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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That coarse sand is 1. a geologic term for a sand particle having a diameter in the range of 0.5-1 mm (500-1000 microns, or 1 to zero phi units.) 2. an engineering term for a sand particle having a diameter in the range of 2 mm. 3. a soil term used in the u.s. for a sand particle having a diameter in the range of 0.5-1 mm (the diameter range recognized by the international society of soil science is 0.2-2 mm).?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for philippines (Keyword) returned 11 results for the whole karstbase:
Spiders from the Philippines. I. A new cavernicolous Althepus of Mindanao Island (Araneae, Ochyroceratidae)., 1973, Brignoli Paolo Marcello
Althepus noonadanae n.sp. is described (female; male unknown; loc. typ.: Latuan Cave, Curuan district, Mindanao, Philippines); it can be distinguished from the other known species by the morphology of the chelicerae and of the female genitalia. It is not related to any of the very few described species. A key for the female Althepus is given.

Spiders from the Philippines. I. A new cavernicolous Althepus of Mindanao Island (Araneae, Ochyroceratidae)., 1973, Brignoli Paolo Marcello
Althepus noonadanae n.sp. is described (female; male unknown; loc. typ.: Latuan Cave, Curuan district, Mindanao, Philippines); it can be distinguished from the other known species by the morphology of the chelicerae and of the female genitalia. It is not related to any of the very few described species. A key for the female Althepus is given.

STRESS ON TROPICAL KARST CULTIVATED WITH WET RICE - BOHOL, PHILIPPINES, 1993, Urich P. B. ,
Wet rice cultivation represents one of the most intensive uses of tropical karst. Under wet field conditions karstlands can be highly resilient, but nevertheless vulnerable to change. The karst environment in this study has been cultivated for at least five centuries. However, the post-World War II era has fostered a host of pressures that have altered the local ecology. Resulting stress in the irrigation systems and society threaten the maintenance of this viable karst-based agricultural economy

The use of alkalinity as a conservative tracer in a study of near-surface hydrologic change in tropical karst, 1999, Chandler Dg, Bisogni Jj,
Water shortages commonly increase in frequency following forest clearance on lauds overlying karst in the tropics. The mechanism underlying this hydrologic change is likely to depend on the land use which follows forest cover. To determine the flow paths which prevail for a progression of land uses common to the uplands of Leyte, Philippines, samples of interflow were collected during the rainy season and titrated to determine their alkalinities. The ratio of the measured alkalinity to the value predicted by equilibrium calculations for each sample was used as an indication of the contact time of the water with the limestone. The responses of the alkalinity saturation ratio and the runoff depth to increasing rainfall depth were used to substantiate the hypothesis that epikarst infilling and changing soil structure create throttles to percolation and infiltration. The forest site was found to generate interflow primarily as pipe how, with the infiltration and percolation throttles rarely exceeded. Similarly, infiltration was not: limiting for the slash/mulch Site, however, level of soil disturbance was adequate to initiate a throttle at the epikarst which increased the volume of interflow generated. The total percolation was similar for the plowed and slash/mulch sites; however, the interflow was decreased at the plowed site by reduced infiltration at the soil surface. The throttles to surface infiltration and epikarst percolation were even greater at the pasture sites, resulting in high runoff generation. However, comparatively greater infiltration was observed in the pasture having contour-hedgerows. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Symposium Abstract: An assessment of karst protection in the Philippines, 2004, Day M, Restificar S. , Urich P.

Protection of Karst in the Philippines., 2006, Restificar S. D. F. , Day M. J. , Urich P. B.
The article presents an overview of the current status of karst protection in the Philippines. Prior studies indicate that of the 35,000km2 of karst landscape in the country, about 29% is protected . However, protection of karst has not to date been a priority of the Philippine government, and the country has no existing legislation that is directly decreed for protection and conservation of karstlands. Most contemporary karst protection is indirect, in that the karst is located within protected areas established for other, although often related reasons, such as ecological conservation, water supply protection and tourism. However, it appears that the Philippine government is gradually recognizing explicitly the need to protect karst landscapes. The establishment of the National Caves and Cave Resources Management and Protection Act in 2001 and the inclusion of karst water resources in the countrys National Action Plan (NAP) under the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) are significant steps towards explicit protection of karst areas. Although the existing legislation only addresses specific facets of karst landscape, it may stimulate additional programs and legislation that will more broadly protect karst landscapes nationally. Philippines, karst, caves, protected areas, environmental legislation

