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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That mold is a microscopic form of fungus responsible for much food spoilage and, in caves, for conspicuous tufts quickly covering scats, dead insects and bats, and even wooden structures such as ladders [23].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for protection zones (Keyword) returned 23 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 23
The use of groundwater tracers for assessment of protection zones around water supply boreholes - a case study., 1997, Ward R. S. , Williams A. T. , Chadha D. S.

The use of groundwater tracers for assessment of protection zones around water supply boreholes - a case study, 1997, Ward R. S. , Williamsa. T, Chadha D. S.

A modelling approach as an intermediate step for the study of protection zones in karstified limestones, 1997, Dassargues A. , Derouane J.

Results of a study about tracing tests transfer functions variability in karst environment, 1997, Doerfliger N.
Artificial tracing tests are often used to simulate migration of a point-source contaminant under various hydrological conditions in karst hydrogeological impact assessment or to define groundwater protection zones. Due to economic reasons, it is rather difficult to carry out adequate tracing tests to determine what are the possible recovery curves over range of discharges at the outlet, are the tracer test results representative of the spring watercatchment being protected ? Our objective was to characterize the tracing-systems in a karst environment by a mean transfer function; such transfer function may be used to predict the breakthrough curve of a point-source contaminant taking into account an error factor. A Jura mean transfer function with + and -95% interval confidence functions can be established and differentiated from the Alps mean transfer function. The use of this transfer function to predict the response of a point-source contaminant requires considerations of water catchment size, thickness or the aquifer and discharge at the outlet. The results of this variability analysis confirm that the transfer functions by themselves may not be used to protect the whole karst spring water catchment, as this one is affected by the heterogeneity of the physical parameters. At the scale of a water catchment, transfer functions are not the major tool to protect the groundwater. But with a multiattribute approach of vulnerability mapping, transfer functions contribute to the development of groundwater protection strategy.

EPIK, methode de cartographic de la vulnerabilite des aquiferes karstiques pour la delimitation des zones de protection., 1997, Doerfliger Nn. , Zwhalen F.
The EPIK method is a general multiattribute method used for the karst aquifer vulnerability mapping and to provide a base to assesss the groundwater protection zones in the karst environment. The goal of this method developed with the support of the Federal Officle for Environment, Forest and Landscape is to produce some vulnerability maps for karst spring watercatchments. According to the selected attributes, the obtained vulnerability zones can be a base to outline the groundwater protection zones. After having determined the spring watercatchment borderlines, we proceed in four steps: 1) mapping of the epikarst (geomorphological approach), 2) protective cover mapping, 3) infiltration conditions mapping and 4) characterization of the karst network development. Each of this attribute is subdivided in classes that are weightd by a theoretical coefficient. The four attributes maps are overlayed using a GIS and for each zone vulnerability degree is calculated; the resulting map is the vulnerability map. This method was tested in Switzerland on several sites .whose some results are here introduced.

Water vulnerability assessment in karst environments: a new method of defining protection areas using a multi-attribute approach and GIS tools (EPIK method), 1999, Doerfliger N, Jeannin Py, Zwahlen F,
Groundwater resources from karst aquifers play a major role in the water supply in karst areas in the world, such as in Switzerland. Defining groundwater protection zones in karst environment is frequently not founded on a solid hydrogeological basis. Protection zones are often inadequate and as a result they may be ineffective. In order to improve this situation, the Federal Office for Environment, Forests and Landscape with the Swiss National Hydrological and Geological Survey contracted the Centre of Hydrogeology of the Neuchatel University to develop a new groundwater protection-zones strategy in karst environment. This approach is based on the vulnerability mapping of the catchment areas of water supplies provided by springs or boreholes. Vulnerability is here defined as the intrinsic geological and hydrogeological characteristics which determine the sensitivity of groundwater to contamination by human activities. The EPIK method is a multi-attribute method for vulnerability mapping which takes into consideration the specific hydrogeological behaviour of karst aquifers. EPIK is based on a conceptual model of karst hydrological systems, which suggests considering four karst aquifer attributes: (1) Epikarst, (2) Protective cover, (3) Infiltration conditions and (4) Karst network development. Each of these four attributes is subdivided into classes which are mapped over the whole water catchment. The attributes and their classes are then weighted. Attribute maps are overlain in order to obtain a final vulnerability map. From the vulnerability map, the groundwater protection zones are defined precisely. This method was applied at several sites in Switzerland where agriculture contamination problems have frequently occurred. These applications resulted in recommend new boundaries for the karst water supplies protection-zones

