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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That relict cave is abandoned, inactive cave segment, left when the water that formed it is diverted elsewhere, normally due to rejuvenation, continuing cave development and increasing karstic maturity. relict unmodified phreatic passage segments are abandoned in the vadose zone, where they may remain dry, retaining a typical phreatic morphology, or be invaded and modified to a keyhole profile by new streams. ages of relict caves vary greatly and due to lack of stream-flow breakdown and speleothem deposition may become the dominant processes. relict caves are commonly referred to incorrectly as fossil caves [9].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for lebanon (Keyword) returned 19 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 19
Significance and origin of very large regulating power of some karst aquifers in the Middle East. Implication on karst aquifer classification, , Elhakim M, Bakalowicz M,
SummaryKarst aquifers are the main groundwater resource in Lebanon as well as in most Mediterranean countries. Most of them are not exploited in a sustainable way, partly because their characteristics remain unknown. Karst aquifers are so complex that the assessment of their resource and their exploitable storage requires an analysis of their whole functioning, particularly by analysing the spring hydrograph. Among all various methods, the method proposed by Mangin aims to characterize at the same time the recharge conditions and the storage and recession of the saturated zone by analyzing the spring hydrograph. This method defines two parameters, the infiltration delay i, and the regulating power k which are the roots of a classification of karst systems. This classification makes the distinction between karst and porous aquifers considering the value of the regulating power. k is assumed to be lower than 0.5 in karst, and between 0.5 and 1 for all other aquifers, 1 being the upper limit.The study of karst aquifers in Lebanon shows values of k > 0.5, and even 1; former data from the literature show that other karst springs in Middle East have comparable characteristics. In fact, what is not considered by Mangin and others, k is equivalent to a mean residence time in years of water in the saturated zone. So long residence times are normally observed in poorly karstified aquifers, or containing abandoned, not functioning karstification. The geological framework in which the studied springs are located in fact shows that these aquifers have been subject to a long, complex evolution, as a consequence of the base level rising. This rising produced the flooding of the successive karst drainage network, which does not really function anymore and provides a large storage capacity to the aquifer. The very interesting properties of these aquifers make them prime targets for fulfilling the increasing needs of water

An Annotated Bibliography of the Lebanon Caves, 1964, Shaw T. R.

Biotope and description of Niphargus altagahizi n.sp., subterranean Gammarid Amphipod from Lebanon., 1973, Alouf Nicolas J.
Description of a small warm cave situated along the Mediterranean shore; the temperature of water varies from 14 to 19C. Inhabiting this cave is Niphargus altagahizi, a new species related to orcinus s.l. group. Description of this species and comparison with the other Lebanese species, N. nadarini.

Considerations on cavernicolous and endogen Carabids of the Anataloian peninsula (Coleoptera, Carabidae)., 1973, Taglianti Augusto Vigna
The cavernicolous and endogeous Coleoptera Carabidae, actually (1972) known from the Anatolian peninsula (here considered together with Armenia, the Caucasus and the mountains of Lebanon), are examined and discussed. They belong to the tribes of Anillini, Trechini (Neotrechus, Aphaenops and Duvalius lines), Pterostichini, Molopini, Sphodrini. The cavernicolous and endogeous Anillini, Pterostichini and Sphodrini from this region have clear relations with the balkanic groups and may be considered as East-Mediterranean faunistic elements. On the contrary, the Trechini of the Neotrechus line are more related to the Caucasian groups, those of the so-called Aphaenops line are endemic of the Caucasus and of the Crimea, and the Duvalius are partly related to the Caucasian species, partly isolated and with uncertain relationships (perhaps with some Greek species or with the Algerian Trechopsis, and perhaps with some species of the Apennines).