Reversibility of forest conversion impacts on water budgets in tropical karst terrain, 2006, Chandler Dg,
A conceptual model of the control of tropical land use and vegetative cover on bedrock recharge is developed for highly permeable geologic substrates. A case study of water budgets is then developed from field data and simple modeling for upland sites with three different vegetative covers (cropland, intensively grazed pasture and forest regrowth) in Leyte, Philippines. Water budget model results show that annual precipitation is divided primarily between evapotranspiration and overland flow for the pasture, but apportioned more to evapotranspiration and inputs to bedrock storage for the crop and forest sites. Modeled evapotranspiration from the forest (1906 mm) was not sufficiently greater than that for either the crop (1661 mm) or pasture (1476 mm) sites to offset the greater overland flow from those sites. The differences in overland flow are related to depth profiles of soil bulk density, which decreased between crop and forest and increased between crop and pasture, and drainable porosity, which increased between crop and forest and decreased between crop and pasture. Dry season streamflow is assumed to be primarily base flow and dependent on wet season bedrock recharge, which was dramatically lower for the pasture (106 mm) than for the crop (1134 mm) or forest covers (1320 mm), for 2946 mm of rainfall. The results support the premise that for landscapes with adequate storage in bedrock fractures, forest regrowth can increase recharge to perched aquifers, and hence dry season baseflow, relative to cropping and that dramatic reductions in overland flow and increases in dry season baseflow may be achieved by reforestation of compacted pastures. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Hhlen im Mount Guimba, Bohol, Philippinen, 2009, Menne B. , Geppert T.
Mount Guimba, Bohol, in the Philippines, hosts an interesting array of caves that are used in a variety of ways by the local people. In cooperation with local cave guides, we surveyed the most important caves and investigated biospeleological aspects. Of special interest was the identification of a local endemic subspecies of the Whip Spider Charon grayi (Bohol). The local utilization of the caves and Karst of Bohol illustrates how conflicts with conservation can easily arise in countries with limited resources.

Atlas of the Great Caves and the Karst of Southeast Asia , 2010,

Each country is presented in detail including topographic and karst occurrence maps as well as a description of the geological settings, the history of speleological exploration, a detailed list of the longest and deepest caves (incl. surveys), a list of useful addresses and an in-depth bibliography. Some countries also have maps showing the administrative divisions and other relevant thematic maps.
 


A Mysterious Karst: the Chocolate Hills of Bohol (Philippines) , 2011, Salomon, Jeannol

A public showcase by the Philippine tourism authorities, and rightly so, are the “Chocolate Hills” of Bohol (Philippines), the strangest karst landform known. These numerous residual re­lief forms are so perfectly symmetrical that, in order to explain their existence, natural explanations are systematically sidelined by legends, myths and many so-called “scientific” explanations. The object of many television broadcasts related to travel, these karst hills are a particularly original example of mogotes tropi­cal karst; their almost “perfect” aspect had intrigued those who have studied their formation and have given birth to many hypotheses. The genesis of the “Chocolate Hills” is due to the emergence of the Pliocene limestone coralline platform, then to its karstification in a particularly homogeneous tropical cli­mate conditions: rainfall, temperature, wind, pedologic and vegetable covers. In other aspects, their good overall porosity explains their mass impregnation by the runoffs as well as the appearance of important aquifers, exploited for the develop­ment of irrigated rice fields. Karst models are present, notably the caves and underground networks of which very few have been explored. Finally this original context (insularity, virgin tropical forest undisturbed for a long time) permitted the sus­tainability of a particularly original endemic fauna including the famous Bohol tarsier. In June 1998 the “Chocolate Hills” were declared the National Geologic Monument and this na­tional park definitely merits a visit.


The influence of light attenuation on the biogeomorphology of a marine karst cave: A case study of Puerto Princesa Underground River, Palawan, the Philippines, 2015, Coombes Martin A. , La Marca Emanuela C. , Naylor Larissa A. , Piccini Leonardo, De Waele Jo, Sauro Francesco

Karst caves are unique biogeomorphological systems. Cave walls offer habitat for microorganisms which in-turn have a geomorphological role via their involvement in rock weathering, erosion and mineralisation. The attenuation of light with distance into caves is known to affect ecology, but the implications of this for biogeomorphological processes and forms have seldom been examined. Here we describe a semi-quantitative microscopy study comparing the extent, structure, and thickness of biocover and depth of endolithic penetration for samples of rock from the Puerto Princesa Underground River system in Palawan, the Philippines, which is a natural UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Organic growth at the entrance of the cave was abundant (100% occurrence) and complex, dominated by phototrophic organisms (green microalgae, diatoms, cyanobacteria, mosses and lichens). Thickness of this layer was 0.28 ± 0.18 mm with active endolith penetration into the limestone (mean depth = 0.13 ± 0.03 mm). In contrast, phototrophs were rare 50 m into the cave and biofilm cover was significantly thinner (0.01 ± 0.01 mm, p b 0.000) and spatially patchy (33% occurrence). Endolithic penetration here was also shallower (b0.01mm, p b 0.000) and non-uniform. Biofilm was found 250 m into the cave, but with a complete absence of phototrophs and no evidence of endolithic bioerosion.

We attribute these findings to light-induced stress gradients, showing that the influence of light on phototroph abundance has knock-on consequences for the development of limestone morphological features. In marine caves this includes notches, which were most well-developed at the sheltered cave entrance of our study site, and for which variability in formation rates between locations is currently poorly understood.


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