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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That tufa is soft, porous concretions of carbonate reprecipitated from saturated karst water, often around plants [22]. see also sinter; travertine.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for poland. (Keyword) returned 9 results for the whole karstbase:
Groundwater inhabitants in Poland., 1976, Skalski Andrzej
This paper states the present progress achieved in research regarding the ground-water fauna of Poland.

Periglacial waters within the Muschelkalk aquifer in southern Poland. [in Polish], 1993, R?kowski, Andrzej

Caves of High Mountains in Poland, 1999, Klarenbach, Tomasz

Mountains of alpine origin - Tatra Mts. cover only small part of Poland. Karstified rocks occur in Western Tatra Mts. and cover ca. 50 km2. Within this small area 600 caves are known, the longest and deepest in Poland among them. Three caves are over 10 km long and 15 over 1 km long. There are three caves with denivelation over 500 m and 14 over 100 m. Recent intensive exploration has resulted in the discovery of many new cave galleries. Most important cave in Tatra Mts. is Wielka Ânie›na - Litworowa Cave System (814 m of denivelation and over 20 km long), the deepest and longest cave in Poland. Caves are grouped mostly in the upper part of the Polish Western Tatra Mts., and are of different genetical type and age. Parts of them are of preglacial origin or were transformed by glacial water in Pleistocene.

Detection of an airflow system in Niedzwiedzia (Bear) Cave, Kletno, Poland, 2003, Pflitsch, A. , Piasecki, J.
Analyses of radon gas tracer measurements and observation of the variability of thermal structures have long been thought to indicate the presence of weak air currents in Niedzwiedzia (Bear) Cave, Kletno, Poland. However, only after ultrasonic anemometers were installed could different circulation systems of varying origin and the expected air movements be observed by direct measurement. This paper presents: a) the different methods applied in order to determine the weakest air currents both directly and indirectly; b) a summary of hypotheses on the subject; and c) the first results that air indeed moves in so-called static areas and that visitors affect both cave airflow and temperature. First results show that even in so-called static caves or within corresponding parts of cave systems, the term static has to be regarded as wrong with respect to the air currents as no situation where no air movements took place could be proven so far within the caves. Moreover, the influence of passing tourist groups on the cave climate could unequivocally be identified and demonstrated.

Groundwater vulnerability map of the Chrzanow karst-fissured Triassic aquifer (Poland), 2003, Witkowski A. J. , Rubin K. , Kowalczyk A. , Rozkowski A. , Wrobel J. ,
A map shows intrinsic vulnerability to pollution of the Chrzanow karst-fissured aquifer (273 km(2)) in the southern part of Poland. This aquifer is intensively drained by numerous intakes and Zn-Pb ore mines. A DRASTIC-type parametric system was applied for groundwater vulnerability evaluation. Vulnerability assessment is based on six factors (depth to groundwater table, lithology of the unsaturated zone, net recharge, hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer, groundwater flow velocity, aquifer thickness). For the final vulnerability map construction at the scale of 1:50,000, a combination of the aquifer simulation model (using MODFLOW) and a geographical information system was applied. Maps of the net recharge, hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer and groundwater flow velocity were derived by aquifer modelling. Based on the vulnerability index (21-182), six relative vulnerability classes were selected. Reliability of the map has been verified

INVESTIGATIONS REGARDING BEAR CAVE MASSIF (LOWER SILESIA) LONG-TERM STABILITy, 2008, M?kolski Krzysztof, Caco? Stefan Jamroz, Olgierd, Ko?k Blahoslav & Kacza?ek Miros?aw
Bear Cave under Mt nienik is located near the Lower Silesian Village of Kletno in a wider tectonic fault zone of Sudeten, Klodzko Valley, South Poland. Stability requirements along the visitors path in the cave called for permanent checks of possible rock movements in the massif, while mining operations in the neighbouring marble quarry represented major threat to cave stability. Precise levelling network for vertical movements in the cave and its vicinity was established about 20 years ago. Outside the cave in the Klenica River valley levelling traverses were crossing tectonic faults. Periodical measurements have been repeated since 1984. In the cave two fault zones of major risk have been checked also with TM-71 crack gauges and records have been taken with a month frequency. These two were the tectonic crack zones of the Water Corridor and the main fault structure of the cave found in the Cascade Alley. Fourteen years ago after finding that quarry blasts induced increased movements in the cave, quarry operations were stopped. Recently, gradual subsidence of some levelling bench-marks was observed, as well as some periods of increased micro-displacements on the tectonic crack zones. Such observations are discussed.

