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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That lagoon is a body of relatively shallow water near a sea shore, with or without a direct connection to the sea [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for screening (Keyword) returned 9 results for the whole karstbase:
The ecology of Metazoa in a settling basin of the Berlin Water Works and its importance in the process of purification of percolated surface water., 1976, Ritterbusch Barbara
Based upon the hypothesis that the Metazoa (nematoda and rotifera) in the interstitial stratum of a slow sand filter are of importance in the process of purification of surface water, a filter was built to check the substrate characteristics of different grain sizes compared with the natural soil. It was found that the granulometric composition of sands as found in the settling basins did have the best comparative screening properties. This was demonstrated by chemical analyses of NH4, NO2, NO3, PO4, KMnO4-consumption and O2-saturation. Only the NO3-graph is shown here. The importance of Metazoa in the process of filtering water was studied by inoculating metazoic microorganisms into the most efficient filter. Chemical analyses of the water did not reveal a significant change of water quality over that from a non-inoculated filter. Because of this result the Metazoa do not appear to act as an important component in the water purification by sand filtration.

A ground water monitoring study was conducted for the triazine herbicide simazine at 11 sites in the United States. The study used carefully selected, small-scale sites (average size: about 33 acres) with documented product use and sensitive hydrogeological settings. The sites selected were Tulare County, California (two sites); Fresno County, California; Sussex County, Delaware; Hardee and Palm Beach counties, Florida; Winnebago County, Illinois; Jackson County, Indiana; Van Buren and Berrien counties, Michigan; and Jefferson County, West Virginia. These sites satisfied the following criteria: a history of simazine use, including the year prior to the start of the study; permeable soil and vadose zone; shallow depth to water; no restrictive soil layers above the water table; and gentle slopes not exceeding 2 percent. A variety of crop types, climates, and irrigation practices were included. Monitoring well clusters (shallow and deep) were installed at each site except in California and West Virginia, where only shallow wells were installed. Simazine was monitored at these sites at quarterly intervals for a two-year period during 1986-1988. The results of the study showed that out of 153 samples analyzed, 45 samples showed simazine detections. A substantial majority of the detections (32 out of 45) occurred in Tulare, Fresno, and Jefferson counties. The detections in these areas were attributed to mechanisms other than leaching, such as drainage wells, karst areas, surface water recharge, or point source problems. An additional 11 detections in Van Buren County were apparently due to an unknown upgradient source. Only one detection (in Palm Beach County, Florida) near the screening level of 0.1 ppb was attributed to possible leaching. The results of this investigation support the hypothesis that simazine does not leach significantly under field use conditions

Petrographic and Geochemical Screening of Speleothems for U-series Dating: An Example from Recrystallized Speleothems from Wadi Sannur Cavern, Egypt, 2002, Railsback, L. B. , Dabous, A. A. , Osmond, J. K. , Fleisher, C. J.
Petrographic and geochemical analyses of four speleothems from Wadi Sannur Cavern in eastern Egypt show that petrography and geochemistry can provide a useful way to screen speleothems prior to dating via U-series analysis. The speleothems vary from inclusion-rich zoned calcite to clear featureless calcite. U concentrations (ranging from 0.01-2.65 ppm) and Sr concentrations (ranging from 0.00-0.11 wt%) are greater in inclusion-rich zoned calcite. U concentrations are also greater in speleothems with small (<1.2 mm wide) columnar calcite crystals than in speleothems with larger crystals. Mg concentrations in the speleothems range from 0.2 to 2.3 mol% MgCO3 and show no significant relationship to petrography at the microscopic scale. Geochemical considerations suggest that the Wadi Sannur speleothems were originally mostly aragonite, and that all four have undergone recrystallization. More generally, they suggest that coarse clear columnar calcite and large (>1.0 ppm) ranges of U concentration are warning signs of recrystallization and U loss. However, even finer grained, inclusion-rich columnar calcite may be the result of recrystallization while retaining U contents less depleted than those of associated clear calcite.

