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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That peat is decomposed matter, mainly vegetable [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for metals (Keyword) returned 48 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 48
Groundwater pollution by sewage, creamery waste heavy metals in the Horse Cave area, Kentucky, 1983, Quinlan J. F.

Genesis of paleokarst and strata-bound zinc-lead sulfide deposits in a Proterozoic dolostone, northern Baffin Island, Canada, 1984, Olson R. A. ,
Society Cliffs Formation; episodes of karstification since its deposition. During the first karst episode an evaporite solution-collapse breccia formed ubiquitously on the western Borden Peninsula. During the second karst episode a holokarst developed and an integrated cave system was formed. The caves subsequently were filled with sulfides and carbonate minerals; several interesting sedimentary structures exist in the zinc-lead sulfide deposits. The ore fluid and contained metals are postulated to have been derived during a late-stage dewatering of the black shale that underlies the Society Cliffs Formation. Sulfide deposition may have been caused by chemical reduction of sulfate that existed in the ore fluid when the fluid entered hydrocarbon-filled caves. During the third and fourth episodes of karstification, only merokarst developed in the Society Cliffs Formation. Karst effects which formed during these episodes include oxidized sulfide deposits and surface solution corridors.--Modified journal abstract

Heavy metals in sediments_'problems concerning determination of the anthropogenic influence. Study in the Krka River estuary, eastern Adriatic coast, Yugoslavia, 1989, Prohi'_ Esad, Jura' I'_,

LATE TO POSTHERCYNIAN HYDROTHERMAL ACTIVITY AND MINERALIZATION IN SOUTHWEST SARDINIA (ITALY), 1992, Boni M, Iannace A, Koppel V, Fruhgreen G, Hansmann W,
Several kinds of base metal deposits occur in the lower Paleozoic of southwest Sardinia (Iglesiente-Sulcis mineral district). This paper deals with those deposits which are generally referred to as Permo-Triassic, because they accompany and postdate the Hercynian orogeny and are related to magmatic activity. A large number of previously published geochemical data, integrated with additional new data (Sr, Pb, O, C, and S isotopes), are reviewed and discussed in the frame of the late to post-Hercynian geologic evolution of southwest Sardinia. According to geological and mineralogical characteristics, three types of deposits can be distinguished: (1) skarn ores related to late Hercynian leucogranitic intrusions, (2) high-temperature veins, and (3) low-temperature veins and karst filling. Pervasive epigenetic dolomitization phenomena are geochemically related to the low-temperature deposits. Sr and Pb isotopes of the first and second types (0.7097-0.7140 Sr-87/Sr-86; 17.97-18.29 Pb-206/Pb-204; 38.11-38.45 Pb-208/Pb-204) are distinctly more radiogenic than those of the third type (0.7094-0.7115 Sr-87/Sr-86; 17.86-18.05 Pb-206/Pb-204; 37.95-38.19 Pb-208/Pb-204) which, in turn, are closer to Paleozoic ores and carbonates. Fluid inclusion data indicate that the fluids responsible for mineralization of the first and second types of deposits were hot and dilute (T(h)= 370-degrees-140-degrees-C; <5 wt % NaCl equiv). In contrast, relatively colder and very saline fluids (T(h)= 140-degrees-70-degrees-C; >20 wt % NaCl equiv) were responsible for the third type of mineralization, as well for epigenetic dolomitization of the Cambrian host rocks. O isotopes measured in minerals from the first two types (deltaO-18SMOW = 12.8-18.9 parts per thousand) are O-18 depleted with respect to the third type (deltaO-18SMOW = 15.9-22.1 parts per thousand). These data, coupled with fluid inclusion formation temperatures, indicate that the fluids responsible for the first two types of mineralization were O-18 enriched with respect to those of the third type and related hydrothermal phenomena. The deltaS-34CDT in sulfides of the first two types vary between 3.7 and 10.73 per mil, whereas the values of the third type range from 12.0 to 17.9 per mil. Late to post-Hercynian mineralization is thus explained as the result of three distinct, though partly superimposed, hydrothermal systems. System 1 developed closer to the late Hercynian leucogranitic intrusions and led to the formation of the first and subsequently the second type of mineralization. The relatively hot and diluted fluids had a heated meteoric, or even partly magmatic, origin. Metals were leached from an external, radiogenic source, represented either by Hercynian leucogranites or by Paleozoic metasediments. Sulfur had a partly magmatic signature. System 2 was characterized by very saline, colder fluids which promoted dolomitization, silicification, and vein and karst mineralization. These fluids share the typical characteristics of formation waters, even though their origins remain highly speculative. The hydrothermal system was mainly rock dominated, with only a minor participation of the external radiogenic source of metals. Sulfur was derived by recirculation of pre-Hercynian strata-bound ores. System 3 records the invasion of fresh and cold meteoric waters which precipitated only minor ore and calcite gangue. It may represent the further evolution of system 2, possibly spanning a time well after the Permo-Triassic. The timing of all these phenomena is still questionable, due to the poor geologic record of the Permo-Triassic in southwest Sardinia. Nevertheless, the hypothesized scenario bears many similarities with hydrothermal processes documented throughout the Hercynian in Europe and spanning the same time interval. A comparison with the latter mineralization and hydrothermal activities leads to the hypothesis that the first two types of mineralization are linked to late Hercynian magmatic activity, whereas the third type may be related to either strike-slip or tensional tectonics which, throughout Europe mark the transition from the Hercynian orogeny to the Alpine cycle

