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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That water works is a plant where water is treated and prepared for municipal consumption [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for red river (Keyword) returned 7 results for the whole karstbase:
Prsentation des rgions karstiques du Vietnam, 1991, Khang, Pham
Tropical karst of Vietnam - The main karstic region of Vietnam cover a total surface of 50,000 km2 and are to be found almost exclusively in North Vietnam, that is to say in 1/5 of the territory. They are situated in the distinct zone conditioned by the Tertiary and Quaternary phases. The largest zones are situated in the Northern and Eastern parts of the country. The least karstified zone is the West and southwest of Hanoi. The flooded coastal region (Isle of Catba, Along Bay) belongs to the boarder of the subsidence zone of the Red River delta. Although the damp tropical monsoon climate has varied very little from the Neogene until today, the karstic landscapes and degrees of evolution differ in each area and can range from cone, pyramid, tower to pinnacle karsts.

Influence of tectonics and neotectonics on the morphogenesis of the peak karst of Halong Bay, Vietnam, 1999, Fenart P, Cat Nn, Drogue C, Van Canh D, Pistre S,
In northeast Vietnam, the karst of Halong Bay is characterized by very active neotectonics. The directional distribution of fracturing of the calcareous rocks is characterized by the influence of two major fault zones: the Red River fault zone (N140) and the Tan-Lu fault zone (N050). Karst development was favoured by intense fracturing, according to these two major directions, and reactived during recent tectonics by a compressional regime with sigma 1 N070, followed by an extensional regimes with ol near to EW that led to significant vertical movement. These tectonics, coupled with intense erasion, led to genesis and evolution of the spectacular morphology of this peak karst. (C) Elsevier, Paris

Geological factors affecting the chemical characteristics of the thermal waters of the carbonate karstified aquifers of Northern Vietnam, 2000, Drogue C, Cat Nn, Dazy J,
In northern Vietnam, exposed carbonate rock formations cover an area of more than 50,000 km(2). Their accumulated thickness from the Cambrian to the Triassic is in some places as much as 3000 m. Numerous thermal waters (springs and wells) occur in these strongly karstified carbonate massifs. This is the result of significant ancient and present orogenic activity, as the region demonstrates by its strong seismic activity. These karstic formations are water-bearing and strongly recharged by rainfall of between 1600 mm and 2600 mm per year in 90% of the area concerned. In view of the average annual air temperatures ( 17 degreesC-25 degreesC according to the region), 23 sample springs or wells were chosen with water temperatures of between 29 degreesC and 68 degreesC. Hydrochemical characteristics of these thermal waters emerging in different carbonate-rock units were examined by chemical analyses of major ions. In this large region, thermal waters are divided into four hydrochemical types: the Na-Cl type resulting from the intrusion of sea water for distances of up to several kilometres inland and depths of 1000 m, the Ca-SO4 type, probably resulting from the leaching of deposits of metallic sulphides that are widely distributed in these carbonate-rock units, and finally the Ca-HCO3 and Mg-HCO3 types which are chemically similar to fresh karstic waters in limestones and dolostones. The occurrence of these thermal groundwaters as well as their chemical characteristics seem to indicate the existence of large-scale deepseated groundwater flow systems in the karstic aquifers

Speleogenesis of selected caves beneath the Lunan Shilin and caves of fenglin Karst in Qiubei, Yunnan, 2004, Sebela S. , Slabe T. , Liu H. , Pruner P. ,
Yunnan is famous for its attractive karst landscapes especially shilins, fengcong and fenglin. The development of caves beneath the shilins in the vicinity of Liman is closely connected with the formation of shilins. Most of the waters percolating through shilins run through the caves beneath them and are responsible for their formation. The study of cave speleogenesis deepens knowledge about both the development of shilins and karst structure. ln the vicinity of the Lunan Shilin, speleological, morphological and structural geological studies of four karst caves have been accomplished. At Puzhehei, Qiubei, which is characterised by numerous fenglin, fengcong and caves, speleological and morphological studies have been performed. Cave sediments for paleomagnetic analyses have been taken from all studied areas (samples CH 1-9). Karst caves in SE Yunnan are probably much older than the age of the cave sediments (<780,000 years B.P.). The studied areas are located in the vicinity of the Xiaojiang fault (N-S direction) and the Red River fault (NW-SE direction). The general directions of both active faults are assumed to influence the direction of the most frequent fissures as well as the cave passages near the Liman Shilin. The Maojiang fault more strongly influences cave passage orientation, while the more distant Red River fault most strongly influences fissure orientation