Biotope and description of Niphargus altagahizi n.sp., subterranean Gammarid Amphipod from Lebanon., 1973, Alouf Nicolas J.
Description of a small warm cave situated along the Mediterranean shore; the temperature of water varies from 14 to 19C. Inhabiting this cave is Niphargus altagahizi, a new species related to orcinus s.l. group. Description of this species and comparison with the other Lebanese species, N. nadarini.

Considerations on cavernicolous and endogen Carabids of the Anataloian peninsula (Coleoptera, Carabidae)., 1973, Taglianti Augusto Vigna
The cavernicolous and endogeous Coleoptera Carabidae, actually (1972) known from the Anatolian peninsula (here considered together with Armenia, the Caucasus and the mountains of Lebanon), are examined and discussed. They belong to the tribes of Anillini, Trechini (Neotrechus, Aphaenops and Duvalius lines), Pterostichini, Molopini, Sphodrini. The cavernicolous and endogeous Anillini, Pterostichini and Sphodrini from this region have clear relations with the balkanic groups and may be considered as East-Mediterranean faunistic elements. On the contrary, the Trechini of the Neotrechus line are more related to the Caucasian groups, those of the so-called Aphaenops line are endemic of the Caucasus and of the Crimea, and the Duvalius are partly related to the Caucasian species, partly isolated and with uncertain relationships (perhaps with some Greek species or with the Algerian Trechopsis, and perhaps with some species of the Apennines).

Karst and hydrogeology of Lebanon, 1997, Edgell Hs,
Karst is very well-developed in Lebanon in thick, exposed, fractured and folded Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Eocene carbonates, as well as in localized, coastal Miocene limestones. This karstification not only results from the predominant calcareous lithology, but is also caused by the high, northerly trending ranges of he country, which cause abundant precipitation, as heavy rain and thick snow, to fall on Mt. Lebanon, Jabal Barouk, Jabal Niha, and Mt. Hermon. Lesser amounts fall on the Anti-Lebanon, Beqa'a Valley and the coastal hills of the country. Some 80% of precipitation occurs from November through February. The karst water emerges from five first-magnitude springs (Ain ez Zarqa (11 m(3)/sec), Ain Anjar (max. 10m(3)/sec), Nabaa Ouazzani (max. 6m(3)/sec), Nabaa Arbaain (mau. 3 m(3)/sec) and Nabaa Barouk (max. 3m(3)/sec), plus hundreds of second-and third-magnitude springs, and thousands of smaller springs. The large springs are all karstic and contribute to 13 perennial springs in the main Lebanese ranges, and 2 in the Anti-Lebanon. These include major rivers, such as the Nahr el Litani, Nahr el Assi (Orontes) and Nabr el Hasbani (upper Jordan River). More than two-thirds of the area of Lebanon (i.e. 6900 km(2)) is karstified and includes surface karst features, such as poljes, uvalas, dolines, blind valleys, natural bridges, and ponors, as well as smaller features, like karren and hoodoos. Subsurface karst features include many types of solutional shafts and galleries, grottoes, subsurface lakes and rivers and most types of speleothems. There are at least 15 aquifers in Lebanon, of which 14 are in karstified carbonate strata. The 1700m thick limestone/dolomite core of the ranges and over 2000m thickness of flanking, or overlying, Cretaceous limestones provide the majority of these aquifers, while significant aquifers are also found in thick Eocene limestones. High transmissivity values (T = or > 1.83 x 10(-1) m(2)) occur in these karstic aquifers, as is shown by the rapid decline in spring flow over the dry summer and autumn months, and their very quick recharge by winter and spring rains and heavy snow on the Lebanese ranges

