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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That miscible displacement is 1. the mutual mixing and movement of two fluids that are soluble in each other [22]. 2. the displacement of a fluid saturating a porous medium by another fluid completely miscible with the first fluid [16]. synonymous with miscible-phase displacement.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for paleogeography (Keyword) returned 18 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 18
Prsentation du Causse Comtal (Aveyron), 1987, Solier, P.
THE " CAUSSE COMTAL " (AVEYRON, FRANCE): GEOLOGY, HYDROGEOLOGY AND INVENTORY OF MAIN CAVES - The " Causse Comtal " (S = 265 km2) forms a sedimentary bridge between the " Causses du Quercy " in the west and the " Grands Causses " in the east. With a middle humid climate (P = 1000 mm/y, T = 9,4 C, Evap. = 450-500 mm/y), this plateau karst presents two aquifer levels in the Lower and Middle Jurassic separated by a marly layer. These formations cover a paleozoic basement (sandstone, argillite from Carboniferous and Permian, crystalline rocks). The hydrogeological basins are controlled by E-W reverse faults due to the N-S pyrenean compression. The main spring is near Salles-la-Source in the western part (average discharge: 840 l/s; flood : 10 m3/s); it drains a 50-55 km2 area. The morphological and speleological evolution is subordinated to an erosion surface from Upper Cretaceous - Tertiary. Often stopped up (blocking), the numerous fossil caves probably date from the end of Cenozoic era. The large subterranean passages (active or semi-actives galleries; ex.: Tindoul de la Vayssire) are plio-quaternary.

Karstification et volution palogographique du Jura, 1991, Bienfait, P.
KARSTIFICATION AND PALEOGEOGRAPHICAL EVOLUTION OF THE JURA (Fr.) - The karstification started at the beginning of the Tertiary, and the process is still going on today. During the Eocene, modifications brought about under the tropical climate resulted in siderolithic deposits (siliceous sands, ferruginous soils), which can be found in some fossil karsts. In the Oligocene, active tectonics modified the Eocene surface. Erosion during the Miocene levelled the Jura Mountains into a peneplain even though the climate remained tropical. Toward the end of the Miocene, present-day structure and landforms were produced when the main folding, subjected at the same time to powerful erosion, occurred. During the Upper Pleistocene the climate became cooler and wetter. At least two glacial periods have been recognised in the Pleistocene. Present-day karst landforms and most of the caves can be considered as being shaped during the Plio-Quaternary. The karst fillings of the Quaternary provide evidence of the extension of the Wrm and Riss glaciers.

Rapports entre la karstification _primditerranenne et la crise de salinit messinienne, lexemple du karst lombard (Italie), 1994, Bini, A.
The Mediterraean dessiccation theory suggests that during the Messinian the Mediterranean sea lad almost completely dried up did a thick succession of evaporites was laid down Due to dessiccation the erosional base level through the whole Mediterranean area was lowered, with the consequent development of long and deep fluviatile canyons (e.g. Nile, Rhne, Var, etc). This lowering strongly affected karst evolution This paper concerns the karst in Lombardy, around the southalpine lakes. The old evolutionary models, predating dessiccation theory, assume that the lacustine valleys were scoured by the quaternary glaciers. ln this case the karst should have been characterized by some features, like for example the altitudinal cave distribution as a consequence of the valley lowering after each glaciation. Seismic experiments through the lakes and their tributaries have shown that these valleys are deep fluviatile canyons. The study of caves has demonstrated that the caves themselves predate the entrenchment of the valleys and the glaciations. During the latter the caves were filled up and emptied several times, without any modifications of their inner morphology, including stalactites. Moreover the U/Th age determinations indicate that a great number of concretions are older than 350 ky, and that a few are older than 1.5 Ma. As a conse-quence, a general model of karst evolution can be proposed. The former karstic drainage system developed after the Oligo-Miocene emersion. Paleogeography obviously diffe-red from the present day landscape but the main valley had already been scoured. During the Messinian the dramatic lowering of base level determined major changes in karstic evolution and a reorganisation of the karst drainage system that was consequently lowered considerably. The Pliocene transgression determined a new karst evolution, after which a great number of caves were located well below the sea level base. This evolution occurred during hot and wet climate period, with seasonal high flows and relevant discharges of the karstic rivers The great caves of the Lombardian karst developed within the climatic stage.