Deep karst conduits, flooding, and sinkholes: lessons for the aggregates industry, 2002, Lolcama J. L. , Cohen H. A. , Tonkin M. J. ,
Limestone aggregate quarries in deeply penetrating karst terrain are often at considerable risk of artesian inflow from groundwater or surface water channeled through the karstic aquifer. The inflow occurs through what are likely to be complex conduits that penetrate hundreds of feet into bedrock. Rates of inflow can exceed the operation's pumping capabilities proving to be uneconomic to manage over the long term. Over time, inflow rates can increase dramatically as turbulent flow through the conduit erodes its soft residual clay-rich fill. One recent investigation observed an inflow rate of more than 40,000 gpm from a surface water source. Floodwater persistently laden with sediment is an indicator of conduit washout and implies increasing inflow rates over time. Conduits carrying floodwater can exist in a variety of forms: along deeply penetrating geologic faults, joints, or following the path of preferentially eroded bedding. Preferential structural deformation along faults or bedding can enhance dissolution during subsequent interaction with groundwater. The resulting conduit may be a complex combination of many geological features, making the exploration and remediation of the pathway difficult. Sinkholes at the site can occur within several contexts. Pre-existing subsidence structures can reactivate and subside further, forming new collapse sinkholes within soil directly overlying the conduit. Cover-collapse sinkhole development can be a direct result of increasing downward groundwater velocities and subsurface erosion associated with the enlargement of a conduit. Normal operation events such as a quarry blast can also provide a significant new linkage between the groundwater and the quarry, allowing rapid drainage of the groundwater reservoir. With such drainage and erosion of karst-fill, sinkholes will develop over localized water table depressions, most significantly over enhanced permeability zones associated with fractures. Paradoxically, although the rise in quarry water level will lead to regional reduction in the hydraulic gradients, on local scales, drainage of the groundwater reservoir increases gradients and leads to the development of cover-collapse sinkholes. Recommended methods for preliminary site investigation can include a detailed review of geological literature and drilling logs to compile a conceptual model of the site. A fracture trace analysis with EM geophysics can confirm the locations of major faults and fractures. Fingerprinting of the various water sources to the quarry and the water in the quarry is an inexpensive and effective means of identifying the source and likely direction of the groundwater and surface water flow. Automated geophysical equipment on the market for performing rapid resistivity and microgravity surveys speeds up the site screening process during reconnaissance exploration for deep structure. It is recommended that mine planning fully incorporate this information so that quarry operators can take proactive measures to avoid catastrophic and costly flooding events. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

KARSTIC: a sensitivity method for carbonate aquifers in karst terrain, 2002, Davis Ad, Long Aj, Wireman M,
Groundwater in karstic aquifers can be dangerously sensitive to contamination. Many cities in the western USA rely on karstic carbonate aquifers for municipal water supplies. For example, Rapid City, South Dakota, pumps more than half of its drinking water from wells in the Madison Limestone. This work examined the sensitivity of karstic aquifers to surface contamination in mountainous terrain. Where karstic carbonate aquifers are exposed at their outcrop areas, they are particularly susceptible to the introduction of contamination through diffuse recharge or through point recharge at swallow holes along streams. Residential developments in mountainous regions of the western USA are encroaching on the recharge areas of karstic aquifers. Many of these residential developments are served by onsite wastewater disposal systems such as septic tanks and drain fields, with the attendant danger of introduction of pathogens from malfunctioning treatment systems above fractured limestone which offers little filtering. Where streams disappear into karstic aquifers at swallow holes, microbial contaminants such as Giardia or Cryptosporidium are a concern, as well as potential spills, leaks, or accidents along roads near these streams. The KARSTIC method developed and modified in this work puts greater emphasis on karst features than previous sensitivity procedures such as the US Environmental Protection Agency's DRASTIC method. The modified method gives increased attention to highly sensitive areas of karstic carbonate aquifers by weighting the synergistic effects of fracturing, karst development, and swallow holes of recharging streams. In a field application, hydrogeologic maps of a watershed in the Black Hills, USA, were digitized into a geographic information system. The resulting sensitivity map and report can be used by planners, managers, and the public as a screening tool for assessing groundwater sensitivity in regions which include karstic aquifers