Geomorphic constraints on surface uplift, exhumation, and plateau growth in the Red River region, Yunnan Province, China, 2004, Schoenbohm L. M. , Whipple K. X. , Burchfiel B. C. , Chen L. ,
Field observations, digital elevation model (DEM) data, and longitudinal profile analysis reveal a perched low-relief upland landscape in the Red River region, Yunnan Province, China, which correlates to an uplifted, regional low-relief landscape preserved over the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. As with other major rivers of the plateau margin, the Red River has deeply incised the low-relief upland landscape, which we interpret to be the remnants of a pre-uplift or relict landscape. We examine longitudinal river profiles for 97 tributaries of the Red River. Most profiles consist of three segments separated by sharp knickpoints: an upper, low-gradient channel segment, a steeper middle channel segment, and a very steep lower channel segment. Upper channel segments correspond to the relict landscape and have not yet experienced river incision. Steeper middle and lower segments indicate onset of rapid, two-phase river incision, on the basis of which changes in external forcings, such as climate or uplift, can be inferred. In terms of two end-member scenarios, two-phase incision could be the result of pulsed plateau growth, in which relatively slow uplift during the first phase is followed by rapid uplift during the second phase, or it could reflect adjustments of the main channel to changing climate conditions against the backdrop of steady plateau growth. Reconstruction of the paleo-Red River indicates [~]1400 m river incision, 1400-1500 m surface uplift, and a maximum of 750 m vertical displacement across the northern Red River fault, elevating the northern Ailao Shan range above the surrounding relict landscape. On the basis of stratigraphic constraints, incision along the Red River likely began in Pliocene time

Lithuanian karst region rivers' water ecology: hydrochemical and hydrobiological evaluation, 2004, Tumas R. ,
The Lithuanian karst region covers about 1000 km(3) in the northern part of the country. This is the most vulnerable area from a pollution point of view. The structure of the total dissolved solids (TDS) shows that the flow of rivers in the karst region is from hydraulically interconnected aquifers. For the last decade (1991-2000) TDS has varied considerably, from 529 to 732 mg/l. The predominant sources of nitrogen and phosphorus within the headwaters of the monitored rivers were diffuse and agricultural in nature. Downstream from the towns nitrogen and especially phosphorus showed both diffuse and point source signals. Contributions of point sources to the stream pollution by nutrients prevail. The time series of monthly dissolved oxygen (O-2) in the main karst region river - the Musa - shows the existence of multiplicative seasonality. The trend cycle (1991-1999) shows low levels of dissolved oxygen in 1991-1993, with a similar fluctuation in 1994, 1995 and 1996 (due to point pollution from the town of Siauliai) and a gradually improving situation since 1997. The general multiplicative trend of dissolved oxygen in the lower reaches of the Musa river (near the border with Latvia) is decreasing (within the accuracy limits). The abundance and species of zoo benthos are suitable criteria (biotic index - 131) for evaluation of a river's biological water quality. Zoo benthos demonstrates tolerances that vary among species, the oxygen regime and the pollution with nitrogen. The best living conditions for invertebrates are in the riverhead of the karst region rivers - 131 = 5.62-6.74 (1991-1999), where pollution with nutrients is caused mostly by agricultural activity. Rare and asynchronous data of biological water quality shows up tendencies that invertebrates prefer less contaminated reaches of rivers

Karst and caves of Ha Long Bay, Vietnam, 2005, Waltham, A.

Ha Long Bay is distinguished by the hundreds of small limestone islands that rise steeply or vertically from its shallow waters. Its dramatic and beautiful landscape is deservedly famous as one of the world’s outstanding natural sights, but it is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site of international geomorphological significance (Fig. 1). The bay lies on the northeastern coast of Vietnam, immediately east of the Red River delta . It is bounded on the north by the mainland hills either side of Ha Long City (also known as Hong Gai), to the south by the open waters of the Gulf of Tonkin, to the west by Cat Ba Island, and to the east by islands of sandstone (Fig. 2). Ha Long Bay has an area of about 1500 km2, and contains nearly 2000 limestone islands.
The caves described here were all visited during an assessment of the bay’s geomorphology with respect to its position as a World Heritage Site. Records of other caves in Ha Long Bay are sparse. A British team led by Howard Limbert mapped the Hang Hanh stream cave in the mainland limestone along the north shore of the bay; and a French team led by Marc Faverjon explored caves in the islands east of the bay, and also a few in Ha Long Bay itself.
Locality names are here translated into English, except for the cave names which are left in Vietnamese. The key terms are: dao = large island; hon = small island or rocky tower; hang = tunnel or passage cave; dong = chamber cave.


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