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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That opal is a cave mineral - sio2.nh2o [11].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for plankton (Keyword) returned 14 results for the whole karstbase:
A survey of the physiochemical characteristics and the zooplankton communities in an ephemeral karst lake, 2000, Kelley Randall, Jack Jeffrey, Fant Michael,

Karst groundwater connections in the valley of the Seven Triglav Lakes, 2000, Brancelj Anton, Urbanc Janko

Results of a tracing test in the high mountain lake of Jezero v Ledvici (Triglav Lakes area) are presented. The tracing experiment proved hydraulic connections between lakes Jezero v Ledvici, Močivec and Dvojno jezero. The article also deals with a comparison of the faunistic and floristic characteristics of the Triglav lakes. The occurrence of biotic species in different lakes is not very similar. No clear explanation for this phenomenon was found up to now, so further investigations of this system are proposed.

Last glacial-Holocene paleoceanography of the Black Sea and Marmara Sea: stable isotopic, foraminiferal and coccolith evidence, 2002, Aksu Ae, Hiscott Rn, Kaminski Ma, Mudie Pj, Gillespie H, Abrajano T, Yasar D,
Multi-proxy data and radiocarbon dates from several key cores from the Black Sea and Marmara Sea document a complex paleoceanographic history for the last ~30[punctuation space]000 yr. The Marmara Sea was isolated from both the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea during glacial periods when global sea-level lowering subaerially exposed the shallow sills at the Straits of Bosphorus and Dardanelles (i.e. lake stage), and reconnected through both straits during interglacial periods, when rise of global sea level breached the shallow sills (i.e. gateway stage). Micropaleontological data show that during the `lake stage' the surface-water masses in both the Marmara Sea and Black Sea became notably brackish; however, during the `gateway stages' there was a low-salinity surface layer and normal marine water mass beneath. Two sapropel layers are identified in the Marmara Sea cores: sapropels M2 and M1 were deposited between ~29.5 and 23.5 ka, and ~10.5 and 6.0 ka, respectively. Micropaleontological and stable isotopic data show that the surface-water salinities were reduced considerably during the deposition of both sapropel layers M2 and M1, and calculation using planktonic foraminiferal transfer functions shows that sea-surface temperatures were notably lower during these intervals. The presence of fauna and flora with Black Sea affinities and the absence of Mediterranean fauna and flora in sapropels M1 and M2 strongly suggest that communication existed with the Black Sea during these times. A benthic foraminiferal oxygen index shows that the onset of suboxic conditions in the Marmara Sea rapidly followed the establishment of fully marine conditions at ~11-10.5 ka, and are attributed to Black Sea outflow into the Marmara Sea since 10.5 ka. These suboxic conditions have persisted to the present. The data discussed in this paper are completely at odds with the `Flood Hypothesis' of Ryan et al. (1997), and Ryan and Pitman (1999)

