Karst and Cave RSS news feed Like us on Facebook! follow us on Twitter!
Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That infiltration index is the average rate of infiltration throughout a given rain storm [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?

Search KARSTBASE:

keyword
author

Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for pannonian basin (Keyword) returned 8 results for the whole karstbase:
Brittle tectonics and major dextral strike-slip zone in the Buda karst (Budapest, Hungary), 1999, Benkovics L, Obert D, Bergerat F, Mansy Jl, Dubois M,
Three large (kilometric-scale) caves were studied in the Buda hills and the main directions of cave corridors, fault planes and mineralized veins were measured. Different stages of mineralizations are recognised: calcite scaleno-hedrons, baryte, silica, gypsum. New investigations of fluid inclusions in the baryte suggest a crystallization temperature of 50 degrees C and a freshwater fluid source. Microtectonic analysis allows the reconstruction of the successive tectonic events: (1) a NE-SW extensional phase at the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene limit (phase I), (2) a strike-slip phase with NW-SE compression and NE-SW extension during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene (phase II), (3) a NW-SE transtensional phase (phase III) and finally (4) a NE-SW extensional phase of Quaternary age (phase IV). The major phase is the strike-slip one, characterized by an important dextral strike-slip zone: the Ferenc-hegy zone. (C) Elsevier, Paris

Miocene phreatomagmatic volcanism at Tihany (Pannonian Basin, Hungary), 2001, Nemeth K. , Martin U. , Harangi S. ,
A late Miocene (7.56 Ma) maar volcanic complex (Tihany Maar Volcanic Complex - TMVC) is preserved in the Pannonian Basin and is part of the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field. Base surge and fallout deposits were formed around maars by phreatomagmatic explosions, caused by interactions between water-saturated sediments and alkali basalt magma carrying peridotite Iherzolite xenoliths as well as pyroxene and olivine megacrysts. Subsequently, nested maars functioned as a sediment trap where deposition built up Gilbert-type delta sequences. At the onset of eruption, magma began to interact with a moderate amount of groundwater in the water-saturated sand. As eruption continued phreatomagmatic blasts excavated downward into limestones, providing access to abundant karst water and deeper to sandstones and schist both providing large amount of fracture-filling water, At the surface, this 'wet' eruption led to the emplacement of massive tuff breccias by fall, surge, mudflow and gravity flow deposition. The nature of the TMVC maar eruptions and their deposits appears to depend on the hydrological condition of the karst and/or fracture-filling aquifer, which varies seasonally with rainfall and spring runoff. The West and East Maar volcanoes of TMVC are interpreted to represent low water input from the karst and/or fracture-filling aquifer ('summer vent'), whereas the East Maar is interpreted to have formed when abundant karst and/or fracture-filling water was available ('spring vent'). (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Palaeomagnetic research on karst sediments in Slovenia, 2010, Zupan Hajna N. , Mihevc A. , Pruner P. , Bosk P.
We have conducted palaeomagnetic and magnetostratigraphic research on karst sediments in Slovenia since 1997. More than 2,000 samples were taken and analysed in 36 different profiles at 21 locations in caves and on the surface. Standard palaeomagnetic analyses were used (thermal and alternating field demagnetisation, magnetic susceptibility measurements, etc.). There is no evidence of younger marine deposition than Eocene in the SW part of Slovenia. Younger sediments occur only in caves and very rarely on the karst surface (different soils and a few remains of terrigeneous sediments). Marine and terrestrial Tertiary to PlioQuaternary deposition occurs in the SE and E Slovenia. Chronostratigraphy of cave sediments in SW Slovenia completed by Rado Gospodari? in the 1980s was based on Pleistocene warm/cold cycles. Later Th/U dating indicated that speleothems from different caves in Slovenia are older. New dating principally results from palaeomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy of cave sediments calibrated, in some sites, by Th/U, palaentological and geomorphological analyses. Calibrated data contributed to the reconstruction of speleogenesis, deposition in caves, and indirectly to the evolution of karst surfaces and succession of tectonic movements. The evolution of caves in the Slovenian territory took part within one post-Eocene karstification period. This period continues to the present, and can be subdivided into individual, but not well limited, phases related to Cenozoic palaeogeographical changes. The period contains distinct phases of massive deposition in caves with as yet still preserved sediments dated to about 5.44.1 Ma (MiocenePliocene), 3.61.8 Ma (Pliocene) and Quaternary, following the cessation of Miocene deposition in the Pannonian Basin in the central, E and SE Slovenia and post-Messinian evolution in the SW and W Slovenia.