Sulphate speleothems in Pomorzany Zn-Pb ore mine, Southern Poland., 2008, Caba?a Jerzy, Bzowska Gra?yna

Karst of the Czestochowa Upland and of the Eastern Sudetes : palaeoenvironments and protection, 2009,


Karst phenomena consist mainly in dissolving of rock by water, with subsequent formation of underground voids. Studies on karst and caves are of extremely nterdisciplinary character; they are within the scope of interest of all the disciplines of earth sciences. Since caves provide permanent habitats or temporary shelter to many organisms including Palaeolithic man, they are of interest to biologists and archaeologists.

Because of its glacial history and geological structure, southern Poland offers a good opportunity to study all the karst-related phenomena. It holds two main, geographically remote karst areas of much different landscape: the Kraków- Częstochowa Upland and the Eastern Sudetes. Their caves are filled with sediments which document various phases of karst development in Poland, including Pleistocene glaciations, as well as changes in palaeoenvironments and faunal evolution. Many contain traces of occupancy by Palaeolithic man; the archaeological record found in some of them extends to modern times. The special significance of caves and karst areas – often the only places where traces of fossil environments and human occupancy are preserved – in Poland was recognised more than 150 years ago. Modern speleological studies in karst areas of Poland started in the 1940s with the wide ranging research of Kazimierz Kowalski - the inventory of caves and review of earlier studies (Kowalski K. 1951 & 1954 – Jaskinie Polski, Vol. 1-3). They triggered comprehensive and interdisciplinary cave studies by representatives of various disciplines. Much progress was made during the last twenty years. Numerous new caves were explored and studied with modern methods; cave sediments containing numerous faunal remains and artifacts were discovered, and earlier information on environmental changes and history of human occupancy could be verified. Despite the long-term and extensive research and exploration, either the studies in the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland nor those in the Eastern Sudetes were ever summarised. The data, though abundant, are scattered among many sources, mostly associated with particular scientific disciplines. This volume is an attempt at a comprehensive summary of the information on karst and karst-related phenomena in these two regions.

Since the 1950s many scientists have contributed enormously to the knowledge of various aspects of karst-related phenomena in Poland. Some of these pioneers of interdisciplinary karst studies have departed recently: Waldemar Chmielewski (archaeologist), Jerzy Głazek (geologist, speleologist), Kazimierz Kowalski (pa-laeontologist, speleologist), Stefan Kozłowski (geologist), Marian Pulina (geomorphologist, speleologist) and Teresa Wiszniowska (palaeontologist, speleologist). Thanks to their great passion and commitment, the interest in caves and karst of the Kraków-Częstochowa-Upland and Eastern Sudetes in the last fifty years has considerably increased.

Ascending speleogenesis of Sokola Hill: a step towards a speleogenetic model of the Polish Jura, 2011, Gradziń, Ski M. , Hercman H. , Kiciń, Ska D. , Pura D. , Urban J.

The paper deals with the origin of caves in Sokola Hill (Polish Jura). the caves abound in solution cavities in the walls and ceilings, many of them arranged hierarchically, some others arranged in rising sets. blind chimneys and ceiling half-tubes are also present. these features collectively indicate that the caves originated under phreatic conditions by an ascending flow of water, probably of elevated temperature. Phreatic calcite spar, crystallized from water of elevated temperature, lines the cave walls. during the formation of the caves the Jurassic limestone aquifer was confined by impermeable cover. three possible scenarios for the origin of the caves are suggested. the first scenario points to formation of the caves during the Palaeogene prior to the removal of the confining cretaceous marls. the second connects the origin of the caves with regional palaeoflow driven by tectonic loading by carpathian nappes to the south, while the third refers to local topographically driven palaeoflow. both the second and third scenarios assume that the Polish Jura had a cover of Miocene impermeable clastics. All the scenarios account for the origin of the caves in Sokola Hill and explain the common occurrence of ascending caves throughout the Polish Jura.

In the subsequent stages of evolution the caves were partly filled with various deposits. conglomerates composed of Jurassic limestone clasts, quartz sands and sandstones are preserved as erosional remnants, locally covered by or interfingered with calcite flowstones. the clastic deposits were laid down by surface streams that invaded the caves earlier than 1.2 Ma. the caves were not invaded by water from Pleistocene glaciers, which is proved by the assemblage of heavy minerals in the cave clastics.

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