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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That truncation is a horizontal or vertical clean cut through a topographic feature [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for mobility (Keyword) returned 10 results for the whole karstbase:
Dissolution of carbonate minerals in the coastal halocline is taking place in the karst terrain along the northeastern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. The dissolution is being accelerated in cenotes (sinkholes) where sulfate reduction and oxidation of the produced sulfide is occurring. Hydrogen-sulfide concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 4 mmolal within the halocline in two sinkholes. Relative to concentrations expected by conservative mixing, fluids with high hydrogen-sulfide concentrations were correlated with low sulfate concentrations, high alkalinities, low pH values, and heavy sulfur isotope values for sulfate. Hydrogen-sulfide concentrations were less than those predicted from sulfate reduction, calculated from deficiencies in measured sulfate concentrations, indicating mobility and loss of aqueous sulfide. Fluids with low hydrogen-sulfide concentrations were correlated with very high calcium concentrations, high strontium and sulfate concentrations, slightly elevated alkalinities, low pH values, and sea-water sulfur isotope values for sulfate. Gypsum dissolution is supported by the sulfur isotopes as the major process producing high sulfate concentrations. However, oxidation of aqueous sulfide to sulfuric acid, resulting in carbonate-mineral dissolution is needed to explain the calcium concentrations, low pH values, and only slightly elevated alkalinities. The halocline may trap hydrogen sulfide that has been stripped from the underlying anoxic salt water. The halocline can act as a stable, physical boundary, holding some of the hydrogen sulfide until it is oxidized back to sulfuric acid through interaction with the overlying, oxygenated fresh water or through the activity of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria

The combined use of Sr-87/Sr-86 and carbon and water isotopes to study the hydrochemical interaction between groundwater and lakewater in mantled karst, 1996, Katz B. G. , Bullen T. D. ,
The hydrochemical interaction between groundwater and lakewater influences the composition of water that percolates downward from the surficial aquifer system through the underlying intermediate confining unit and recharges the Upper Floridan aquifer along highlands in Florida. The Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio along with the stable isotopes, D, O-18, and C-13 were used as tracers to study the interaction between groundwater, lakewater, and aquifer minerals near Lake Barco, a seepage lake in the mantled karst terrane of northern Florida. Upgradient from the lake, the Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of groundwater decreases with depth (mean values of 0.71004, 0.70890, and 0.70852 for water from the surficial aquifer system, intermediate confining unit, and Upper Floridan aquifer, respectively), resulting from the interaction of dilute oxygenated recharge water with aquifer minerals that are less radiogenic with depth. The concentrations of Sr2 generally increase with depth, and higher concentrations of Sr2 in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer (20-35 mu g/L), relative to water from the surficial aquifer system and the intermediate confining unit, result from the dissolution of Sr-bearing calcite and dolomite in the Eocene limestone. Dissolution of calcite [delta(13)C = -1.6 permil (parts per thousand)] is also indicated by an enriched delta(13)C(DIC) (-8.8 to -11.4 parts per thousand) in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer, relative to the overlying hydrogeologic units (delta(13)C(DIC) < -16 parts per thousand). Groundwater downgradient from Lake Barco was enriched in O-18 and D relative to groundwater upgradient from the lake, indicating mixing of lakewater leakage and groundwater. Downgradient from the lake, the Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of groundwater and aquifer material become less radiogenic and the Sr2 concentrations generally increase with depth. However, Sr2 concentrations are substantially less than in upgradient groundwaters at similar depths. The lower Sr2 concentrations result from the influence of anoxic lakewater leakage on the mobility of Sr2 from clays. Based on results from mass-balance modeling, it is probable that cation exchange plays the dominant role in controlling the Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of groundwater, both upgradient and downgradient from Lake Barco. Even though groundwater from the three distinct hydrogeologic units displays considerable variability in Sr concentration and isotopic composition, the dominant processes associated with the mixing of lakewater leakage with groundwater, as well as the effects of mineral-water interaction, can be ascertained by integrating the use of stable and radiogenic isotopic measurements of groundwater, lakewater, and aquifer minerals