Young uplift in the non-glaciated parts of the Eastern Alps, 2010, Wagner T. , Fabel D. , Fiebig M. , Hä, Uselmann Ph. , Sahy D. , Xu S. , Stü, We K.

We report the first incision rates derived from burial ages of cave sediments from the Mur river catchment at the eastern margin of the Eastern Alps. At the transition zone between the Alpine orogen and the Pannonian basin, this river passes through the Paleozoic of Graz — a region of karstifiable rocks called the Central Styrian Karst. This river dissects the study area in a north–south direction and has left behind an abundance of caves. These caves can be grouped into several distinct levels according to their elevation above the present fluvial base level. Age estimates of abandoned cave levels are constrained by dating fluvial sediments washed into caves during the waning stages of speleogenesis with the terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide method. These ages and the elevations of the cave levels relative to the current valley floor are used to infer a very complex history of 4 million years of water table position, influenced by the entrenchment and aggradation of the Mur river. We observe rather low rates of bedrock incision over the last 4 Ma (in the order of 0.1 mm/y) with an e-folding decrease in this trend to lower rates at younger times. We relate this incision history to a tectonic setting where an increase of drainage area of the Mur river due to stream piracy in Late Miocene to Pliocene times is linked to surface uplift. The later decrease in valley lowering rates is attributed to the rise of the base level related to aggradation of sediments within the valley. Sediment transport through the valley from the upstream section of the Mur river limited the erosional potential of the river to a transport limited state at the later stages of the incision history.


Palaeomagnetic research on karst sediments in Slovenia, 2010, Zupan Hajna N. , Mihevc A. , Pruner P. , Bosk P.

We have conducted palaeomagnetic and magnetostratigraphic research on karst sediments in Slovenia since 1997. More than 2,000 samples were taken and analysed in 36 different profiles at 21 locations in caves and on the surface. Standard palaeomagnetic analyses were used (thermal and alternating field demagnetisation, magnetic susceptibility measurements, etc.). There is no evidence of younger marine deposition than Eocene in the SW part of Slovenia. Younger sediments occur only in caves and very rarely on the karst surface (different soils and a few remains of terrigeneous sediments). Marine and terrestrial Tertiary to Plio–Quaternary deposition occurs in the SE and E Slovenia. Chronostratigraphy of cave sediments in SW Slovenia completed by Rado Gospodarič in the 1980s was based on Pleistocene warm/cold cycles. Later Th/U dating indicated that speleothems from different caves in Slovenia are older. New dating principally results from palaeomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy of cave sediments calibrated, in some sites, by Th/U, palaentological and geomorphological analyses. Calibrated data contributed to the reconstruction of speleogenesis, deposition in caves, and indirectly to the evolution of karst surfaces and succession of tectonic movements. The evolution of caves in the Slovenian territory took part within one post-Eocene karstification period. This period continues to the present, and can be subdivided into individual, but not well limited, phases related to Cenozoic palaeogeographical changes. The period contains distinct phases of massive deposition in caves with as yet still preserved sediments dated to about 5.4–4.1 Ma (Miocene–Pliocene), 3.6–1.8 Ma (Pliocene) and Quaternary, following the cessation of Miocene deposition in the Pannonian Basin in the central, E and SE Slovenia and post-Messinian evolution in the SW and W Slovenia.


Imprints of hydrocarbon-bearing basinal fluids on a karst system: mineralogical and fluid inclusion studies from the Buda Hills, Hungary, 2011, Poros Zsofia, Mindszenty Andrea, Molnar Ferenc, Pironon Jacques, Gyori Orsolya, Ronchi Paola, Szekeres Zoltan