Soil gas screening for chlorinated solvents at three contaminated karst sites in Tennessee, 2002, Wolfe W. J. , Williams S. D. ,
Soil gas was sampled using active sampling techniques and passive collectors at three sites in Tennessee to evaluate the effectiveness of these techniques for locating chlorinated solvent sources and flowpaths in karst aquifers. Actively collected Soil gas samples were analyzed in the field with a portable gas chromatograph, and the passive soil gas collectors were analyzed in the lab with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results of the sampling indicate that the effectiveness of both techniques is highly dependent on the distribution of the contaminants in the subsurface, the geomorphic and hydrogeologic characteristics of the site, and, in one case, on seasonal conditions. Both active and passive techniques identified areas of elevated subsurface chlorinated solvent concentrations at a landfill site where contamination remains concentrated in the regolith. Neither technique detected chlorinated solvents known to be moving in the bedrock at a manufacturing site characterized by thick regolith and an absence of surficial karst features. Passive soil gas sampling had varied success detecting flowpaths for chloroform in the bedrock at a train derailment site characterized by shallow regolith and abundant surficial karst features. At the train derailment site, delineation of the contaminant flowpath through passive soil gas sampling was stronger and more detailed under winter conditions than summer

Screening for culturable microorganisms from cave environments (Slovenia), 2002, Mulec Janez, Zalar Polona, Zupan Hajna Nadja , Rupnik Maja

Various microenvironments in three different caves were screened for the presence of indigenous culturable microorganisms: extremely weathered limestone in Pečina v Borštu and Martinska jama, cave silver and calcite rafts on the surface of subterranean ponds in Pečina v Borštu and calcite moonmilk speleotheme in Snežna jama of Raduha mountain. The counts of viable cells collected are supplemented with laboratory data necessary to establish genus or wider taxonomic group level identity of isolates. Besides other bacterial and fungal groups flourescent pseudomonads are prevailing among isolates.

Preliminary screening of residual soil stability in karst terrain, 2005, Drumm Ec, Yang Mz,
The stability of the residual soils that overlie cavitose limestone is often a concern during the siting, construction, and maintenance of facilities in karst terrain. Voids or domes often form in the residual soil above the rock cavities, and unless the thickness of the residual soil is sufficient for the development of arching, the soil may collapse and sinkholes may form. A preliminary screening method is proposed to estimate the thickness of residual soil required to provide stability for a given range of potential soil-void diameters. The method considers two modes of instability for sites with shallow (less than 25 m) overburden. Stability with respect to the first mode (cover collapse) depends on the development of arching in the residual soil and suggests a minimum allowable cover thickness for stability. Stability with respect to the second mode (cover subsidence) corresponds to the yielding and plastic flow of the soils into the soil and/or rock void and suggests a maximum cover thickness above which subsidence should be evaluated. Sites with very thick overburden (more than 25 m) are generally not considered problematic. The limiting conditions for the first stability mode are compared with estimated sinkhole dimensions reported in the literature and the application of the stability chart is demonstrated by an example


LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) surveys of karst terrains provide high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) that are particularly useful for mapping sinkholes. In this study, we used automated processing tools within ArcGIS (v. 10.0) operating on a 1.0 m resolution LiDAR DEM in order to delineate sinkholes and closed depressions in the Boyce 7.5 minute quadrangle located in the northern Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. The results derived from the use of the automated tools were then compared with depressions manually delineated by a geologist. Manual delineation of closed depressions was conducted using a combination of 1.0 m DEM hillshade, slopeshade, aerial imagery, and Topographic Position Index (TPI) rasters. The most effective means of visualizing depressions in the GIS was using an overlay of the partially transparent TPI raster atop the slopeshade raster at 1.0 m resolution. Manually identified depressions were subsequently checked using aerial imagery to screen for false positives, and targeted ground-truthing was undertaken in the field. The automated tools that were utilized include the routines in ArcHydro Tools (v. 2.0) for prescreening, evaluating, and selecting sinks and depressions as well as thresholding, grouping, and assessing depressions from the TPI raster. Results showed that the automated delineation of sinks and depressions within the ArcHydro tools was highly dependent upon pre-conditioning of the DEM to produce “hydrologically correct” surface flow routes. Using stream vectors obtained from the National Hydrologic Dataset alone to condition the flow routing was not sufficient to produce a suitable drainage network, and numerous artificial depressions were generated where roads, railways, or other manmade structures acted as flow barriers in the elevation model. Additional conditioning of the DEM with drainage paths across these barriers was required prior to automated 2delineation of sinks and depressions. In regions where the DEM had been properly conditioned, the tools for automated delineation performed reasonably well as compared to the manually delineated depressions, but generally overestimated the number of depressions thus necessitating manual filtering of the final results. Results from the TPI thresholding analysis were not dependent on DEM pre-conditioning, but the ability to extract meaningful depressions depended on careful assessment of analysis scale and TPI thresholding.

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