THE EARLY PROTEROZOIC MISSISSIPPI VALLEY-TYPE PB-ZN-F DEPOSITS OF THE CAMPBELLRAND AND MALMANI SUBGROUPS, SOUTH-AFRICA - A REVIEW, 1995, Martini J. E. J. , Eriksson P. G. , Snyman C. P. ,
Pb-Zn-F deposits occur in the very late Archaean (2.55 Ga) shallow marine dolostone of the relatively undeformed Campbellrand and Malmani Sub-groups, which are overlain unconformably by the lower Proterozoic Postmasburg and Pretoria Group siliciclastics. They consist of stratiform deposits formed by replacement and porosity-filling, as well as pipes, ring-shaped and irregular bodies associated with collapse breccia. In the Transvaal basin the latter were generated during the karst denudation period between the deposition of the Chuniespoort Group (ending at similar to 2.4 Ga) and of the Pretoria Group (starting at 2.35 Ga). A part of these mineralisations were overprinted by the metamorphism of the Bushveld Complex intrusion at 2.06 Ga. In the Transvaal basin, the age of the mineralisation is constrained between the start of the Pretoria Group deposition and the Bushveld intrusion. It is concluded that, although most of the mineralisations are characteristic of the Mississippi Valley-type, some of the northernmost occurrences, rich in siderite, are less typical. A classic genetic model is proposed. In an environment characterised by tensional tectonics and basin development, brines of basinal origin were heated by circulation into pre-Chuniespoort rocks, leached metals from the rocks they permeated, and rose as hydrothermal plumes. At relatively shallow depth they deposited minerals after mixing with water of surficial origin

Evaporites, brines and base metals: What is an evaporite? Defining the rock matrix, 1996, Warren J. K. ,
This paper, the first of three reviews on the evaporite-base-metal association, defines the characteristic features of evaporites in surface and subsurface settings. An evaporite is a rock that was originally precipitated from a saturated surface or near-surface brine in hydrological systems driven by solar evaporation. Evaporite minerals, especially the sulfates such as anhydrite and gypsum, are commonly found near base-metal deposits. Primary evaporites are defined as those salts formed directly via solar evaporation of hypersaline waters at the earth's surface. They include beds of evaporitic carbonates (laminites, pisolites, tepees, stromatolites and other organic rich sediment), bottom nucleated salts (e.g. chevron halite and swallow-tail gypsum crusts), and mechanically reworked salts (such as rafts, cumulates, cross-bedded gypsarenites, turbidites, gypsolites and halolites). Secondary evaporites encompass the diagenetically altered evaporite salts, such as sabkha anhydrites, syndepositional halite and gypsum karst, anhydritic gypsum ghosts, and more enigmatic burial associations such as mosaic halite and limpid dolomite, and nodular anhydrite formed during deep burial. The latter group, the burial salts, were precipitated under the higher temperatures of burial and form subsurface cements and replacements often in a non-evaporite matrix. Typically they formed from subsurface brines derived by dissolution of an adjacent evaporitic bed. Because of their proximity to 'true' evaporite beds, most authors consider them a form of 'true' evaporite. Under the classification of this paper they are a burial form of secondary evaporites. Tertiary evaporites form in the subsurface from saturated brines created by partial bed dissolution during re-entry into the zone of active phreatic circulation. The process is often driven by basin uplift and erosion. They include fibrous halite and gypsum often in shale hosts, as well as alabastrine gypsum and porphyroblastic gypsum crystals in an anhydritic host. In addition to these 'true' evaporites, there is another group of salts composed of CaSO4 or halite. These are the hydrothermal salts. Hydrothermal salts, especially hydrothermal anhydrite, form by the subsurface cooling or mixing of CaSO4- saturated hydrothermal waters or by the ejection of hot hydrothermal water into a standing body of seawater or brine. Hydrothermal salts are poorly studied but often intimately intermixed with sulfides in areas of base-metal accumulations such as the Kuroko ores in Japan or the exhalative brine deeps in the Red Sea. In ancient sediments and metasediments, especially in hydrothermally influenced active rifts and compressional belts, the distinction of this group of salts from 'true' evaporites is difficult and at times impossible. After a discussion of hydrologies and 'the evaporite that was' in the second review, modes and associations of the hydrothermal salts will be discussed more fully in the third review