Review of groundwater pollution and protection in karst areas, 1999, Kacaroglu F. ,
Karst groundwater (the water in a karst aquifer) is a major water resource in many regions of some countries. Water requirements for most of the settlements in the karstic regions are supplied from karst aquifers. Karst environments are also used for the disposal of liquid and solid domestic agricultural, and industrial wastes, which result in karst groundwater pollution. Karst aquifers have specific hydraulic and hydrogeologic characteristics that render them highly vulnerable to pollution from human activities. Karst groundwater becomes polluted more easily and in shorter time periods than water in non-karstic aquifers. Thus, protection measures are required to preserve the quality and quantity of karst groundwater that specifically consider the vulnerability of the karst environment. In order to preserve karst groundwater, the geological, hydrological and hydrogeological characteristics of the karst area must be investigated and information on polluting activities and sources must be collected. Then, a comprehensive protection and control system must be developed consisting of the following six components: (1) develop and implement a groundwater monitoring system, (2) establish critical protection zones, (3) develop proper land use strategies, (4) determine the reasonable development capacity of the karst aquifer, (5) control and eliminate when necessary sources of pollution, (6) increase public awareness of the value and vulnerability of karst aquifers

Delineation of source-protection zones for carbonate springs in the Bear River Range, northeastern Utah, 1999, Spangler L. E.

Groundwater protection zone delineation at a large karst spring in western Ireland, 2000, Deakin J,
Pouladower Spring is a large karst spring in County Clare, Ireland which is being considered for use as a public supply. Groundwater protection zones have been delineated as a water quality management strategy for the spring. The Irish national groundwater protection scheme methodology is adapted to take account of the hydrological and hydrogeological complexities of the karst regime. The catchment area for the spring is large (approximately 380 km2) and comprises the zones of contribution for two major outlets of water, the spring and the River Fergus. The actual zone of contribution to the spring varies with different water level conditions and the risk to the source from any point within the catchment, at any given time, is less than that for a conventional groundwater source. The catchment area is highly vulnerable, but dilution and sedimentation occurring in the lakes up gradient of the source, the high throughput, and the contribution from fissures outside the main flow conduits have helped maintain good water quality at the spring. The source is considered to be a combination of both groundwater and surface water as they are intricately inter-linked throughout the catchment. An Inner Protection Area is delineated which does not provide the 100-days travel time to the source required by the national scheme, as this would be impractically large and over-protective. Rather, it delineates the area of highest hydrogeological risk to the source and should allow the local authority sufficient time to act in the event of an accidental spill. A certain degree of microbial contamination is inevitable in a karst regime and treatment is essential, as it would be for a surface water source. The remainder of the catchment is classed as an Outer Protection Area. These protection areas are then combined with the vulnerability in a GIS to give groundwater protection zones which will be used by the planners, in conjunction with groundwater protection responses, to control potentially contaminating activities

Groundwater protection in a Celtic region: the Irish example, 2000, Misstear Bruce D. , Daly Donal,
One of the key environmental objectives of the proposed EU Water Framework Directive is that Member States must prevent the deterioration of groundwater quality. A national groundwater protection scheme for Ireland has been published recently. This scheme shows certain broad similarities to the groundwater protection policy for England and Wales, incorporating the concepts of groundwater vulnerability, source protection zones and responses to potentially polluting activities. However, the Irish scheme is different in several important respects, reflecting the different hydrogeological conditions and pollution concerns in Ireland. Some of these hydrogeological conditions and pollution concerns are common to the other Celtic regions. A major feature of the Irish scheme is the importance given to subsoil permeability in defining groundwater vulnerability. At present, the subsoil permeability is classified in qualitative terms as high, moderate or low. For the protection scheme to be defensible, it is essential to adopt a systematic and consistent approach for assigning subsoil units to these permeability categories. In mapping groundwater vulnerability, it is also useful to take account of secondary indicators such as groundwater recharge potential, natural and artificial drainage density and vegetation characteristics. Another important issue in Ireland is the protection of groundwater in karst areas, since these areas are especially vulnerable to contamination

Karst groundwater protection: the case of the Rijeka region, Croatia, 2000, Biondić, Bož, Idar

The problem of protection of water resources in the karst area of Croatia has been particularly acute for the last 30 years. Specific natural conditions under which the dynamics of groundwater is formed and developed were reasons for difficulties in preparation of uniform criteria of protection. Present experience makes it possible to establish a more organized approach to the problem. This applies, in particular, to the surroundings of the town Rijeka, where considerable funds were invested into research on new groundwater abstractions, but also toward their protection. In this paper the general approach to karst water protection in Croatia will be presented. This consists of an explanation of natural conditions, necessary research activities, general criteria and measures for protection, improvement of sanitary conditions in zones of high protection, design of new constructions in protection zones, urban planning and protection, etc. A part of the paper will be directed to the regulation procedure and organizational problems in such an active approach to karst water protection.