Transfer of bacteria-contaminated particles in a karst aquifer: evolution of contaminated materials from a sinkhole to a spring, 2003, Dussartbaptista L, Massei N, Dupont Jp, Jouenne T,
The transport of particle-associated bacteria during rain events in karst waters has been investigated. In this aim, we studied the correlations between water turbidity and enumerations of sessile (attached) and planktonic (non-attached) bacteria. We monitored physicochemical, i.e. turbidity, electrical conductivity, size and nature of the transported particles, and bacteriological properties of waters since their infiltration on a karst plateau to their discharge at a karstic spring. Results showed a decrease of the concentration of sessile bacteria at the sinkhole for high turbidities. This phenomenon might be explained by the arrival of lower contaminated material. On the other hand, the amount of sessile bacteria at the spring was not influenced by the turbidity values. These data demonstrated that slightly contaminated larger particles were not recovered, whereas small-size particles, which exhibited a higher bacterial contamination, were directly transferred (i.e. not affected by intra-karstic deposition) through the aquifer. Our study highlighted some significant differences between the bacteriological time series at the sinkhole and at the spring, which characterizes the storage/resuspension function of the considered karst system. Moreover, we show a decrease of the concentration of planktonic bacteria after transport through the system whereas no reduction of the sessile population occur-red. The present data confirm that turbidity does not constitute a good indicator for bacterial contamination: if high turbidity corresponds to high bacterial contamination, low turbidity does not systematically exclude a risk of contamination by sessile organisms. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Colonization by aerobic bacteria in karst: Laboratory and in situ experiments, 2004, Personne J. C. , Poty F. , Mahler B. J. , Drogue C. ,
Experiments were carried out to investigate the potential for bacterial colonization of different substrates in karst aquifers and the nature of the colonizing bacteria. Laboratory batch experiments were performed using limestone and PVC as substrates, a natural bacterial isolate and a known laboratory strain (Escherichia coli [E. coli]) as inocula, and karst ground water and a synthetic formula as growth media. In parallel, fragments of limestone and granite were submerged in boreholes penetrating two karst aquifers for more than one year; the boreholes are periodically contaminated by enteric bacteria from waste water. Once a month, rock samples were removed and the colonizing bacteria quantified and identified. The batch experiments demonstrated that the natural isolate and E. coli both readily colonized limestone surfaces using karst ground water as the growth medium. In contrast, bacterial colonization of both the limestone and granite substrates, when submerged in the karst, was less intense. More than 300 bacterial strains were isolated over the period sampled, but no temporal pattern in colonization was seen as far as strain, and colonization by E. coli was notably absent, although strains of Salmonella and Citrobacter were each observed once. Samples suspended in boreholes penetrating, highly fractured zones were less densely colonized than those in the borehole penetrating a less fractured zone. The results suggest that contamination of karst aquifers by enteric bacteria is unlikely to be persistent. We hypothesize that this may be a result of the high flow velocities found in karst conduits, and of predation of colonizing bacteria by autochthonous zooplankton

Sequence Biostratigraphy of Prograding Clinoforms, Northern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia: A Proxy for Variations in Oligocene to Pliocene Global Sea Level?, 2004, Moss Graham D. , Cathro Donna L. , Austin James A. Jr. ,
Sequence biostratigraphic analyses from five industry wells in the Northern Carnarvon Basin (NCB), Western Australia, are tied to seismic stratigraphic interpretations from a set of 3D and 2D seismic data. Distribution patterns of [~]286 benthic and 73 planktonic foraminiferal taxa in sidewall cores and ditch cuttings from Eocene to Pliocene intervals are documented and supplemented with observations of other fossil groups (e.g., fragments of ostracodes, bryozoans, corals, and mollusks) and lithological components such as calcite cement and quartz sand. Preservation of foraminiferal assemblages is extremely variable in latest Eocene to Pliocene stratigraphy, depending upon the location of wells and the interval investigated. Nonetheless, consistent, detectable faunal signals correlate between wells and with prominent seismic horizons and sequences. The late Oligocene to middle Miocene is characterized by deeper-water benthic assemblages dominated by infaunal taxa and a high planktonic abundance. Stratigraphic events in the middle Miocene, including turnover in benthic foraminifera, are interpreted to record a regional flooding event (equivalent to cycle Tejas B (TB) 2.3) at the beginning of the mid-Miocene climatic optimum ([~]16-14.5 Ma). Following this event, seismically defined geomorphic features include karstification on the shelf and incision on the clinoform front. All wells show a major transition to shallow-water, warm conditions on the shelf in the middle and late Miocene, with benthic assemblages dominated by larger foraminifera. This transition appears higher in more-basinward wells and appears to be a result of progradation. Geomorphic features in the late middle Miocene ([~]12 Ma) identified from 3D seismic analyses show an intensification of earlier gully formation, resulting in the development of submarine canyons. Detailed analyses of faunal patterns also provide evidence of higher-frequency sea-level fluctuations (0.5-3 Ma), not detected in the seismic stratigraphic patterns

Late glacial to Holocene climate and sedimentation history in the NW Black Sea, 2005, Bahr A, Lamy F, Arz H, Kuhlmann H, Wefer G,
Gravity cores from the continental slope in the northwestern Black Sea were studied using high-resolution stable isotope, grain size and XRF-scanning data. The measurements provide a 30 000 years AMS 14C-dated record of variations in the hydrological regime of the Black Sea and give insight into changing paleoenvironments in the surrounding areas. Stable climatic conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum were followed by a series of meltwater pulses most likely originating from the Scandinavian ice sheet between 18 000 and 15 500 yr BP.1 This meltwater input rose the level of the Caspian Sea to a point that Caspian water could spill into the Black Sea via the Manych-depression north of the Caucasian mountains. High-frequency oscillations in the XRF-data during this period suggest a probable link to the arctic climate regime. Later, during the Bolling/Allerod and the early Holocene, prevailing high temperatures led to authigenic calcite precipitation through increased phytoplankton activity, interrupted by the Younger Dryas and the '8200 yr BP cold event' with dominant clastic sedimentation