Geology, geochemistry, and origin of the continental karst-hosted supergene manganese deposits in the western Rhodope massif, Macedonia, northern Greece, 1997, Nimfopoulos M. K. , Pattrick R. A. D. , Michailidis K. M. , Polya D. A. , Esson J. ,
Economic Mn-oxide ore deposits of commercial grade occur in the Rhodope massif near Kato Nevrokopi in the Drama region, Northern Greece. The Mn-oxide mineralization has developed by weathering of continental hypogene rhodochrosite-sulphide veins. The vein mineralization is confined by tectonic shear zones between marble and metapelites, extending laterally into the marble as tabular, pod or lenticular oreshoots (up to 50 m x 20 m x 5-10 m). Supergene oxidation of the hypogene mineralization led to the formation of in-situ residual Mn-oxide ore deposits, and secondary infills of Mn-oxide ore in embryonic and well developed karst cavities. Whole rock geochemical profiles across mineralized zones confirm the role of thrusts and faults as solution passageways and stress the importance of these structures in the development of hydrothermal and supergene mineralization at Kato Nevrokopi. Three zones an recognized in the insitu supergene veins: (A) a stable zone of oxidation, where immobile elements form (or substitute in) stable oxide mineral phases, and mobile elements are leached; (B) a transitional (active) zone in which element behavior is strongly influenced by seasonal fluctuations of the groundwater table and variations in pH-Eh conditions; and (C) a zone of permanent flooding, where variations in pH-Eh conditions are minimal. Zone (B) is considered as the source zone for the karst cavity mineralization. During weathering, meteoric waters, which were CO2-rich (P-CO2 similar to 10(-3.8) to 10(-1.4)) and oxygenated (fO(2) -10(-17) for malachite), percolated downward within the veins, causing breakdown and dissolution of sulfides and marble, and oxidation of rhodochrosite to Mn-oxides. Karat cavity formation was favored by the high permeability along thrust zones. Dissolved Mn2 was transported into karst cavities in reduced meteoric waters at the beginning of weathering (pH similar to 4-5), and as Mn(HCO3)(2) in slightly alkaline groundwaters during advanced weathering (pH similar to 6-8). Mn4? precipitation took place by fO(2) increase in ground waters, or pH increase by continuous hydrolysis and carbonate dissolution. In the well developed karst setting, some mobility of elements occurred during and after karst ore formation in the order Na>K>Mg>Sr>Mn>As>Zn>Ba>Al>Fe>Cu>Cd>Pb. (C) 1998 Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petrolem. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

Geochemistry of Fluorite and Related Features of the Kugitangtou Ridge Caves, Turkmenistan, 1998, Maltsev, V. , Korshunov, V.
This paper presents a model explaining the fluorine geochemistry in the Cupp-Coutunn Cave System, in the Kugitangtou Ridge, southeastern Turkmenistan. By the corrosive activity of biologically derived sulfuric acid, HF gas is released by weathering of fluorite in residual cave deposits and in speleothems formed during a period of thermal activity. Secondary fluorite is produced, and conditions are provided for silica and aluminum mobility in the caves. The latter process helps to explain the origin of the clay mineral sauconite, Zn3(Si4O10)(OH)2nH2O, and fraipontite, (Zn,Al)3(SiAl)2O5(OH)4, a member of the kaolinite-serpentine group.

Phosphorus mobility in a karst landscape under pasture grazing system, 2003, Allousha Ga, Boyer Dg, Belesky Dp, Halvorson Jj,
The spatial distribution and partitioning of water dissolved phosphorus fractions in the soil profile of a grazed karst sinkhole landscape were investigated. We also measured P fractions in surface runoff entering a sinkhole drain and in karst spring flow draining the study area. Grazing increased total N, C, and all forms of P of soil. Dissolved inorganic orthophosphate (DPi) was the highest in the surface soil layer and diminished significantly with depth. The proportion of dissolved unreactive phosphorus (DPu) increased with soil depth. Changes in DPu with landscape position and depth were closely correlated with changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) suggesting that the mobility and transport of DPu was mediated by DOC. Landscape position sampling showed molybdate reactive phosphorus (MRP) and DPu increased toward the bottom and center of sinkholes. The distribution of DPi and DPu in surface runoff and that occurring in underground watercourses confirms the significance of DPu transported into karst groundwater