Late Wisconsinan deglaciation of Alberta: Processes and paleogeography, 1996, Mandryk C. A. S. ,
The scarcity of lake basins in Alberta dating earlier than 11,000 BP has been interpreted as indicating the continued presence of active glacial ice. Because of the related implication that the presence of ice precludes the existence of an ice-free corridor, it is useful to examine this issue more closely. Due to the effects of deglaciation, many areas of Alberta were dominated by chaotic ice-stagnation conditions, with continual reversal of topography and rapid transformation of the surface. The dynamic nature of the environment affects arguments regarding the existence of an ice-free corridor as well as having implications for archeological site formation, preservation and discovery. Deglaciation models utilizing paradigms of active ice retreat may result in dichotomous depictions of the land surface as either ice covered or deglaciated. Due to the insulating properties of supraglacial debris, stagnant ice results in a situation that is simultaneously neither and both of the above conditions. While the landscape is ice covered and thus not 'ice-free', an accessible landscape characterized by glacial karst topography exists on top of the stagnating ice surface. General reconstructions of the impact of stagnant ice and glacial karst topography on the paleogeography of Alberta are presented for discussion. Copyright (C) 1996 INQUA/Elsevier Science Ltd

Formation des rseaux karstiques et creusement des valles : lexemple du Larzac mridional, Hrault, France, 1997, Camus, Hubert
The Causses and mediterranean Garrigues present a long continental evolution from late Cretaceous. The karstic network analysis and the dynamic study give geomorphological indicators to reconstruct the paleogeography of this area when the geological indicators are not present. The paleoclimatic action and the tectonic movements make the actual landscape melting a lot of ages and genesis different elements. The endokarst preserves sedimentological and paleoclimatic witnesses and also hollowing shapes that traduce the successive steps of the paleogeographic evolution. The network's levels of the South Larzac are connected with the landscape karstic forms : poljes, canyons, peripheric valleys. The reef limestone of the Seranne and the dolomite of the Monts de St-Guilhem explain this good conservation of the endokarst and of the landscapes.

Les apports de lendokarst dans la reconstitution morphognique dun karst ; exemple de lAntre de Vnus (Vercors, France), 1998, Delannoy Jeanjacques, Caillault Serge
The whole of the informations which can be found in the endokarst gives a better knowledge of the hydrogeologic, geomorphologic, tectonic and climatic evolution of a calcareous mountain mass. However, the study of the cavities is not yet developed or integrated in the karst studies. The objective of the present work is to show the interest of such a proceeding by the study of a cavity in the northern Vercors : "Antre de Vnus". From the simple observation of the shapes, the deposits and their relation, a speleogenic reconstitution of this cavity and, mainly, of the environment, is proposed.

The Dachstein paleosurface and the Augenstein Formation in the Northern Calcareous Alps - a mosaic stone in the geomorphological evolution of the Eastern Alps, 2001, Frisch W, Kuhlemann J, Dunkl I, Szekely B,
The central and eastern areas of the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) are characterized by remnants of the Dachstein paleosurface, which formed in Late Eocene (?) to Early Oligocene time and is preserved with limited modification on elevated karst plateaus. In Oligocene time, the Dachstein paleosurface subsided and was sealed by the Augenstein Formation, a terrestrial succession of conglomerates and sandstones, which are only preserved in small remnants on the plateaus, some in an autochthonous position. Thermochronological data suggest a maximum thickness of the Augenstein Formation of >1.3 km, possibly >2 km. The age of the Augenstein Formation is constrained by the overall geological situation as Early Oligocene to earliest Miocene. Fission track age data support an Early Oligocene age of the basal parts of the formation. The source area of the Augenstein Formation consisted predominantly of weakly metamorphic Paleozoic terrains (Greywacke Zone and equivalents) as well as the Late Carboniferous to Scythian siliciclastic base of the NCA to the south of the depositional area. To the west, the Augenstein Formation interfingered with the Tertiary deposits of the Inntal. Sedimentation of the Augenstein Formation was terminated in Early Miocene time in the course of the orogenic collapse of the Eastern Alps. The Augenstein sediments were eroded and redeposited in the foreland Molasse zone. From Pannonian times (similar to 10 Ma) on, the NCA and the denuded Dachstein surface experienced uplift in several pulses. The Dachstein paleosurface has been preserved in areas, in which thick limestone sequences allowed subsurface erosion by cave formation and thus prevented major surface erosion

Relation between alpine paleogeography and cave genesis: the case of the cave system of Sieben Hengste (Berne, Switzerland), 2001, Hauselmann P. Jeannin P. Y. , Monbaron M.