Experimental studies of halite dissolution kinetics, 1. The effect of saturation state and the presence of trace metals, 1997, Alkattan M. , Oelkers E. H. , Dandurand J. L. , Schott

The effect of metal cations on the kinetics of limestone neutralisation of acid waters, 1997, Vantonder G. J. , Schutte C. F. ,
Limestone (CaCO3), is a lower cost alternative to lime (CaO) for the neutralisation of acid water, but the limestone neutralisation reaction is impaired by iron(II), iron(III) and aluminium in solution. This paper describes the kinetics of limestone neutralisation in the presence of these metals. The reaction rate is affected by the type of metal cation, by the concentration of the cation and by pH. At pH levels below 2.0 the limestone dissolution reaction rate decreases sharply with increasing pH. In the pH range 4.0 to 5.5 the reaction rate decreases linearly with increasing pH. The pH range 2.0 to 4.0 is a transition range, from the non-linear to linear dissolution rate characteristics. Metal concentrations below 80 mg l(-1): At pH levels less than 4, iron(II) had the strongest suppressing effect followed by aluminium, while the presence of iron(III) increased the reaction rate. In the pH range 4.0 to 5.5 aluminium had the strongest suppressing effect followed by iron(III) and iron(II). Metal concentrations above 80 mg l(-1): Iron(II) and aluminium suppress the reaction rate at all pH levels. At pH levels less than 4 iron(II) had the strongest suppressing effect, followed by aluminium. In the pH range 4.0 to 5.5 aluminium had the strongest suppressing effect followed by iron(II). With iron(III) the rate is suppressed at pH levels below 2, however the rate is speeded up in the pH range 25 to 3.5. At higher pH levels, the iron(III) concentration is limited to less than 80 mg l(-1) because of precipitation of iron(III) at pH levels higher than 2.5. The extent to which the overall neutralisation reaction proceeds was modelled to assist in reactor design. The overall reaction is impaired most by aluminium, followed by iron(II) and iron(III)

Geochemical patterns in soils of the karst region, Croatia, 1997, Prohic E. , Hausberger G. , Davis J. C. ,
Soil samples were collected at 420 locations in a 5-km grid pattern in the Istria and Gorski Kotar areas of Croatia, and on the Croatian islands of Cres, Rab and Krk, in order to relate geochemical variation in the soils to underlying differences in geology, bedrock lithology, soil type, environment and natural versus anthropogenic influences. Specific objectives included assessment of possible agricultural and industrial sources of contamination, especially from airborne effluent emitted by a local power plant. The study also tested the adequacy of a fixed-depth soil sampling procedure developed for meager karstic soils. Although 40 geochemical variables were analyzed, only 15 elements and 5 radionuclides are common to all the sample locations. These elements can be divided into three groups: (1) those of mostly anthropogenic origin - Pb, V, Cu and Cr; (2) those of mixed origin - radionuclides and Zn; and (3) those of mostly geogene origin - Ba, Sr, Ti, Al, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Ni and Co. Variation in Pb shows a strong correlation with the pattern of road traffic in Istria. The distributions of Ca, Na and Mg in the flysch basins of southern Istria and Slovenia are clearly distinguishable from the distributions of these elements in the surrounding carbonate terrains, a consequence of differences in bedrock permeability, type of drainage and pH. The spatial pattern of Cs-137 from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident reflects almost exclusively the precipitation in Istria during the days immediately after the explosion. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V