Sensitivity of ancient Lake Ohrid to local anthropogenic impacts and global warming, 2006, Matzinger A. , Spirkovski Z. , Patceva S. , Wuest A. ,
Human impacts on the few ancient lakes of the world must be assessed, as any change can lead to an irreversible loss of endemic communities. In such an assessment, the sensitivity of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania; surface area A = 358 km(2), volume V = 55 km(3), > 200 endemic species) to three major human impacts-water abstraction, eutrophication, and global warming-is evaluated. It is shown that ongoing eutrophication presents the major threat to this unique lake system, even under the conservative assumption of an increase in phosphorus (P) concentration from the current 4.5 to a potential future 9 mg P m(-3). Eutrophication would lead to a significant reduction in light penetration, which is a prerequisite for endemic, deep living plankton communities. Moreover, a P increase to 9 mg P m(-3) would create deep water anoxia through elevated oxygen consumption and increase in the water column stability due to more mineralization of organic material. Such anoxic conditions would severely threaten the endemic bottom fauna. The trend toward anoxia is further amplified by the predicted global warming of 0.04 degrees C yr(-1), which significantly reduces the frequency of complete seasonal deep convective mixing compared to the current warming of 0.006 degrees C yr(-1). This reduction in deep water exchange is triggered by the warming process rather than by overall higher temperatures in the lake. In contrast, deep convective mixing would be even more frequent than today under a higher temperature equilibrium, as a result of the temperature dependence of the thermal expansivity of water. Although water abstraction may change local habitats, e.g., karst spring areas, its effects on overall lake properties was shown to be of minor importance

Reconstruction of the paleoenvironmental changes around the Miocene-Pliocene boundary along a West-East transect across the Mediterranean, 2006, Pierre Catherine, Caruso Antonio, Blancvalleron Marie Madeleine, Rouchy Jean Marie, Orzsagsperber Fabienne,
In order to reconstruct the environmental changes at the end of the Messinian salinity crisis, a multidisciplinary study has been carried out with a high sampling resolution of the late Messinian-early Zanclean (Zone MPl 1) sediments along a West-East Mediterranean transect. The studied examples comprise sections from southern Spain (Vera/Almanzora), Balearic Basin (ODP Site 975), Tyrrhenian Basin (ODP Site 974), Sicily (Eraclea Minoa), Zakynthos (Kalamaki), Corfu (Aghios Stefanos), Crete (Aghios Vlasis). Previously analyzed sections from the Levantine Basin (Cyprus and ODP Sites 968 and 969) are used for comparison. The sections have been correlated using planktonic foraminiferal assemblages, sedimentological and stable isotope variations, and compared to the astronomical cyclicity defined in the Miocene-Pliocene boundary stratotype of Eraclea Minoa, Sicily. Variations of CaCO3 content, stable isotopes of carbonates ([delta]18O, [delta]13C), and foraminiferal assemblages indicate similar environmental transition at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary in all of the investigated sections.The latest Messinian deposits are barren of fossils or characterized by only reworked planktonic foraminifers, except for the sporadic presence of Ammonia tepida, brackish or lacustrine ostracods and brackish mollusks typical of the 'Lago-Mare' facies. The oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of carbonates usually exhibit large variations with dominantly low [delta] values indicating freshwater dilution. The earliest Pliocene (MPl 1, cycle 1) shows a rapid and progressive increase of the [delta]18O values, which indicates the restoration of marine conditions after the Lago-Mare event. Normal marine environments were definitely established and stabilized at the top of cycle 1.These data confirm that the inflow of marine waters occurred contemporaneously within the whole Mediterranean at the base of Pliocene, although stable marine conditions occurred only about 20[no-break space]kyrs later

