a common timescale on the basis of a suite of TIMS 230Th-234U ages. This permits assessment of the reproducibility of the trace element record in coeval speleothems. The trace element records are not coherent, raising dobuts over the reliability of individual trace element records as potential archives of palaeoenvironmental information. Mg/Sr in speleothem calcite has been proposed as a potential palaeothermometer as Mg partitioning into calcite from water is temperaturedependent, while Sr partitioning into calcite is temperature-independent. However, we present the results of calculations which demonstrate that the observed Mg/Sr values in the three stalagmites cannot have been produced by Holocene temperature changes alone and that other processes must play a dominant role. We present a model which suggests that the observed trace element variations in the three speleothems reflect hydrological mixing of waters in the epikarstic zone above the cave which have interacted with two geochemi cally distinct source rocks (calcite and dolomite)

Comparative study of a stalagmite sample by stratigraphy, laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy, EPR spectrometry and reflectance imaging, 2000, Perrette Yves, Delannoy Jean Jacques, Bolvin Herve, Cordonnier Michel, Destombes Jean Luc, Zhilinskaya Elena A. , Aboukais Antoine,
In the last few years, it has been shown that multi-proxy data are recorded in speleothems and that these secondary deposits can be used to retrieve records of environmental evolution in extra-glacial continental conditions. The goal of many current research is to obtain a better understanding of the processes leading to the growth of these chemical sediments and to relate them to changes in environmental conditions. In the present research, the multi-proxy study of a well-laminated speleothem sample points out the interest of reflectance trend measurement as a water excess indicator. Results from stratigraphy, laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy, EPR spectrometry and reflectance imaging have been combined in order to get a better understanding of the environmental conditions pertaining during speleothem growth. Several parameters have been measured: (i) Mn2 concentration evolution (shown to be linked to soil processes); (ii) linewidth [Delta]H of the low field Mn2 EPR line (linked to crystalline properties of the speleothem); (iii) intensities of the laser excited fluorescence (linked to organic matter content of calcite) and reflectance (linked to calcite porosity); (iv) wavelength [lambda]peak of the intensity maximum of laser excited fluorescence bands (linked to the size of trapped organic molecules). Other data resulting from statistical treatment of the annual fluorescence cycles have also been used. Significant correlations demonstrate the covariation of [lambda]peak and calcite reflectance with the hydrological regime of the cave. In the well drained soils of a karstic area, Mn2 and [lambda]peak appear to be accurate proxies for soil moisture evolution, directly linked to the water excess. These results are confirmed by the comparison with historical knowledge of environmental changes of the surrounding plateau

Feeding ecology and evolutionary survival of the living coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae, 2000, Fricke H, Hissmann K,
One concept of evolutionary ecology holds that a living fossil is the result of past evolutionary events, and is adapted to recent selective forces only if they are similar to the selective forces in the past. We describe the present environment of the living coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae Smith, 1939 at Grande Comore, western Indian Ocean and report depth-dependent cave distribution, temperature, salinity and oxygen values which are compared to the fish's distribution and its physiological demands. We studied the activity pattern, feeding behaviour, prey abundance and hunting success to evaluate possible links between environmental conditions, feeding ecology and evolutionary success of this ancient fish. Transmitter tracking experiments indicate nocturnal activity of the piscivorous predator which hunts between approximately 200 m below the surface to 500 m depth. Fish and prey density were measured between 200 and 400 m, both increase with depth. Feeding tracks and feeding strikes of the coelacanth at various depths were simulated with the help of video and laser techniques. Along a 9447 m video transect a total of 31 potential feeding strikes occurred. Assuming 100% hunting success, medium-sized individuals would obtain 122 g and large females 299 g of prey. Estimates of metabolic rates revealed for females 3.7 ml O-2 kg(-1) h(-1) and for males 4.5 ml O-2 kg(-1) h(-1). Today coelacanths are considered to be a specialist deep-water form and to inhabit, with their ancient morphology, a contemporary environment where they compete with advanced, modern fish

Photoluminescence Imaging of Speleothem Microbanding with a High-Resolution Confocal Scanning Laser Macroscope, 2000, Ribes, A. C. , Lundberg, J. , Waldron, D. J. , Vesely, M. , Damaskinos, S. , Guthrie, S. And Dixon, T.

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