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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That exokarst is all features that may be found on a surface karst landscape, ranging in size between tiny karren forms and extensive projes, belong to the exokarst [9]. see also endokarst.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for radioactive decay (Keyword) returned 6 results for the whole karstbase:
Is it always dark in caves?, 2000, Badino Giovanni
Underground natural sources of visible light are considered. The main light producer is Cerenkov radiation emitted in air, water and rock by cosmic ray muons, that depends, in a complex way, on shape of mountain and of caves. In general the illumination increases linearly with the cavity dimensions. Other light sources are from secondary processes generated by radioactive decays in rock from minerals luminescence. The natural light fluxes in caves are in general easy to detect but are not used from underground life.

Pliocene-Pleistocene incision of the Green River, Kentucky, determined from radioactive decay of 26Al and 10Be in Mammoth Cave sediments., 2001, Granger D. E. , Fabel D. , Palmer A. N.

Pliocene-Pleistocene incision of the Green River, Kentucky, determined from radioactive decay of cosmogenic 26Al and 10Be in Mammoth Cave sediments, 2001, Granger Darryl E. , Fabel Derek, Palmer Arthur N. ,
Cosmogenic 26Al and 10Be in sediments washed into Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, record the history of 3.5 m.y. of water-table position, governed by incision and aggradation of the Green River, a tributary of the Ohio River. Upper levels of the cave formed during a period of slow river incision and were later filled with sediment due to river aggradation at 2.3-2.4 Ma. A brief surge of river incision ca. 2 Ma was followed by river stability and cave-passage formation at a lower level. Rapid incision through 15 m of bedrock ca. 1.5 Ma was prompted by repositioning of the Ohio River to its present course along an ice-sheet margin. Renewed incision ca. 1.2 Ma and aggradation at 0.7-0.8 Ma correlate with major ice advances in the Ohio River basin. Measurements of 26Al and 10Be also indicate that sandstone-capped uplands have maintained slow erosion rates of 2-7 m/m.y. for the past 3.5 m.y., despite accelerated Pleistocene river incision rates of [~]30 m/m.y

Carbon isotope exchange rate of DIC in karst groundwater, 2003, Gonfiantini R. , Zuppi G. M. ,
The kinetics of isotopic exchange between dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of groundwater and calcite of the matrix of karst aquifers of Cyrenaica, Libya, can, be deduced from C-13 and C-14 data. The aquifers are mostly confined, and the majority of the wells do not show any occurrence of modem recharge: in 1976-1980, in fact, the tritium content was below 1 tritium unit (TU) in most sites. Assuming that the isotopic exchange takes place through a first order reaction such as 14 C radioactive decay, it can be shown that a linear correlation occurs between lnA and ln(delta(M) - delta - epsilon(p)), where A is the C-14 activity, delta(M) and delta are the C-13 contents of matrix calcite and DIC, respectively, and epsilon(p) is the C-13 enrichment in CaCO3 precipitation. The slope of the correlation provides the half-life of the isotopic exchange process. For Cyrenaica karst groundwater, a half-life of about 11,000 years is obtained, i.e. about double that of C-14 radioactive decay. The isotopic exchange kinetics also depends on the ratio between groundwater volume and the calcite surface exposed to the exchange process. Thus, other aquifers will show different exchange half-life values. The Cretaceous chalk aquifers of the Paris Basin, France and Lagerdorf, Germany give a half-life of about 4000 years, much shorter than that of Cyrenaica, which may be due to the high porosity, i.e. to the large surface available for the isotope exchange process. The Berkshire Chalk aquifer, UK, gives a half-life of about 10,000 years. Much higher half-lives, above 20,000 years, are obtained for two sandy aquifers in Flevoland, The Netherlands, and Texas, USA, which could be explained by the low CaCO3 content of the aquifer matrix. The highest half-life value, about 40,000 years, is obtained in an artesian limestone aquifer in Florida, USA. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Uranium Series Dating of Speleothems, 2012, Sptl Christoph, Boch Ronny

Radioactive decay of uranium and thorium isotopes at constant rates provides a tool to determine the age of speleothems with high precision and accuracy. As with any dating method, a fundamental prerequisite is the lack of post-depositional alteration, that is, no gain or loss of isotopes within the decay chain of interest. Using state-of-the-art instrumentation, this method allows dating speleothems between essentially zero and ca. 600,000 years before present. Multiple age determinations are typically performed along the extension axis of a stalagmite to decipher its detailed growth history. Uranium series chronology of speleothems not only provides useful constraints on speleogenetic processes, but forms the backbone of the increasingly important scientific field using stalagmites (and less commonly flowstone) as paleoenvironmental archives.

Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, 2016, Rowberry Matt, Marti Xavi, Frontera Carlos, Van De Wiel Marco, Briestensky Milos

Cave radon concentration measurements reflect the outcome of a perpetual competition which pitches flux against ventilation and radioactive decay. The mass balance equations used to model changes in radon concentration through time routinely treat flux as a constant. This mathematical simplification is acceptable as a first order approximation despite the fact that it sidesteps an intrinsic geological problem: the majority of radon entering a cavity is exhaled as a result of advection along crustal discontinuities whose motions are inhomogeneous in both time and space. In this paper the dynamic nature of flux is investigated and the results are used to predict cave radon concentration for successive iterations. The first part of our numerical modelling procedure focuses on calculating cave air flow velocity while the second part isolates flux in a mass balance equation to simulate real time dependence among the variables. It is then possible to use this information to deliver an expression for computing cave radon concentration for successive iterations. The dynamic variables in the numerical model are represented by the outer temperature, the inner temperature, and the radon concentration while the static variables are represented by the radioactive decay constant and a range of parameters related to geometry of the cavity. Input data were recorded at Driny Cave in the Little Carpathians Mountains of western Slovakia. Here the cave passages have developed along splays of the NE-SW striking Smolenice Fault and a series of transverse faults striking NW-SE. Independent experimental observations of fault slip are provided by three permanently installed mechanical extensometers. Our numerical modelling has revealed four important flux anomalies between January 2010 and August 2011. Each of these flux anomalies was preceded by conspicuous fault slip anomalies. The mathematical procedure outlined in this paper will help to improve our understanding of radon migration along crustal discontinuities and its subsequent exhalation into the atmosphere. Furthermore, as it is possible to supply the model with continuous data, future research will focus on establishing a series of underground monitoring sites with the aim of generating the first real time global radon flux maps.

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