Vulnerability mapping in karst areas and its uses in Switzerland1, 2000, Tripet Jeanpierre, Doerfliger Nathalie, Zwahlen Franç, Ois, Delporte Cyril

A new approach for delineating protection zones in karst regions based upon vulnerability mapping of catchment areas is being developed at the Swiss National Hydrological and Geological Survey. Due to the particular hydrogeological characteristics of karst aquifers, specific protection measures are required. Protection zones in karst delineated on the basis of existing guidelines generally do not take into consideration hydrogeological factors, and therefore provide only limited efficiency. The newly proposed "EPIK" method is based on vulnerability mapping of the catchment area of the source, where various objective vulnerability factors are taken into consideration: epikarst (E), protective cover (P), infiltration conditions (I), and karstic network (K). A field application on the case of Saint-Imier pilot area is presented.


Karst aquifers vulnerability or sensitivity?, 2003, Kovač, Ič, Gregor, Ravbar Nataš, A

The concept of karst aquifer vulnerability mapping is commonly used for the determination of water protection zones and planning of land use in the background of the captured karst sources and wells. Several different methodologies for karst aquifer vulnerability mapping exist and the examination of scientific literature shows considerable variations in the definition of the term vulnerability. The authors suggest the distinction between the terms vulnerability and sensitivity of karst aquifers, since the former includes more information, which are required for efficient protection. The interpretation of the applied terms is founded on the conceptual background of the environmental vulnerability studies, which are declared with the Slovene 1993 Environmental Protection Act.


Vulnerability mapping in the recharge area of the Korentan spring, Slovenia, 2004, Petrič, Metka, Š, Ebela Stanka

Karst aquifers are very vulnerable to pollution due to well developed system of karst channels and fissures which enable fast groundwater flow and also fast transport of pollutants. An expert bases for their protection are vulnerability maps. Different methods for the construction of these maps were developed, and to assess the vulnerability of the recharge area of the Korentan spring near Postojna the EPIK method was used. In this method, which was many times successfully tested on karst, the degree of vulnerabilty is defined on the basis of four parameters: developement of the epikarst, effectiveness of the protective cover, infiltration conditions, and development of the karst network. For the assessment of individual parameters different research methods were used, such as detailed structural-lithological and geomorphological mapping, and combined analysis of hydraulic and physico-chemical responses of the spring to recharge events. Final result is the vulnerability map, which defines the areas of very high, high and moderate vulnerability within the recharge area of the Korentan spring and can be used to set up the protection zones.


Assessing the Vulnerability of a Municipal Well Field to Contamination in a Karst Aquifer, 2005, Renken R. A. , Cunningham K. J. , Zygnerski M. R. , Wacker M. A. , Shapiro A. M. , Harvey R. W. , Metge D. W. , Osborn C. L. , Ryan J. N. ,
Proposed expansion of extractive lime-rock mines near the Miami-Dade County Northwest well field and Everglades wetland areas has garnered intense scrutiny by government, public, environmental stakeholders, and the media because of concern that mining will increase the risk of pathogen contamination. Rock mines are excavated to the same depth as the well field's primary producing zone. The underlying karst Biscayne aquifer is a triple-porosity system characterized by (1) a matrix of interparticle porosity and separate vug porosity; (2) touching-vug porosity that forms preferred, stratiform passageways; and, less commonly, (3) conduit porosity formed by thin solution pipes, bedding-plane vugs, and cavernous vugs. Existing ground-water flow and particle tracking models do not provide adequate information regarding the ability of the aquifer to limit the advective movement of pathogens and other contaminants. Chemical transport and colloidal mobility properties have been delineated using conservative and microsphere-surrogate tracers for Cryptosporidium parvum. Forced-gradient tests were executed by introducing conservative tracers into injection wells located 100 m (328 ft) from a municipal-supply well. Apparent mean advective velocity between the wells is one to two orders of magnitude greater than previously measured. Touching-vug, stratiform flow zones are efficient pathways for tracer movement at the well field. The effective porosity for a continuum model between the point of injection and tracer recovery ranges from 2 to 4 percent and is an order of magnitude smaller than previously assumed. Existing well-field protection zones were established using porosity estimates based on specific yield. The effective, or kinematic, porosity of a Biscayne aquifer continuum model is lower than the total porosity, because high velocities occur along preferential flow paths that result in faster times of travel than can be represented with the ground-water flow equation. Tracer tests indicate that the relative ease of contaminant movement to municipal supply wells is much greater than previously considered

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