Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That carbide lamp is a carbide lamp, also known as a miners' carbide lamp or acetylene lamp was introduced into mine use at about 1897. it consists of two chambers, a water tank above and a removable carbide canister below with a connection valve to permit controlled seepage of water into the calcium carbide. the carbide and water react to generate calcium hydroxide [ca(oh)2] and acetylene gas. the gas is passed through a filter into a tube and through a tiny burner-tip orifice designed for the optimum mixture of air and acetylene. once ignited, it burns with a brilliant yellow-white flame produced by the incandescence of tiny carbon particles. a reflector concentrates the light in a particular direction [13].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?

Search KARSTBASE:

keyword
author

Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for needle (Keyword) returned 16 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 16
A Growth Rate for Cave Gypsum Needles, 1977, Peck, Stewart B.

Les aiguilles de gypse du Verneau (Doubs), 1986, Couturaud, A.
THE GYPSUM NEEDLES OF THE VERNEAU SYSTEM (DOUBS) - These crystals are both exceptionally long (up to 225mm) and very well preserved. They were discovered on the floor of an old choked passage close to a large gallery and a collector. They appear to have grown during a flooded period where the Triassic or paleokarstic gypsum was re-dissolved.

Des aiguilles de gypse dans les grottes algriennes, 1987, Collignon, B.
Gypsum needles in algerian caves

A Model of Structure and Genesis for the Gypsum Nest, Found in the Geophysicheskaya Cave (Kugitangtou Mountains,Turkmenistan), 1997, Maltsev, V. A.
A description, and a possible structure and genetic mechanism for a gypsum nest, a very rare speleothem consisting of gypsum needles growing from a drying clay massif, are considered. Because of conservation concerns, theoretical modeling is the only acceptable method for studying this complicated and delicate feature. The model suggested considers the nest as a screw-dislocated spherocrystal, with its sub-individuals separated by corrosion at some initial stage, and having separate growth at later stages.

Phototrophic Microorganisms of the Pamukkale, 1997, Pentecost Allan, Bayari Serdar , Yesertener Cahit
The travertines at Pamukkale contain a diverse assemblage of phototrophs: 17 species of cyanobacteria, 16 diatoms, and 5 Chlorophyceae. Two communities were recognized on the active travertines: (1) surficial mats dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria, particularly Lyngbya (Phormidium) laminosum forming soft weakly mineralized layers to 10 mm thick, and (2) a predominantly endolithic assemblage, also dominated by cyanobacteria developing 2-5 mm below the travertine surface. The distribution of these communities is determined largely by water flow and the degree of desiccation. Two further communities are briefly described from nondepositing areas. Most of the active travertine consists of alternating layers of micrite and sparite 0.25-0.75 mm in thickness, which probably result from short-term fluctuations in water flow rather than diel events (photosynthesis, temperature). The presence of needle-fiber calcite in surface samples suggests that evaporation of water may play some part in travertine formation. The phototrophs appear to influence the travertine fabric only locally, where the surficial growths contain strings of calcite crystals ad-hering to the filaments, forming irregularly laminated layers. The hot-spring water is believed to be contaminated with sewage and agricultural effluent, but there was no evidence to suggest that this is currently affecting the travertine deposits. The water is supersaturated with respect to calcite when it contacts the travertine, and precipitation is primarily the result of carbon dioxide evasion. Water chemistry and discharge measurements indicate a total travertine deposition rate of 35 tonnes per day.

Mineralogy of Kartchner Caverns, Arizona, 1999, Hill, C. A.
The mineralogy of Kartchner Caverns is both diverse and significant. Six different chemical classes are represented in this one cave: carbonates, nitrates, oxides, phosphates, silicates, and sulfates. It is significant primarily because: (1) the silicate minerals, nontronite and rectorite, have never before been reported from a cave occurrence; (2) the nitrate mineral, nitrocalcite, has never been described using modern techniques; (3) birdsnest needle quartz has been reported only from one other, non-cave, locality; and (4) extensive brushite moonmilk flowstone has not been reported from anywhere else in the world. Kartchner is a beautiful cave because its carbonate speleothems are colorful (shades of red, orange, yellow and tan) and alive (still wet and growing).