Cave Genesis and its relationship to surface processes: investigations in the Siebenhengste region (BE, Switzerland), PhD Thesis, 2002, Haeuselmann, Ph.

This PhD thesis deals with the speleogenesis of the youngest six phases in the Siebenhengste system (Switzerland). A speleogenetic model is developed, linking the four-state-model with the model of Audra (1994), taking into account the speleogenetic processes in the flooding zone. The refinement of the speleogenetic phases allowed to reconstruct the valley deepening processes in the late Quarternary. Moreover, an idea about the landscape evolution since the Mio-Pliocene is sketched. U/Th datings allowed the timing of the last four speleogenetic phases as well as glacial advances and retreats during the last 400'000 years, thus considerably enhancing the continental Quarternary record. With information from Baerenschacht and St. Beatus Cave, the tectonic history and the geometry of the folds could be retraced. A comprehensive analysis of all dye tracing experiments is given. 

Cyclic sequences, events and evolution of the Sino-Korean plate, with a discussion on the evolution of molar-tooth carbonates, phosphorites and source rocks, 2003, Meng X. H. , Ge M. ,
This paper gives an account of the research that the authors conducted on the cyclic sequences, events and evolutionary history from Proterozoic to Meso-Cenozoic in the Sino-Korean plate based on the principle of the Cosmos-Earth System. The authors divided this plate into 20 super-cyclic or super-mega-cyclic periods and more than 100 Oort periods. The research focused on important sea flooding events, uplift interruption events, tilting movement events, molar-tooth carbonate events, thermal events, polarity reversal events, karst events, volcanic explosion events and storm events, as well as types of resource areas and paleotectonic evolution. By means of the isochronous theory of the Cosmos-Earth System periodicity and based on long-excentricity and periodicity, the authors elaborately studied the paleogeographic evolution of the aulacogen of the Sino-Korean plate, the oolitic beach platform formation, the development of foreland basin and continental rift valley basin, and reconstructed the evolution of tectonic paleogeography and stratigraphic framework in the Sino-Korean plate in terms of evolutionary maps. Finally; the authors gave a profound discussion on the formation and development of molar-tooth carbonates, phosphorites and source rocks

Fallen arches: Dispelling myths concerning Cambrian and Ordovician paleogeography of the Rocky Mountain region, 2003, Myrow Paul M. , Taylor John F. , Miller James F. , Ethington Raymond L. , Ripperdan Robert L. , Allen Joseph,
High-resolution sedimentologic, biostratigraphic, and stable isotope data from numerous measured sections across Colorado reveal a complex architecture for lower Paleozoic strata in the central Cordilleran region. A lack of precise age control in previous studies had resulted in misidentification and miscorrelation of units between separate ranges. Corrections of these errors made possible by our improved data set indicate the following depositional history. The quartz-rich sandstone of the Sawatch Formation was deposited during onlap of the Precambrian erosion surface in the early Late Cambrian. The overlying Dotsero Formation, a regionally extensive carbonate- and shale-rich succession records blanket-like deposition with only minor facies changes across the state. An extremely widespread, meter-scale stromatolite bed, the Clinetop Bed, caps the Dotsero Formation in most areas. However, a latest Cambrian erosional episode removed 9-11 m of the upper Dotsero Formation, including the Clinetop Bed, from just east of the Homestake shear zone in the Sawatch Range eastward to the Mosquito Range. The overlying Manitou Formation differs in character, and thus in member stratigraphy, on the east vs. west sides of the state. These differences were previously interpreted as the result of deposition on either side of a basement high that existed within the Central Colorado Embayment or Colorado 'Sag,' a region of major breaching across the Transcontinental Arch. This paleogeographic reconstruction is shown herein to be an artifact of miscorrelation. Biostratigraphic data show that the northwestern members of the Manitou Formation are older than the members exposed in the southeastern part of the state and that there is little or no overlap in age between the two areas. This circumstance is the result of (1) removal of older Manitou Formation strata in the southeast by an unconformity developed during the Rossodus manitouensis conodont Zone, and (2) erosion of younger Manitou strata in central and western Colorado along Middle Ordovician and Devonian unconformities. Deciphering these complex stratal geometries has led to invalidation of long-held views on western Laurentian paleogeography during the Cambrian and earliest Ordovician, specifically the existence of the Colorado Sag and a northeast-trending high within the sag that controlled depositional patterns on either side. The mid- Rossodus uplift and resultant unconformity eliminated any and all Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician deposits in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico, and thus their absence should not be misconstrued as evidence for earlier nondeposition in this region. Lithofacies distribution patterns and isopach maps provide no evidence that highlands of the Transcontinental Arch existed in Colorado prior to the mid-Rossodus age uplift event. In fact, regional reconstructions of earliest Paleozoic paleogeography along the entire length of the purported Transcontinental Arch should be reevaluated with similarly precise biostratigraphic data to reconsider all potential causes for missing strata and to eliminate topographic elements not supported by multiple stratigraphic techniques. This study illustrates how seriously paleogeographic reconstructions can be biased by the presumption that missing strata represent periods of nondeposition rather than subsequent episodes of erosion, particularly in thin cratonic successions where stratigraphic gaps are common and often inconspicuous