Landscape evolution and the preservation of tectonic landforms along the northern Yammouneh Fault, Lebanon, 1999, Butler Rwh, Spencer S,
The Yammouneh Fault is commonly considered to be the principal active strand of the Dead Sea Transform in Lebanon -- an inference reached primarily from interpretations of the geomorphological expression of the fault on satellite images. However, new geological field observations show the Yammouneh Fault to be sealed stratigraphically by the Homs Basalt, dated using new K-Ar ages at 5.2-6.5 Ma. Drainage systems which link to the pre-Homs Basalt palaeosurface show evidence of fault disruption. Those valleys incised into the basalt show no evidence for transcurrent offsets. The inferred left-lateral displacement of c. 45 km on the Dead Sea Transform that post-dates the Homs Basalt is presumed to have bypassed to the west of Mount Lebanon. These linked geological and geomorphological studies indicate that landscape evolution can be exceptionally slow in northern Lebanon. Faceted spurs, poljes and offset drainage along the Yammouneh Fault across Mount Lebanon, evident on satellite images, are interpreted as being of Miocene age and are not indicative of Plio-Quaternary displacements on the fault. Much of the Lebanese tectonic landscape has thus remained stable for many millions of years, although locally incised during large-scale uplift of the Mount Lebanon range. Presumably landscape insensitivity reflects the arid climatic conditions together with inhibited run-off due to the regional karst system

Karst and caves of Israel, 2001, Frumkin, A.
Israel displays a gradient of karst features from the intensive karstification of Lebanon in the north to practically no karst in Elat region at the southern Negev desert (Gerson, 1976). This is attributed mainly to the climatological gradient from alpine-Mediterranean climate in the Lebanon - Hermon mountains in the north, with precipitation >1000 mm/year, to the extremely arid southern Negev, with <50 mm/year. Another factor is the southward decrease in carbonates/clastics ratio of the phanerozoic stratigraphic section, due to the increasing distance from the Tethys Sea which deposited the significant carbonates. Carbonate rocks outcrop in some 75% of the hilly regions of Israel. They are predominantly of Jurassic to Eocene age. However, much of the carbonates contain marls which inhibit extensive karst development, promoting the dominance of fluviokarst features. Another inhibiting factor is the abundance of faults in the Hermon, Galil and Shomeron regions. The faults are thought to constrain the temporal and spatial continuous underground flow, limiting the development of large caves in these regions. Most limestone caves are relict phreatic conduits and voids, which do not show any genetic relation to subaerial topography. Today these caves are either dry or experience vadose dripwater. These caves have possibly developed under moister conditions than predominate today. Some of them have been sealed from the surface until opened by recent construction activity. They may contain valuable paleoclimatic records (Frumkin, et al., 1994). Vadose caves are also common, and typically experience some water flow and active dissolution during the rainy season. These are mostly composed of vertical shafts with rare horizontal sections. The unique rock salt karst of Mount Sedom exhibits the largest salt caves known in the world. Some sea caves, attributed mainly to wave action with limited dissolution appear in the 'Kurkar' sandstone ridge along the Mediterranean coast. Paleokarst is common in the stratigraphic section, and is probably related to humid paleoclimates. Israel is especially rich in man made caves sustaining abundant fauna, but are beyond the scope of this review.

Modes de positionnement topographique et lectromagntique dun siphon. Exemple du Qattine Azar (Liban), 2002, Courbon, Paul
Topographical and electromagnetic positioning of a deep sump: Qattine Azar (Lebanon) - Wasting, pollution, climatic modifications, urbanisation and demographic explosion will generate a serious water scarcity in many countries, among them, the Middle East. In Lebanon, after the discovery of an important underground river, is established a water impounding project, needing a 280 meters drilling through limestone. The author describes the topographic method used to survey the cave and to set up the future drilling. The survey has been confirmed by an electromagnetic positioning ARCAS (radiolocation) perfected by Joan Erra. The accuracy of the two determinations is estimated.

Jeita Cave, Lebanon, 2004, Nader F.