Microbial communities associated with hydromagnesite and needle-fiber aragonite deposits in a karstic cave (Altamira, northern Spain), 1999, Canaveras Jc, Hoyos M, Sanchezmoral S, Sanzrubio E, Bedoya J, Soler V, Groth I, Schumann P, Laiz L, Gonzalez I, Sainzjimenez C,
Microbial communities, where Streptomyces species predominate, were found in association with hydromagnesite, Mg-5(CO3)(4)(OH)(2). 4H(2)O, and needle-fiber aragonite deposits in an Altamira cave. The ability to precipitate calcium carbonate in laboratory cultures suggests that these and other bacteria present in the cave may play a role in the formation of moonmilk deposits

Depositional Facies and Aqueous-Solid Geochemistry of Travertine-Depositing Hot Springs (Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A.), 2000, Fouke Bw, Farmer Jd, Des Marais Dj, Pratt L, Sturchio Nc, Burns Pc, Discipulo Mk,
Petrographic and geochemical analyses of travertine-depositing hot springs at Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, have been used to define five depositional facies along the spring drainage system. Spring waters are expelled in the vent facies at 71 to 73{degrees}C and precipitate mounded travertine composed of aragonite needle botryoids. The apron and channel facies (43-72{degrees}C) is floored by hollow tubes composed of aragonite needle botryoids that encrust sulfide-oxidizing Aquificales bacteria. The travertine of the pond facies (30-62{degrees}C) varies in composition from aragonite needle shrubs formed at higher temperatures to ridged networks of calcite and aragonite at lower temperatures. Calcite 'ice sheets', calcified bubbles, and aggregates of aragonite needles ('fuzzy dumbbells') precipitate at the air-water interface and settle to pond floors. The proximal-slope facies (28-54{degrees}C), which forms the margins of terracette pools, is composed of arcuate aragonite needle shrubs that create small microterracettes on the steep slope face. Finally, the distal-slope facies (28-30{degrees}C) is composed of calcite spherules and calcite 'feather' crystals. Despite the presence of abundant microbial mat communities and their observed role in providing substrates for mineralization, the compositions of spring-water and travertine predominantly reflect abiotic physical and chemical processes. Vigorous CO2 degassing causes a unit increase in spring water pH, as well as Rayleigh-type covariations between the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and corresponding {delta}13C. Travertine {delta}13C and {delta}18O are nearly equivalent to aragonite and calcite equilibrium values calculated from spring water in the higher-temperature ([~]50-73{degrees}C) depositional facies. Conversely, travertine precipitating in the lower-temperature (<[~]50{degrees}C) depositional facies exhibits {delta}13C and {delta}18O values that are as much as 4{per thousand} less than predicted equilibrium values. This isotopic shift may record microbial respiration as well as downstream transport of travertine crystals. Despite the production of H2S and the abundance of sulfide-oxidizing microbes, preliminary {delta}34S data do not uniquely define the microbial metabolic pathways present in the spring system. This suggests that the high extent of CO2 degassing and large open-system solute reservoir in these thermal systems overwhelm biological controls on travertine crystal chemistry

Aragonite-Calcite Relationships in Speleothems (Grotte De Clamouse, France): Environment, Fabrics, and Carbonate Geochemistry, 2002, Frisia S, Borsato A, Fairchild Ij, Mcdermott F, Selmo Em,
In Grotte de Clamouse (France), aragonite forms in a variety of crystal habits whose properties reflect the conditions of formation. Prolonged degassing and evaporation yield needle aragonite, which is more enriched in 18O and 13C than aragonite ray crystals, which form near isotopic equilibrium. At present, aragonite ray crystals form at the tops of stalagmites at very low discharge (0.00035 ml/ min), and when fluid Mg/Ca ratio is > 1.1. Temperature and evaporation do not seem to have a significant role in their formation. The presence of aragonite in stalagmites should be indicative of a decrease in drip rate related to either dry climate conditions or local hydrology. Fossil aragonite was in part replaced by calcite in a time frame < 1.0 ka, possibly through the combined effects of dissolution of aragonite, and precipitation of calcite, which preferentially nucleated on calcite cements that had previously formed between aragonite rays. Commonly, the replacement phase inherited the textural and chemical characteristics of the precursor aragonite prisms and needles (and in particular the {delta}13C signal and U content), and preserved aragonite relicts (up to 16 weight %). The isotope signal of different aragonite habits may reflect conditions of formation rather than climate parameters. The real extent of aragonite-to-calcite transformation may be underestimated when replacement calcite inherits both textural and chemical properties of the precursor

Ein mittelpleistozner Aragonitstalagmit aus der B7-Hhle (NW-Sauerland, Nordrhein-Westfalen), 2006, Niggemann S. , Richter D. K.
An aragonitic stalagmite from the B7 cave in middle/upper Devonian massive limestones of the Rhenish Slate Mountains near Iserlohn is characterized using petrographic and geochemical methods. The primary composition with needle-and fan-shaped aragonite and contemporaneous local radiaxial-fibrous Mg-calcite indicates an elevated Mg/Ca ratio of the drip water at the time of stalagmite growth. This is apparently related to the calcitization of the dolomitic gallery, in which the broken sample was found, as also suggested by the rather high ?13C values. The stalagmite grew ca. 440,000 years ago, during a warm climate episode of Marine Isotope Stages 11-12, as determined by U/Th thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The origin of the phreatic cave gallery level 3 within the five-level cave system can thus be placed into at least the middle Pleistocene.

