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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That funicular regime is the distribution of continuous liquid phase along pore walls with gaseous phase at the pore center [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for scallops (Keyword) returned 36 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 36
Scallops and Flutes, 1966, Curl R. L.

On the origin of cave flutes and scallops by the enlargement of inhomogeneities, 1972, Allen J. R. L.

Deducing Flow Velocity in Cave Conduits from Scallops, 1974, Curl, Rane L.

Statistical Symmetry Analysis of Scallops, 1981, Lauritzen, Steinerik

Une marmite remarquable du trou qui Souffle (Vercors, France), 1987, Lismonde, B.
A REMARKABLE GIANT POT IN "TROU QUI SOUFFLE " (VERCORS, FRANCE) - In the cave of " Trou qui Souffle " (Maudre, Vercors), the SGCAF team of Grenoble has discovered a remarkable giant pot (5.4 m deep and 1.2 m diameter). His wall is covered with scallops, and thus, it is possible to determine the velocity field in the giant pot by means of the Curls law.

Les vagues d'rosion, 1987, Lismonde B. , Lagmani A.
CURRENT MARKINGS OR SCALLOPS - The scallops pattern on the wall of limestone cave result from the interaction of a soluble surface and a turbulent flow. The main results of Curl, particularly, the dependence of the velocity flow on the scallops length are presented.

Role of Speleology in Karst Hydrology and Hydrogeology., 1997, Bonacci O.
Technology of speleological investigations enables special measurements of features of underground conduits, caves, pits, jamas, shafts and the other solutional sculpturings such as scallops and cave rocky relief. Speleologic investigations can reveal the positions, dimensions and interactions of underground and surface karst features and water flow in the karst and on its surface. Speleologists are capable of investigating the hydraulic conditions under which laminar or turbulent flows occur in conduits and small and narrow karst fractures. From such investigations crucial parameters for hydraulic, hydrologic and hydrogeologic modelling such as dissolution-bedform and hydraulically-transported sediment, can be obtained. For these reasons, the role of speleology in karst hydrology and hydrogeology should (and undoubtedly will) in future be given much more importance. This paper briefly explains the main theoretical aspects and gives some practical examples and experiences from Dinaric and others karst regions.

Reconstruction of paleocurrents in caves of the Bystra Valley (Tatra Mountains, Poland), on the basis of scallops and deposits analyses., 1997, Kicinska D.

Solutional and erosional morphology, 2000, Lauritzen Se. , Lundberg J.
Caves are produced through the action of speleogenetic agents acting under various constraints to produce speleogenetic facies. These facies, expressed at the meso- and micro-scale, reflect the major and minor speleogenetic agents that operated on that cave; they also reflect the history of the cave, both during speleogenesis proper and during the post-speleogenetic phase, in particular the most recent history. Geological control is evident through the association of caves with guiding voids (the singularities that govern permeability) and passage shape with rock chemistry (solubility). Hydrological control guides the locus and direction of dissolution; phreatic conditions support omnidirectional dissolution and thus hydraulically controlled tubular forms, while vadose conditions allow only unidirectional dissolution and thus gravity-controlled canyon forms and karren-like features. Of the micro-forms, scallops are specific flow indicators that yield both directional and quantitative information like flow rates and various hydraulic parameters specific to the cave passages. The presence of a sediment fill may further direct corrosion; in the phreatic zone this causes paragenesis; in the vadose zone, sediments cause lateral undercutting and eventually collapse. Vadose streams display many of the forms of surface streams, such as migrating meanders, entrenchment, rock-mill pot-holes, and waterfalls. Vadose shafts, dome-pits and condensation-corrosional forms are perhaps specific to the cave enviroment. The various vadose, phreatic and certain water-table-specific forms are, in combination, powerful methods for reconstructing phases of speleogenesis as well as external base levels. Combined with speleothem dating techniques, they become important methods for determining erosion rates and landscape evolution.

The fossilized tubes from the roofless cave - probably the oldest known remains of the cave worm Marifugia (Annelida: Polychaeta), 2000, Mihevc, Andrej

The paper is a report on the discovery of tubes of a fossilized cave serpulid in a roofless cave in the quarry above Črni Kal village. The site and shape of the fossilized tubes are described. The animals lived attached to the scallops in the wall of the passage. The passage was later filled with clay deposits, followed by a layer of flowstone several metres thick. The roof of the passage has been removed by karst denudation and flowstone now reaches to the surface. Fragments of tubes of animals of various sizes have been preserved, attached to the rock wall; those tubes which grew at a right angle to the wall have broken off but have been preserved in the sediment. In terms of their dimension and shape the tubes remind one of the tubes of the more recent cave serpulid Marifugia cavatica Absolon and Hrabe. The positions of the preserved tubes and the dating of the nearby sediments by palaeomagnetic method indicate that the remains of the serpulids are from the Pliocene epoch or older.