Evaluation of terra rossa geochemical baselines from Croatian karst regions, 1999, Miko S. , Durn G. , Prohic E. ,
In karst regions of Croatia, regolith is the only favourable medium for geochemical mapping. Mediterranean climate and good drainage due to hard, fissured, permeable limestones and dolomites result in a spacious distribution of terra rossa (FAO-luvisols and cambisols) - a polygenetic type of soil. Samples of terra rossa from coastal and inland Croatian Dinaric karst terrains were collected during the initial studies for the Geochemical Map of Croatia at a density of 1 site/25 km(2). A total of 87 terra rossa soil samples taken from a depth of 5-25 cm together with 27 samples from deeper profiles (down to 850 cm) were analysed for total Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, La, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Na, Sr, Ti, V and Zn concentrations. A stoichiometric approach was applied by modeling of terra rossa baselines on the basis of Linear regressions of metals on Al and the calculation of enrichment factors (EF and CEFs) on the basis of soil standards. A noticeable enrichment of Pb was found in surface samples compared to the terra rossa deeper in the soil profile. Using these baseline relationships, an attempt is made to partition terra rossa metal concentrations into natural and anthropogenic fractions. Also, the models from both polluted and less polluted (uninhabited) karstic terrains improve the comparability of element contents through correction of variable background concentrations. A comparison of elemental concentrations revealed that due to contributions of bauxite debris, a number of studied samples is enriched in Cr and Ni (also with variable amounts of boehmite). The corrections will serve to reduce data variability and to increase the detection of spatial and temporal differences presented on the geochemical maps. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Organic geochemistry of paleokarst-hosted uranium deposits, South China, 2000, Min M. Z. , Meng Z. W. , Sheng G. Y. , Min Y. S. , Liu X. ,
The paleokarst-hosted uranium deposits in organic-matter, clay-rich Devonian-Carboniferous carbonates are an economically important, new type of uranium deposit in China. The organic matter intimately associated with the uranium mineralization in this type of deposit has been characterized by petrographic, isotopic, gas chromatographic, pyrolysis-gas chromatographic, infrared spectroscopic and elemental geochemical methods. Comparing genetic types of the organic matter in unmineralized and mineralized samples indicates that no fundamental differences are found. The organic matter is chiefly of marine origin and contains a minor terrestrial component. The immature nature of the indigenous organic matter in the unmineralized samples shows generally a low-temperature history (less than or equal to max. 65 degrees C), and geologic data show a shallow maximal burial depth. By combining the organic geochemistry with the geological data, U-Pb dating and temperature determinations, an overall formation process for this type of uranium deposit is deduced. The formation of the paleokarst-hosted uranium deposits in South China is the result of: (1) repeated paleokarstifications of the Devonian and Carboniferous organic, clay-rich carbonate along the faults and unconformities between different strata because of the Hercynian and Yanshanian regional tectonism, and extensive formation of solution-collapse, solution-fault breccias; (2) accumulation of organic matter and clays in the paleocaverns and matrix of the breccias, fixation and adsorption of uranium by the organic matter and clays from the paleokarst waterflows that leached metals from the uranium-bearing host carbonates during their passage towards the karst zones, (3) reduction of uranium by the organic matter and formation of protore and low-grade ore; (4) circulation of heated formational waters and deep circulating, uraniferous meteoric waters by tectonic pumping, reworking the uranium-rich, paleocave-fillings, protore and low-grade ore, reduction and formation of primary uranium minerals (uraninite and coffinite) because of the reducing environment resulting from organic matter and sulfide. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. Ail rights reserved