Heterogeneity of parent rocks and its constraints on geochemical criteria in weathering crusts of carbonate rocks, 2004, Wang S. J. , Feng Z. G. ,
Owing to the low contents of their acid-insoluble components, carbonate rocks tend to decrease sharply in volume in association with the formation of weathering crust. The formation of a 1 m-thick weathering crust would usually consume more than ten meters to several tens of meters of thickness of parent rocks. The knowledge of how to identify the homogeneity of parent rocks is essential to understand the formation mechanism of weathering crust in karst regions. especially that of thick-layered red weathering crust. In this work the grain-size analyses have demonstrated that the three profiles studied are the residual weathering crust of carbonate rocks and further showed that there objectively exists the, heterogeneity of parent rocks in the three studied weathering crusts. The heterogeneity of parent rocks can also be. reflected in geochemical parameters of major elements, just as the characteristics of frequency plot of pain-size distribution. Conservative trace element ratios Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta are proven to be unsuitable for tracing the heterogeneity of parent rocks of weathering crust, but its geochemical mechanism is unclear. The authors strongly suggest in this paper that the identification of the homogeneity of parent rocks of weathering crust in karst regions is of prime necessity

Geochemistry of red residua underlying dolomites in karst terrains of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau II. The mobility of rare earth elements during weathering, 2004, Ji H. B. , Wang S. J. , Ouyang Z. Y. , Zhang S. , Sun C. X. , Liu X. M. , Zhou D. Q. ,
The aim of this study is to characterize the evolution of the rare earth elements (REE) in the Pingba red residua on karst terrain of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. The in-situ weathering and the two-stage development of the profile had been inferred from REE criterions. The REE were significantly fractionated, and Ce was less mobilized and separated from the other REEs at the highly enriched top of the profile. This is consistent with the increase of oxidation degree in the regolith. And it is also suggested that the wet/dry climate change during chemical weathering caused Ce alternative change between enrichment and invariance in the upper regolith. Chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns for samples from dolomites and the lower regolith are characteristic of MREE enrichment and remarkable negative Ce-anomalies patterns (similar to the convex-up REE patterns). The following processes are interpreted for the patterns in this study: (1) the accumulation of MRRE-rich minerals in dolomite dissolution, (2) water-rock interaction in the weathering front, and (3) more leaching MREE from the upper part of the profile. The latter two explanations are considered as the dominant process for the formation of the REE patterns. Samples from the soil horizon exhibit typical REE distribution patterns of the upper crust, i.e., La-N/Yb-N = 10 and Eu/Eu* = 0.65. All data indicate that the leaching process is very important for pedogenesis in this region. The experiments demonstrating that abnormal enrichment of REE at the upper regolith-bedrock interface is caused by a combination of volume change, accumulation of REE-bearing minerals, leaching of REE from the upper regolith, and water-rock interaction during rock-soil alteration processes. Our results support the conclusion that the weathering profile represents a large, continental elemental storage reservoir, whereas REE enrichment occurs under favorable conditions in terms of stable tectonics, low erosion and rapid weathering over sufficiently long time. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Assessing the Vulnerability of a Municipal Well Field to Contamination in a Karst Aquifer, 2005, Renken R. A. , Cunningham K. J. , Zygnerski M. R. , Wacker M. A. , Shapiro A. M. , Harvey R. W. , Metge D. W. , Osborn C. L. , Ryan J. N. ,
Proposed expansion of extractive lime-rock mines near the Miami-Dade County Northwest well field and Everglades wetland areas has garnered intense scrutiny by government, public, environmental stakeholders, and the media because of concern that mining will increase the risk of pathogen contamination. Rock mines are excavated to the same depth as the well field's primary producing zone. The underlying karst Biscayne aquifer is a triple-porosity system characterized by (1) a matrix of interparticle porosity and separate vug porosity; (2) touching-vug porosity that forms preferred, stratiform passageways; and, less commonly, (3) conduit porosity formed by thin solution pipes, bedding-plane vugs, and cavernous vugs. Existing ground-water flow and particle tracking models do not provide adequate information regarding the ability of the aquifer to limit the advective movement of pathogens and other contaminants. Chemical transport and colloidal mobility properties have been delineated using conservative and microsphere-surrogate tracers for Cryptosporidium parvum. Forced-gradient tests were executed by introducing conservative tracers into injection wells located 100 m (328 ft) from a municipal-supply well. Apparent mean advective velocity between the wells is one to two orders of magnitude greater than previously measured. Touching-vug, stratiform flow zones are efficient pathways for tracer movement at the well field. The effective porosity for a continuum model between the point of injection and tracer recovery ranges from 2 to 4 percent and is an order of magnitude smaller than previously assumed. Existing well-field protection zones were established using porosity estimates based on specific yield. The effective, or kinematic, porosity of a Biscayne aquifer continuum model is lower than the total porosity, because high velocities occur along preferential flow paths that result in faster times of travel than can be represented with the ground-water flow equation. Tracer tests indicate that the relative ease of contaminant movement to municipal supply wells is much greater than previously considered