On the genetic conditions of black manganese deposits from two caves of Eastern Serbia., 2001, Ljubojevic V. , Pafevski A. , Calicljubojevic J.
Portions of cave passages often have a black colour due to manganese deposits that occur as coatings on cave walls and ceilings, on clastic sediments, as well as on speleothems. On samples from the cave Buronov Ponor chemical analysis, infrared spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction and DTA analysis confirmed the presence of birnessite. In cave Cerjanska Pecina, the presence of manganese compounds in the black coating has been confirmed by chemical tests. In both caves it has been noted that cave passages with black coating have a distinct morphology. They are highly weathered showing an abundance of sharp prolusions, potholes in the streambed and scallops. The paper studies these occurrences and the possible link between the manganese deposition, hydrology and morphology of the passages and petrologic composition. Although this link was not identified, some interesting questions regarding manganese deposition arose. It remains unclear why manganese deposition is limited only to a certain part of cave Cerjanska Pecina, and what caused the cyclicity in manganese deposition in the cave Buronov ponor. manganese deposits, chemical analysis, speleomorphology

Morphology of Czarna Cave and its significance for geomorphic evolution of the Kościeliska Valley (Western Tatra Mts.), 2002, Gradziń, Ski Michał, , Kiciń, Ska Ditta

Czarna Cave represents phreatic cave with multiple loops. No cave level developed at the water table was detected. The cave was later modified by invasion vadose waters and breakdown processes. The phreatic paleoflow directions were analysed from the asymmetry of scallops. The paleoflow was directed from the east to the west, that is in a direction of Kościeliska Valley. Therefore, this valley represented the main discharge zone of the region during the formation of Czarna Cave.


Pa'auhau Civil Defense Cave on Mauna Kea, Hawaii - A lava tube modified by water erosion, 2003, Kempe, S. , Bauer, I. , Henschel, H. V.
In 2000 and 2001, 2 large (1000 m long) cave systems were surveyed on the eastern, heavily eroded flank of Mauna Kea: The Paauhau Civil Defense Cave and the Kukaiau Cave. Both caves occur in the Hamakua Volcanics, 200-250 to 65-70 ka old. They are the first substantial caves documented for lavas of this volcano and the first caves on the island of Hawaii showing extensive morphological signs of water erosion. All observations lead to the conclusion that the Kukaiau Cave is erosional in origin (Kempe & Werner 2003). These observations include: missing lava tube features, a graded hydraulic profile, a base layer along which the major section of the cave seems to have developed, and allophane and halloysite that sealed the primary porosity causing a locally perched water table. In contrast to this feature, the Paauhau Civil Defense Cave originated as a lava tube. This is attested to by the presence of the typical morphologic elements of a lava tube, such as secondary ceilings, linings, base sheets, lava stalactites, and lava falls. Nevertheless, the cave was heavily modified by a stream that entered upslope and traversed much, but not all, of the cave. It left waterfall walls, large plunge pools, stream potholes, scallops, flutes, gravel, rounded blocks, and mud. The finding of water-erosional caves in the lavas of Hawaii offers a new view on deep-seated water courses in volcanic edifices.

The Kukaiau Cave, Mauna Kea, Hawaii, Created by Water Erosion: A New Hawaiian Cave Type, 2003, Kempe, S. , Werner, M. S.
In 2000 and 2001, two large (each ca. 1000 m long) cave systems have been surveyed on the eastern, heavily eroded, flank of Mauna Kea: The Paauhau Civil Defense Cave and the Kukaiau Cave (at first called ThatCave/ThisCave System). Both caves occur in the Hamakua Volcanics, 200-250 to 65-70 ka old. They are the first substantial caves documented for lavas of Mauna Kea and the first caves on Hawaii showing extensive morphological signs of water erosion. The Paauhau Civil Defense Cave is a lava tube, as attested by the presence of the typical morphological elements of lava tubes, including secondary ceilings, linings, base sheets, stalactites and lava falls. Subsequently, the cave was modified erosionally by a stream which entered upslope and traversed much, but not all, of the cave, leaving waterfalls, waterfall ponds, scallops, gravel, rounded blocks and mud (Kempe et al. 2003). In contrast the Kukaiau Cave a still active stream cave with a vadose and phreatic section - is essentially erosional in origin. This is concluded from the geology of the strata exposed in the cave and from its morphology: At the upper entrance the cave is situated in a thick series of aa and the lower section was created by removing aa and diamict layers, therefore excluding the possibility that the cave developed from a precursor lava tube. Also, in its phreatic section, the cave makes several right angle turns and moves upward through a series of pahoehoe sheets, unlike any lava tube. Furthermore, a base layer can be followed along which the major section of the upper cave has developed. Allophane and halloysite minerals produced by weathering - helped in sealing the primary porosity of this base layer causing a locally perched water table. Water moving along this base layer on a steep hydraulic gradient through the interstices of aa and through small pahoehoe tubes exerted a high pressure on the porous diamict of the lower cave, causing its erosional removal. Our observations of water erosional caves in lavas of Hawaii offer a new perspective on deep-seated water courses in volcanic edifices.

Letter: Scallops and Dissolution Rate, 2004, Faulkner Trevor

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