RESULTS OF PALEOSTOMATOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF MATERIAL FROM THE CAVE NEAR GORNJI VAKUF (SOUTH-WEST BOSNIA), 2007, Zukanović, A. , Mulaomerović, J. , Marjanović, D.

Among explored speleological objects near the Krupa village, close to Gornji Vakuf, the most interesting cave from paleocultural aspect, is the cave named “Cave number 5”. In the internal part of that cave, besides ceramic fragments and one metal needle, rich anthropological material have been found, compounds of numerous humans bones and teeth. Anato-morphological analysis of the one part of material showed that this site is a prehistoric crypt with remains of at least 13 people. Radiocarbon 14C bone analysiss results showed that those people lived 2765 ± 75 before presence. The fact that anthropological material includes some remains which belonged to children shows some characteristics of burial culture of that period on area of Uskoplje. This cave crypt is the one of the biggest on this region. Paleostomatological analysis of teeth and jaw fragments gave us clear evidence about therapeutic interventions performed in this period. X-rays analysis showed presence of the metal body inside the bone in one mandibular fragment. It’s supposed that this metal is broken part of instrument used for tooth extraction.


Formation of seasonal ice bodies and associated cryogenic carbonates in Caverne de lOurs, Que bec, Canada: Kinetic isotope effects and pseudo-biogenic crystal structures, 2009, Lacelle D. , Lauriol B. , And Clark I. D.
This study examines the kinetics of formation of seasonal cave ice formations (stalagmites, stalactites, hoar, curtain, and floor ice) and the associated cryogenic calcite powders in Caverne de lOurs (QC, Canada), a shallow, thermally-responsive cave. The seasonal ice formations, which either formed by the: (1) freezing of dripping water (ice stalagmite and stalactite); (2) freezing of stagnant or slow moving water (floor ice and curtain ice) and; (3) condensation of water vapor (hoar ice), all (except floor ice) showed kinetic isotope effects associated with the rapid freezing of calcium bicarbonate water. This was made evident in the dD, d18 O and d (deuterium excess) compositions of the formed ice where they plot along a kinetic freezing line. The cryogenic calcite powders, which are found on the surface of the seasonal ice formations, also show kinetic isotope effects. Their d13 C and d18 O values are among the highest measured in cold-climate carbonates and are caused by the rapid rate of freezing, which results in strong C-O disequilibrium between the water, dissolved C species in the water, and precipitating calcite. Although the cryogenic calcite precipitated as powders, diverse crystal habits were observed under scanning electron microscope, which included rhombs, aggregated rhombs, spheres, needles, and aggregated structures. The rhomb crystal habits were observed in samples stored and observed at room temperature, whereas the sphere and needle structures were observed in the samples kept and observed under cryogenic conditions. Considering that the formation of cryogenic calcite is purely abiotic (freezing of calcium bicarbonate water), the presence of spherical structures, commonly associated with biotic processes, might represent vaterite, a polymorph of calcite stable only at low temperatures. It is therefore suggested that care should be taken before suggesting biological origin to calcite precipitates based solely on crystal habits because they might represent pseudo-biogenic structures formed through abiotic processes.

