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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That buried valley is an ancient valley buried by recent, often glacial deposits [16].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for peak discharge (Keyword) returned 4 results for the whole karstbase:
An examination of short-term variations in water quality at a karst spring in Kentucky, 1996, Ryan M. , Meiman J. ,
Water quality at many karst springs undergoes very high amplitude but relatively brief degradation following influxes of runoff. Accurately recording transient variations requires more rigorous sampling strategies than traditional methods, A pilot study to determine the usefulness of high-frequency, flow-dependent sampling strategies, combined with coincidental quantitative dye tracer tests, was implemented in the Big Spring Ground-Water Basin in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky. Data recorded following two separate runoff events showed that the concentrations of two nonpoint source pollutants, fecal coliform bacteria and suspended sediment, greatly exceeded prerunoff event values for very short periods of time, A phreatic conduit segment, calculated at 17 million liters in volume, instantaneously propagated head changes, caused by direct runoff entering the aquifer, from the ground-water inputs to Big Spring, A significant delay between the initial increases in discharge and the arrival of direct runoff, as indicated by a steady decrease in specific conductance, represented the time required to displace this volume of phreatic water, The delay showed that sampling a karst spring only during peak discharge would be an unreliable sampling method. Runoff from two different subcatchments was tagged with tracer dye and the timing of the passage of the resultant dye clouds through Big Spring were compared to water quality variations, Distinct lag times between the arrival of direct runoff at Big Spring and the bacteria and suspended sediment waveforms were shown through the concurrent quantitative tracer tests to be related to the areal distribution of land-cover type within the basin

Drainage-basin-scale geomorphic analysis to determine reference conditions for ecologic restoration--Kissimmee River, Florida, 2000, Warne Andrew G. , Toth Louis A. , White William A. ,
Major controls on the retention, distribution, and discharge of surface water in the historic (precanal) Kissimmee drainage basin and river were investigated to determine reference conditions for ecosystem restoration. Precanal Kissimmee drainage-basin hydrology was largely controlled by landforms derived from relict, coastal ridge, lagoon, and shallow-shelf features; widespread carbonate solution depressions; and a poorly developed fluvial drainage network. Prior to channelization for flood control, the Kissimmee River was a very low gradient, moderately meandering river that flowed from Lake Kissimmee to Lake Okeechobee through the lower drainage basin. We infer that during normal wet seasons, river discharge rapidly exceeded Lake Okeechobee outflow capacity, and excess surface water backed up into the low-gradient Kissimmee River. This backwater effect induced bankfull and peak discharge early in the flood cycle and transformed the flood plain into a shallow aquatic system with both lacustrine and riverine characteristics. The large volumes of surface water retained in the lakes and wetlands of the upper basin maintained overbank flow conditions for several months after peak discharge. Analysis indicates that most of the geomorphic work on the channel and flood plain occurred during the frequently recurring extended periods of overbank discharge and that discharge volume may have been significant in determining channel dimensions. Comparison of hydrogeomorphic relationships with other river systems identified links between geomorphology and hydrology of the precanal Kissimmee River. However, drainage-basin and hydraulic geometry models derived solely from general populations of river systems may produce spurious reference conditions for restoration design criteria

A simple model of karst spring flow using modified NRCS procedures, 2004, Barfield Bj, Felton Gk, Stevens Ew, Mccann M,
A simple model of spring flow in a karst watershed with numerous sinkholes is presented. The watershed is divided into subwatersheds and runoff volume calculated using the NRCS curve number procedure with corrections for actual antecedent moisture conditions using the 5-day antecedent rainfall volume as a parameter. The peak discharge for each subwatershed is calculated with the TR-55 unit discharge equations with time of concentration corrected for the flow through the epikarst and routed exponentially to the spring, using a calibration coefficient. Total discharge at the spring is calculated by summing attenuated peaks from each subwatershed, using a weighting factor based on the predicted arrival time for each peak flow. The model was calibrated on long-term flow data collected at the spring. The calibrated model was then evaluated on four storms measured subsequent to the calibration. The results were acceptable for all but one storm, but indicate the need for improved runoff volume calculation methods in karst watersheds. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Flash flood hydrology in karstic terrain: Flumineddu Canyon, central-east Sardinia, 2010, De Waele Jo, Martina Mario L. V. , Sanna Laura, Cabras Salvatore, Cossu Quirico Antonio

In the last five winters (2004–2008) several exceptional meteorological events producing flash floods have been registered in central-east Sardinia. The first of these (December 2004) was the most severe and caused important geomorphic changes in the Riu Flumineddu watershed where the influence of human activity is limited. The hydrological characterisation of this flood is extremely difficult because of the lack of streamflow gauges and the relative paucity of meteorological stations in the region. Peak discharge of the fluviokarstic Riu Flumineddu Canyon has been estimated based on a distributed hydrological model (TOPKAPI) and on empirical methods based on geomorphic and sedimentological observations. The comparison between the results derived from these independent methods allows us to obtain the best possible estimate of peak discharge. Differences between modelled and measured peak flows can be attributed to water losses and/or gains along the river channel from interactions with the underground karst drainage network.

The December 2004 flood, with an estimated recurrence interval of at least 65 years, generated overbank flow and destroyed several bridges in upstream reaches, caused important changes in channel morphology and sediment distribution and was able to move boulders up to 1 m in diameter in downstream reaches.

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