Review of Turkish karst with emphasis on tectonic and paleogeographic controls, 2003, Ekmekci, Mehmet

This paper re-evaluates the karst phenomenon in Turkey basing on the controlling factors such as, the source of energy gradient, lithostratigraphy, type of erosion base and climate. Two major karst types described are a) evolutionary karst which implies continuous karstification but at different stage of maturation and b)rejuvenated karst which is formed by reactivating a formerly developed and subsequently ceased karst structure either by an uplift and/or a drastic decline of erosion base. Description of karst types considering both morphology and hydrogeology revealed that distribution of specific karst types is compatible with the neotectonic evolution of Turkey. Karst in all provinces except the Black Sea and Western Anatolian regions, is developed under the effect of the energy gradient provided by uplift. Different rates of uplift created different sub-types of karst. The climate effect was evaluated as a secondary factor for it has a role of shaping/re-shaping the karst forms rather than controlling the physical and chemical processes.

Geological, structural and geochemical aspects of the main aquifer systems in Kuwait, 2004, Alsulaimi Js, Alruwaih Fm,
The paper summarizes the lithology, structure and the geometry of the main aquifer systems in Kuwait (the Dammam Formation and the Kuwait Group) along with the hydrochemical characteristics of the aquifers. Kuwait lies between the Arabian Shield and Zagros fold belt at the periphery of the Arabian platform. Structures associated with the Kuwait Arch noticeably control the subsurface configuration of the Dammam Formations and, hence regulate the distribution of the overlying Kuwait Group sediments. For the broad setting, the paleogeography of the Eocene has been constructed. The main lithologies of concern, both in the surface and subsurface, are the recent and subrecent sediments. The Kuwait Group includes the Dibdibba Formation, and the undifferentiated Ghar and Fars Formations, as well as the Hasa Group comprising the Dammam, Rus and Umm Er-Radhuma Formations. Subsurface geological cross-sections were constructed for the Dammam Formation, showing its structures, configuration, unconformity, and zones of uplift. Potential sites of karst formation in the Dammam limestone have been identified in the cross-sections. The structural study enables the reconstruction of the paleomorphostructural sections of the Dammam Formation. The chemical investigation indicates that the Kuwait Group aquifer is occupied by Na2SO4 and NaCl water types. In addition, the Kuwait Group aquifer is supersaturated with respect to calcite and is undersaturated with respect to halite, gypsum, anhydrite and dolomite. The Dammam Formation aquifer has Na2SO4, CaSO4 and NaCl water types. Moreover, the Dammam Formation is supersaturated with calcite and dolomite and is undersaturated with respect to halite, gypsum, and anhydrite. The calculated mean values of the PCO2 of the Kuwait Group and the Dammam Formation aquifers are 3.8 x 10(-3) atm. and 2.99 x 10(-3) atm. respectively, which are significantly above the PCO2 of the Earth's atmosphere. This may suggest a deep closed environment