Successive Paleocene and Eocene infillings of polyphase paleokarsts within the Cretaceous limestones of the Emporda thrust sheets (Catalan Pyrenees, Spain) : relationships between tectonics and karsti, 2007, Peybernes Bernard, Fondecavewallez Marie Jose, Combes Pierre Jean, Seranne Michel,
The Mesozoic series of the southern units of the Pyrenean Emporda thrust sheets (Montgri and Figueres nappes, Catalonia, Spain) were finally emplaced over the autochthonous basement and its Cenozoic cover during Eocene times. However, they have originally been folded by the 'Laramian' compressional event (Late Cretaceous/Early Paleocene), while they were still in their root zone more than 50 km to the N-NE. Postdating the Santonian, the emersion of the Cretaceous tectorogen induced karst formation at the expense of Berriasian to Santonian limestone sequences. Karst cavities of this paleokarst 1 (lapiaz and canyons) were subsequently coated with a fine, red or black, Microcodium-bearing, continental silt, and infilled with marine chaotic breccias. Following a new episode of emersion then erosion, the original paleokarst 1 was cross-cut by newly formed cavities of the paleokarst 2, filled with Lutetian-Bartonian marine breccias. Both types of marine breccias (Paleocene then Eocene in age) are now relatively well dated by means of planktonic foraminifera (Globigerinacea) occurring within the argillaceous-sandy matrix, and for the older ones, within the argillaceous-sandy or carbonate, finely laminated, interbedded hemipelagites, that mark the top of marine sequences tens of centimetres thick. The relationships of the 'Laramian' and 'Pyrenean' compressional tectonic events, occurring from latest Cretaceous to Bartonian, with the development of paleokarsts 1 and 2 are analysed in the perspective of the progressive southwards emplacement of the Montgri thrust sheet, during Eocene time

Development of a Specific Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay to Monitor Chlorella DNA: A Case Study from Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, USA , 2011, Fowler, Richard F.

Estimates of phytoplankton abundance are important parameters
watched by stewards of water quality and freshwater ecology in rivers, streams, and reservoirs. A targeted phytoplankton assay
for Chlorella DNA was developed to estimate the abundance of the predominant species of green algae in surface waters of Mammoth Cave National Park (MACA) in Kentucky, USA. The phytoplankton community in the Green River in MACA has been shown to consist of 95% Chlorella sp. (Wullschlegger et al., 2003). Chlorella 18S rRNA gene sequences were amplified and quantified using Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR) with primers
specific for the family Chlorellaceae in the class Trebouxiophyceae,
order Chlorellales. Concentrations of Chlorella DNA in river water samples were measured by comparison to a standard curve generated by DNA extracted from a live laboratory culture of C. vulgaris. DNA isolated from other sources including bacteria,
amoebae, fungi, decapods, insects, cave sediment, and a different
green alga, Chlamydomonas, produced no PCR products and thus did not interfere with the detection and quantification of Chlorella DNA. The assay proved quantitative over more than four orders of magnitude with a method detection limit (MDL) of approximately 2.3 x104 cells/L. Presence or absence of Chlorella
DNA could be demonstrated at concentrations ten to 100 times lower than the calculated MDL. Chlorella was detected in lampenflora samples from three tourist trails, and Chlorella was absent from sediment samples off tourist trails that were known to contain high concentrations of bacterial DNA. Demonstration of the utility of the technique was illustrated by a case study in Mammoth Cave National Park to determine Chlorella concentrations
at various sampling sites of karst surface streams where invasive zebra mussels are a threat to native species.

Observations on the biology of the endangered stygobiotic shrimp Palaemonias alabamae, with notes on P. ganteri (Decapoda: Atyidae), 2011, Martha Cooper, John Cooper

Palaemonias alabamae is endemic to subterranean waters in northern Alabama. Its type locality is Shelta Cave, Madison County, and ostensibly conspecifi c shrimps have been found in Bobcat and two other caves. Pollution and other factors may have extirpated the shrimp from the type locality. In Shelta Cave the species is smaller than the shrimp in Bobcat Cave and P. ganteri in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. Adult female P. alabamae(s.s.) and P. ganteri are larger than males. Female P. alabamae with visible oocytes or, rarely, attached ova, were observed from July through January in Shelta Cave. Each female there produces 8 to 12 large ova, whereas females of the population in Bobcat Cave produce 20 to 24 ova, and P. ganteri produces 14 to 33 ova. Plankton samples taken in Shelta and Mammoth caves yielded nothing identifi able as zoea or postlarvae.Palaemonias alabamae and P. ganteri usually feed by fi ltering bottom sediments through their mouthparts, but both sometimes feed upside down at the water’s surface. Although there is some overlap, the compositions of the aquatic communities in Shelta and Mammoth caves differ, and there are some major differences among the Alabama shrimp caves. The stygobiotic fi sh, Typhlichthys subterraneus, is a known predator on P. alabamae in Shelta Cave.