The role of evaporites in the genesis of base metal sulphide mineralisation in the Northern Platform of the Pan-African Damara Belt, Namibia: geochemical and fluid inclusion evidence from carbonate wa, 2000, Chetty D, Frimmel He,
The Otavi Mountain Land is a base metal sulphide ore province in northern Namibia where deposits are hosted by platform carbonates of the Otavi Group in a foreland fold-and-thrust belt on the northern edge of the Pan-African Damara Belt. Deposits have been classified as the Berg Aukas- or Tsumeb-types, based on differences in ore association? stratigraphic position and geochemistry of ores and gangue carbonates. Mineralisation at these deposits is accompanied by carbonate alteration in the form of dolomite and calcite veins, carbonate recrystallisation, calcitisation and carbonate silicification. Based on cathodoluminescence imaging, trace and rare earth element (REE), O and C isotope, and fluid inclusion data, a series of carbonate generations, constituting wall rock alteration around the Tsumeb and Kombat (Tsumeb-type) and Berg Aukas (Berg Aukas-type) deposits, was established. Similar data obtained on the recently discovered Khusib Springs deposit indicate a strong affinity to Tsumeb-type deposits. Tsumeb-type deposits are distinguished from Berg Aukas-type deposits by having trace element and REE concentrations that are significantly higher in the alteration products compared to the carbonate host rocks. Only around Tsumeb-type deposits a relative enrichment in light REE is noted for the hydrothermal carbonate generations that are cogenetic with the main stage of mineralisation. Microthermometric results from fluid inclusions in carbonate alteration phases and associated quartz indicate relatively high salinity (17-33 wt% NaCl equivalent) for the main mineralising and subsequent sulphide remobilisation stages at the deposits investigated. Estimated mineralisation temperatures are significantly higher for Tsumeb-type deposits (370-405 degrees C) with early sulphide remobilisation in Tsumeb at 275 degrees C, whereas they are lower at Berg Aukas (up to 255 degrees C). Fluid inclusion leachate analysis suggests that most of the observed salinity can be ascribed to dissolved, predominantly Ca- and Mg-carbonates and chlorides with subordinate NaCl. Na-Cl-Br leachate systematics indicate a derivation of the fluid salinity from the interaction with evaporitic rocks en route. Tsumeb-type mineralisation is interpreted to be derived from fluids expelled during Pan-African orogeny in the more intensely deformed internal zones of the Damara Belt further south. When the high salinity fluids reached the carbonate platform after having scavenged high concentrations of base metals, base metal sulphide precipitation occurred in zones of high porosity, provided by karst features in the carbonate sequence. Results obtained for the Berg Aukas-type deposits emphasise their derivation from basinal brines, similar to Mississippi Valley-type deposits, and confirm that mineralisation of the Berg Aukas- and Tsumeb-types are both spatially and temporally distinct

Recent measurements of water quality in Mrzlek spring, 2000, Jug Tjaš, A, Vudrag Marko, Franko Mladen

Recent investigations of drinking water quality related to the spring Mrzlek near Solkan, Slovenia are described. Multielemental analyses of 66 elements and anions such as nitrate, nitrite, sulphate, chloride, phosphate, bromide and fluoride in water from the spring Mrzlek and the river Soča, as well as determination of trihalomethanes in chlorinated water, were carried out to reveal eventual impacts of environmental pollution on the quality of drinking water from spring Mrzlek. It was observed that the pollution of the river Soča with heavy metals is recently decreasing, while the concentrations of trihalomethanes in drinking water are relatively low and have not increased during the last five years. At present the quality of drinking water from the spring Mrzlek meets all the standards. Higher concentrations of nitrate in the spring, however, indicate potential pollution from farming on the Banjšice plateau. In general, quite similar concentrations of most elements and anions were observed in the spring Mrzlek and the river Soča. Higher concentrations of Ca, Fe, Zn, nitrate and chloride were observed in the spring, while concentrations of Mn, Mg, Ba, As, and sulphate were significantly higher in the river.


On flow and transport of miscible tracers in the vadose zone, 2000, Loboferreira J. P. , Leitã, O Teresa, Quigley Seá, N P. , Theves Thomas

The paper presents a synthesis of LNEC's contribution to the European Commission (DGXII) Contract n° CI1*-CT94-0014 (DG 12 HSMU), based on the results reported by Lobo-Ferreira et al. (1998). The main contribution of LNEC to the project was the development of flow and transport experiments, for different flow type conditions (i.e. saturated and unsaturated). These included experiments at: (1) different scales (two scales in the laboratory and one in a medium scale - artificial aquifer), (2) different saturation conditions, and (3) different tracers (MgCl2, CaCl2, NO3-, Ni, Cd). The goals of the experiments were threefold: (1) analysis and quantification of the physical parameters that control circulation in this zone (hydraulic conductivity correspondent to the degree of saturation etc.); (2) determination and quantification of the more important processes that control the chemical behaviour of heavy metals and nitrate, and (3) to obtain data for calibrating the numerical models.


Research on the effect of sludge fertilizer on farmland and the safety of heavy metals in a karst area, 2001, Xie Qinglin, Zhang Xuehong, Wang Dunqiu, Li Jincheng, Qin Yiyong, Chen Yudao,

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