Historical biogeography of subterranean beetles Platos cave or scientific evidence?, 2007, Moldovan O. T. , Rajka G.

The last two decades were particularly prolific in historical biogeography because of new information introduced from other sciences, such as paleogeography, by the development of quantitative methods and by molecular phylogeny. Subterranean beetles represent an excellent object of study for historical biogeography because they are the group with the best representation in the subterranean domain. In addition, species have reduced mobility, display different degrees of adaptations to life in caves and many specialists work on this group. Three processes have shaped the present distribution of the tribe Leptodirini (Coleoptera Cholevinae) in the world: dispersal, vicariance, and extinction. Therefore, three successive stages can be established in the space-time evolution of Leptodirini: (1) dispersal from a center of origin in the present area(s); (2) dispersal, extinction and vicariance among the present area(s); and (3) colonization and speciation in the subterranean domain. The Romanian Leptodirini, especially those from Western Carpathians is examined with respect to these processes. Their pattern of distribution in different massifs and at different altitudes is discussed, with possible explanations from a historical biogeographic point of view.

Iron Oxide and Calcite Associated with Leptothrix sp. Biofilms within an Estavelle in the Upper Floridan Aquifer, 2011, Florea Lee J. , Stinson Chasity L. , Brewer Josh, Fowler Rick, Kearns B Joe, Greco Anthony M.

In Thornton’s Cave, an estavelle in west-central Florida, SEM, EDS, and XRD data reveal biofilms that are predominantly comprised of FeOOH-encrusted hollow sheaths that are overgrown and intercalated with calcite. Fragments of this crystalline biofilm adhere to the walls and ceiling as water levels vary within the cave. Those on the wall have a ‘cornflake’ appearance and those affixed to the ceiling hang as fibrous membranes. PCR of DNA in the active biofilm, combined with morphologic data from the tubes in SEM micrographs, point to Leptothrix sp., a common Fe-oxidizing bacteria, as the primary organism in the biofilm. Recent discoveries of ‘rusticles’ in other Florida caves suggest that Fe-oxidizing bacteria may reside elsewhere in Florida groundwater and may play a role in the mobility of trace metals in the Upper Florida aquifer.
SEM micrographs from two marble tablets submerged for five months, one exposed to microbial activity and a second isolated from microbial action, revealed no visible etchings or borings and very limited loss of mass. EDS data from the electron micrographs of the unfiltered tablet document the same FeOOH-encrusted hollow sheaths and similar deposits of calcite as seen in the ‘cornflakes’. These results, combined with water chemistry data imply that the biofilm may focus or even promote calcite precipitation during low-water level conditions when CO2 degasses from the cave pools.

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