Calcite veins and related sulphate–sulphide mineralisation are common in the Buda Hills. Also, abundant hypogenic caves are found along fractures filled with these minerals pointing to the fact that young cave-forming fluids migrated along the same fractures as the older mineralising fluids did. The studied vein-filling paragenesis consists of calcite, barite, fluorite and sulphides. The strike of fractures is consistent—NNW–SSE—concluding a latest Early Miocene maximum age for the formation of fracture-filling minerals. Calcite crystals contain coeval primary, hydrocarbon-bearing- and aqueous inclusions indicating that also hydrocarbons have migrated together with the mineralising fluids. Hydrocarbon inclusions are described here for the first time from the Buda Hills. Mixed inclusions, i.e., petroleum with ‘water-tail’, were also detected, indicating that transcrystalline water migration took place. The coexistence of aqueous and petroleum inclusions permitted to establish the entrapment temperature (80°C) and pressure (85 bar) of the fluid and thus also the thickness of sediments, having been eroded since latest Early Miocene times, was calculated (800 m). Low salinity of the fluids (<1.7 NaCl eq. wt%) implies that hydrocarbon-bearing fluids were diluted by regional karst water. FT-IR investigations revealed that CO2 and CH4 are associated with hydrocarbons. Groundwater also contains small amounts of HC and related gases on the basin side even today. Based on the location of the paleo- and recent hydrocarbon indications, identical migration pathways were reconstructed for both systems. Hydrocarbon-bearing fluids are supposed to have migrated north-westward from the basin east to the Buda Hills from the Miocene on.


Correlations of cave levels, stream terraces and planation surfaces along the River MurTiming of landscape evolution along the eastern margin of the Alps, 2011, Wagner Thomas, Fritz Harald, Stü, We Kurt, Nestroy Othmar, Rodnight Helena, Hellstrom John, Benischke Ralf

The transition zone of the Eastern Alps to the Pannonian Basin provides one of the best sources of information on landscape evolution of the Eastern Alpine mountain range. The region was non-glaciated during the entire Pleistocene. Thus, direct influence of glacial carving as a landscape forming process can be excluded and relics of landforms are preserved that date back to at least the Late Neogene. In this study, we provide a correlation between various planation surfaces across the orogen-basin transition. In particular, we use stream terraces, planation surfaces and cave levels that cover a vertical spread of some 700 m. Our correlation is used to show that both sides of the transition zone uplifted together starting at least about 5 Ma ago. For our correlation we use recently published terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) burial ages from cave sediments, new optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of a stream terrace and U–Th ages from speleothems. Minimum age constraints of cave levels from burial ages of cave sediments covering the last ~ 4 Ma are used to place age constraints on surface features by parallelizing cave levels with planation surfaces. The OSL results for the top section of the type locality of the Helfbrunn terrace suggest an Early Würm development (80.5 ± 3.7 to 68.7 ± 4.0 ka). The terrace origin as a penultimate gravel deposit (in classical Alpine terminology Riss) is therefore questioned. U-series speleothem ages from caves nearby indicate formation during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5c and 5a which are both interstadial warm periods. As OSL ages from the terrace also show a time of deposition during MIS 5a ending at the MIS 5/4 transition, this supports the idea of temperate climatic conditions at the time of deposition. In general, tectonic activity is interpreted to be the main driving force for the formation and evolution of these landforms, whilst climate change is suggested to be of minor importance. Obvious hiatuses in Miocene to Pleistocene sediments are related to ongoing erosion and re-excavation of an uplifting and rejuvenating landscape


Dinaric Karst: Geography and Geology, 2012, Zupan Hajna, Nadja

The Dinaric karst is geographically and geologically the carbonate part of the Dinaric Mountains on the Balkan Peninsula between the Adriatic Sea and the Pannonian Basin. The Dinaric karst is a “classical” karst for many reasons: the term karst (kras) was derived from its northwest part (Kras plateau); from the region originate such international terms as polje, uvala, doline, kamenitza, and ponor; and it is also the landscape where karstology and speleology as sciences were born. The most characteristic relief forms are high karst plateaus and numerous poljes elongated in a northwest–southeast direction (“Dinaric” direction), leveled surfaces, dolines, large and deep caves, sinking rivers, and abundant springs. According to different geological, hydrological, climate, and geomorphic characteristics, the Dinaric karst can be divided into three belts parallel to the Adriatic Sea: low coastal Adriatic karst, high mountain karst, and low continental inland karst. The Dinaric karst is known also as a limestone desert, a bare rocky landscape that results from climate conditions and especially because of intense land use in past centuries.


Results 1 to 8 of 8
You probably didn't submit anything to search for