Karst groundwater: a challenge for new resources, 2005, Bakalowicz M,
Karst aquifers have complex and original characteristics which make them very different from other aquifers: high heterogeneity created and organised by groundwater flow; large voids, high flow velocities up to several hundreds of m/h, high flow rate springs up to some tens of in 3/S. Different conceptual models, known from the literature, attempt to take into account all these particularities. The study methods used in classical hydrogeology-bore hole, pumping test and distributed models-are generally invalid and unsuccessful in karst aquifers, because the results cannot be extended to the whole aquifer nor to some parts, as is done in non-karst aquifers. Presently, karst hydrogeologists use a specific investigation methodology (described here), which is comparable to that used in surface hydrology. important points remain unsolved. Some of them are related to fundamental aspects such as the void structure only a conduit network, or a conduit network plus a porous matrix -, the functioning - threshold effects and nonlinearities -, the modeling of the functioning - double or triple porosity, or viscous flow in conduits - and of karst genesis. Some other points deal with practical aspects, such as the assessment of aquifer storage capacity or vulnerability, or the prediction of the location of highly productive zones

Petrographic and geochemical study on cave pearls from Kanaan Cave (Lebanon), 2007, Nader Fadi. H.
The Kanaan cave is situated at the coastal zone, north of Beirut City (capital of Lebanon). The cave is located within the upper part of the Jurassic Kesrouane Formation (Liassic to Oxfordian) which consists mainly of micritic limestone. Twenty seven cave pearls were subjected to petrographic (conventional and scanning electron microscopy) and geochemical analyses (major/trace elements and stable isotopes). The cave pearls were found in an agitated splash-pool with low mud content. They are believed to have formed through chemical precipitation of calcite in water over-saturated with calcium. The nucleus and micritic laminae show ? 18OV-PDB values of about -5.0 and ? 13C V-PDB values of -11.8, while the surrounding calcite spar laminae resulted in ?18OV-PDB ranging between -5.3 and -5.2, and ? 13C V-PDB between -12.3 and -12.1. A genesis/diagenesis model for these speleothems is proposed involving recrystallization which has selectively affected the inner layers of the cave pearls. This is chiefly invoked by sparry calcite crystals invading the inner micrite cortical laminae and the nuclei (cross-cutting the pre-existing mud-envelopes), and the slight depletion in ? 18O values from inner to outer cortical layers. The calculated ? 18OV-SMOW of the water (-4.2) matches with data on meteoric water signature for the central eastern Mediterranean region.

Petrographic and geochemical study on cave pearls from Kanaan Cave (Lebanon), 2007, Nader Fadi H.
The Kanaan cave is situated at the coastal zone, north of Beirut City (capital of Lebanon). The cave is located within the upper part of the Jurassic Kesrouane Formation (Liassic to Oxfordian) which consists mainly of micritic limestone. Twenty seven cave pearls were subjected to petrographic (conventional and scanning electron microscopy) and geochemical analyses (major/trace elements and stable isotopes). The cave pearls were found in an agitated splash-pool with low mud content. They are believed to have formed through chemical precipitation of calcite in water over-saturated with calcium. The nucleus and micritic laminae show ? 18OV-PDB values of about -5.0 and ? 13C V-PDB values of -11.8, while the surrounding calcite spar laminae resulted in ?18OV-PDB ranging between -5.3 and -5.2, and ? 13C V-PDB between -12.3 and -12.1. A genesis/diagenesis model for these speleothems is proposed involving recrystallization which has selectively affected the inner layers of the cave pearls. This is chiefly invoked by sparry calcite crystals invading the inner micrite cortical laminae and the nuclei (cross-cutting the pre-existing mud-envelopes), and the slight depletion in ? 18O values from inner to outer cortical layers. The calculated ? 18OV-SMOW of the water (-4.2) matches with data on meteoric water signature for the central eastern Mediterranean region.

Reconstitution spéléogénique de la grotte de Kanaan (Antélias, Liban): contribution à la morphogenèse du nahr AnteliasReconstitution spéléogénique de la grotte de Kanaan (Antélias, Liban): contribution , 2009, Nehme C. , Jabbourgedeon B. , Gerard P. C. , Sadier B. , Delannoy J. J.


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