Marl lakes are those accumulating fine-grained bottom sediments that include at least 15% CaCO3. They are found worldwide. The most visually attractive, however, have higher proportions of CaCO3, with crystallites precipitating in the water to give it a rich and opaque duck-egg blue colouration. From the literature, such lakes are largely limited to recently glaciated carbonate rock terrains. Most are also shallow, with much or all of the water column being in the photic zone. Little Limestone Lake, (Lat. 53°47’N, Long. 99°19’W in the province of Manitoba) is the finest example that the author has seen. It stands out sharply from neighbouring lakes in summertime colour satellite imagery due to the intensity and uniformity of its colour. The lake occupies a shallow glacial trough scoured in a plain of flat-lying cyclothem dolomites. It is ~12 km long, 1–5 km wide, rarely >7 m deep. Including bordering wetlands, it occupies ~45 % of the area of an elongated, narrow topographic basin. Recharge is through impoverished boreal forest with little soil cover; it discharges chiefly as springs and seeps along and below the shore. Mean annual temperature is ~0 °C, and precipitation is ~475 mm.y1. Previous studies of springs in the surrounding region showed ground waters to be simple bicarbonate composition, with TDS = 230–300 mg.l-1 (Ca 40–60 mg.l-1, Mg 30–40 mg.l-1). Grab sampling at 27 sites throughout the lake found the waters de-gassed to 125–135 mg.l-1, placing them in the mid-range of one hundred marl lakes investigated in more detail in the British Isles. Ca was reduced to 25–30 mg.l-1, while Mg was stable at 30–40 mg.l-1. There were 2–3 mg.l-1 of free CO3 in two fully analysed samples, indicating that plankton photosynthesis might be occurring. However, samples of the bottom marl were predominantly inorganic in their composition. Little Limestone Lake is visually spectacular because it is almost entirely groundwater-fed, with a ratio of recharge area to lake area that is low. It has no large, chemically equilibrated, surface streams entering it. In contrast, the dozens of nearby lakes (similar, larger or smaller in size) are regularly flushed by channelled storm water and, although they also produce some carbonate marl, cannot maintain high densities of crystallites in suspension. Little Limestone Lake was placed under legislated protection as a provincial park in June 2011.

Aquatic biota of different karst habitats in epigean and subterranean systems of Central Brazil visibility versus relevance of taxa, 2013, Luiza Bertelli Simes, Tnia Cristina Dos Santos Ferreira, Maria Elina Bichuette

The karstic area of São Domingos, central Brazil, holds extensive drainage systems. In order to understand its biodiversity, various volumes of water were filtered with planktonic nets in stretches of subterranean and superficial rivers on five different occasions. We sampled four drips (152L), three calcite pools (368L), two subterranean rivers fed mainly by percolation water (6, 395L), two subterranean rivers fed mainly by water coming from a sinkhole (4, 175L) along different caves, one resurgence (158L), and four epigean rivers (101, 690L). Physical and chemical variables were measured at some sites. Canonical Correlation Analysis was used to verify relationships between taxa and environment. The degree of similarity of the biota was assessed by cluster analysis (Sorensen, single linkage). There were records of exclusive taxa in epigean and subterranean samples, mainly in drips, which harbour the most unique fauna. The high richness of taxa presently recorded reveals the potential of the vadose zone biota in the tropical region, which was neglected in studies on Brazilian subterranean biodiversity. According to our results, the unsaturated zone tropical fauna may have different composition compared to that from temperate habitats. The studied communities were dominated by rotifers, while crustacean are predominant in the latter. The hypothesis can be clarified with the increase of long term studies and taxa identification at species level, besides the use of complementary sampling methods.

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