Australian Zn-Pb-Ag Ore-Forming Systems: A Review and Analysis, 2006, Huston David L. , Stevens Barney, Southgate Peter N. , Muhling Peter, Wyborn Lesley,
Zn-Pb-Ag mineral deposits are the products of hydrothermal ore-forming systems, which are restricted in time and space. In Australia, these deposits formed during three main periods at ~2.95, 1.69 to 1.58, and 0.50 to 0.35 Ga. The 1.69 to 1.58 Ga event, which accounts for over 65 percent of Australia's Zn, was triggered by accretion and rifting along the southern margin of Rodinia. Over 93 percent of Australia's Zn-Pb-Ag resources were produced by four ore-forming system types: Mount Isa (56% of Zn), Broken Hill (19%), volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS; 12%), and Mississippi Valley (8%). Moreover, just 4 percent of Australia's land mass produced over 80 percent of its Zn. The four main types of ore-forming systems can be divided into two 'clans,' based on fluid composition, temperature, and redox state. The Broken Hill- and VHMS-type deposits formed from high-temperature (>200{degrees}C) reduced fluids, whereas the Mount Isa- and Mississippi Valley-type deposits formed from low-temperature (<200{degrees}C), H2S-poor, and/or oxidized fluids. The tectonic setting and composition of the basins that host the ore-forming systems determine these fluid compositions and, therefore, the mineralization style. Basins that produce higher temperature fluids form in active tectonic environments, generally rifts, where high heat flow produced by magmatism drives convective fluid circulation. These basins are dominated by immature siliciclastic and volcanic rocks with a high overall abundance of Fe2. The high temperature of the convective fluids combined with the abundance of Fe2 in the basin allow inorganic sulfate reduction and leaching of sulfide from the country rock, producing reduced, H2S-rich fluids. Basins that produce low-temperature fluids are tectonically less active, generally intracratonic, extensional basins dominated by carbonate and variably mature siliciclastic facies with a relatively low Fe2 abundance. In these basins, sediment maturity depends on the paleogeography and stratigraphic position in an accommodation cycle. Volcanic units, if present, occur in the basal parts of the basins. Because these basins have relatively low heat flow, convective fluid flow is less important, and fluid migration is dominated by expulsion of basinal brines in response to local and/or regional tectonic events. Low temperatures and the lack of Fe2 prevent in-organic sulfate reduction during regional fluid flow, producing H2S-poor fluids that are commonly oxidized (i.e., {sum}SO4 > {sum}H2S). Fluid flow in the two basin types produces contrasting regional alteration systems. High-temperature fluid-rock reactions in siliciclastic-volcanic-dominated basins produce semiconformable albite-hematite-epidote assemblages, but low-temperature reactions in carbonate-siliciclastic-dominated basins produce regional K-feldspar-hematite assemblages. The difference in feldspar mineralogy is mostly a function of temperature. In both basin types, regional alteration zones have lost, and probably were the source of, Zn and Pb. The contrasting fluid types require different depositional mechanisms and traps to accumulate metals. The higher temperature, reduced VHMS- and Broken Hill-type fluids deposit metals as a consequence of mixing with cold seawater. Mineralization occurs at or near the sea floor, with trapping efficiencies enhanced by sub-surface replacement or deposition in a brine pool. In contrast, the low-temperature, oxidized Mount Isa- and Mississippi Valley-type fluids precipitate metals through thermochemical sulfate reduction facilitated by hydrocarbons or organic matter. This process can occur at depth in the rock pile, for instance in failed petroleum traps, or just below the sea floor in pyritic, organic-rich muds

Historical biogeography of subterranean beetles Platos cave or scientific evidence?, 2007, Moldovan O. T. , Rajka G.

The last two decades were particularly prolific in historical biogeography because of new information introduced from other sciences, such as paleogeography, by the development of quantitative methods and by molecular phylogeny. Subterranean beetles represent an excellent object of study for historical biogeography because they are the group with the best representation in the subterranean domain. In addition, species have reduced mobility, display different degrees of adaptations to life in caves and many specialists work on this group. Three processes have shaped the present distribution of the tribe Leptodirini (Coleoptera Cholevinae) in the world: dispersal, vicariance, and extinction. Therefore, three successive stages can be established in the space-time evolution of Leptodirini: (1) dispersal from a center of origin in the present area(s); (2) dispersal, extinction and vicariance among the present area(s); and (3) colonization and speciation in the subterranean domain. The Romanian Leptodirini, especially those from Western Carpathians is examined with respect to these processes. Their pattern of distribution in different massifs and at different altitudes is discussed, with possible explanations from a historical biogeographic point of view.

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