Cottonballs, a unique subaqeous moonmilk and abundant subaerial moonmilk in Cataract Cave, Tongass National Forest, Alaska, 2009, Curry M. D. , Boston P. J. , Spilde M. N. , Baichtal J. F. , Campbell A. R.
The Tongass National Forest is known for its world-class karst features and contains the largest concentration of dissolutional caves in Alaska. Within these karst systems exist unusual and possibly unique formations exhibiting possible biological origin or influence. Cataract Cave is an example of such a system. This cave hosts a unique depositional setting in which so-called cottonballs line two permanent pools. The cottonballs are a calcitic deposit heavily entwined within a mass of microbial filaments. They are juxtaposed with extensive subaerial calcitic moonmilk wall deposit of a more conventional nature but of an extraordinary thickness and abundance. Both the cottonballs and moonmilk are composed of microcrystalline aggregates (0.20 wt.%) compared to the cottonballs (0.12 wt.%). However, the cottonballs are dominated by monocrystalline needles, whereas the moonmilk is mainly composed of polycrystalline needles. The microbial environments of both displayed similar total microbial cell counts; however, culturable microbial counts varied between the deposits and among the various media. For both, in situ cultures and isolates inoculated in a calcium salt medium produced calcium carbonate mineralization within biofilms. Geochemical variations existed between the deposits. Moonmilk displayed a slightly higher abundance of organic carbon (0.20 wt%) compared to the cottonballs (0.12 wt%). Stable isotopic analysis revealed that the moonmilk (?13C = -1.6) was isotopically heavier compared to the cottonballs (?13C = -8.1) but both are lighter than the host rock (?13C = +1.1). However, the organic carbon ?13C values of both deposits were similar (?13C = -27.4 and 26.7) and isotopically lighter compared to other overlying surface organic carbon sources. Due to the similarities between the deposits, we infer that both the cottonballs and moonmilk are subject to a set of related processes that could collectively be accommodated by the term moonmilk. Thus, the cottonball pool formation can be characterized as a type of subaqueous moonmilk. The differences observed between the moonmilk and cottonballs may be largely attributable to the changes in the depositional environment, namely in air or water.

Cottonballs, a unique subaqeous moonmilk and abundant subaerial moonmilk in Cataract Cave, Tongass National Forest, Alaska, 2009, Curry M. D. , Boston P. J. , Spilde. M. N. , Baichtal J. F. , Campbell A. R.

The Tongass National Forest is known for its world-class karst features and contains the largest concentration of dissolutional caves in Alaska. Within these karst systems exist unusual and possibly unique formations exhibiting possible biological origin or influence. Cataract Cave is an example of such a system. This cave hosts a unique depositional setting in which so-called “cottonballs� line two permanent pools. The cottonballs are a calcitic deposit heavily entwined within a mass of microbial filaments. They are juxtaposed with extensive subaerial calcitic moonmilk wall deposit of a more conventional nature but of an extraordinary thickness and abundance. Both the cottonballs and moonmilk are composed of microcrystalline aggregates (0.20 wt.%) compared to the cottonballs (0.12 wt.%). However, the cottonballs are dominated by monocrystalline needles, whereas the moonmilk is mainly composed of polycrystalline needles. The microbial environments of both displayed similar total microbial cell counts; however, culturable microbial counts varied between the deposits and among the various media. For both, in situ cultures and isolates inoculated in a calcium salt medium produced calcium carbonate mineralization within biofilms. Geochemical variations existed between the deposits. Moonmilk displayed a slightly higher abundance of organic carbon (0.20 wt%) compared to the cottonballs (0.12 wt%). Stable isotopic analysis revealed that the moonmilk (δ13C = -1.6‰) was isotopically heavier compared to the cottonballs (δ13C = -8.1‰) but both are lighter than the host rock (δ13C = +1.1‰). However, the organic carbon δ13C values of both deposits were similar (δ13C = -27.4 and –26.7‰) and isotopically lighter compared to other overlying surface organic carbon sources. Due to the similarities between the deposits, we infer that both the cottonballs and moonmilk are subject to a set of related processes that could collectively be accommodated by the term “moonmilk�. Thus, the cottonball pool formation can be characterized as a type of subaqueous moonmilk. The differences observed between the moonmilk and cottonballs may be largely attributable to the changes in the depositional environment, namely in air or water.


Speleothems in the dry Cave Parts of the Gamslcher-Kolowrat Cave, Untersberg near Salzburg (Austria), 2011, Bieniok Anna, Zagler Georg, Brendel Uwe, Neubauer Franz

New, remarkably dry parts of the Gamslöcher-Kolowrat Cave at 728 to 853 m depth have been explored in the Untersberg near Salzburg in Austria. This region is called the Desert, its greatest cavity is called the White Hall. The new cave part is characterized by various white speleothems. The predominant ones are snow-like calcite powder with an extremely low density, and fine gypsum needles. Gypsum also occurs in the form of balls stuck to vertical walls. In addition, fluorescent hydromagnesite crusts, Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O, as well as the sodium sulfate mineral mirabilite were identified in this part of the cave. Mirabilite and gypsum needles differ from the gypsum balls in their isotopic sulfur signature (δ34S of -16.9‰ and -18.4‰ vs. +2.9‰). The unusually low sulfur isotopic compositional values are tentatively explained by a source of bacteriogenetic sulfur from sulfides.


Results 1 to 15 of 16
You probably didn't submit anything to search for