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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That pelsparite is a microscopic texture. a limestone composed of pellets (peloids) in a matrix of cement [20]. synonyms: (french.) pelsparite; (german.) pelsarite, kalkstein gefugt aus kugelchen ?; (greek.) pelsparitis; (italian.) pelsparite; (spanish.) pelsparita; (turkish.) pelsparit. see peloids.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for sea-level fluctuations (Keyword) returned 13 results for the whole karstbase:
Analyses and interpretation of an industrial multi-channel seismic grid, a 2.3 km-deep industrial well (NMA-1) and two ODP (Sites 715 and 716), have generated new insights into the evolution of the Maldives carbonate system, Equatorial Indian Ocean. The present physiography of the Maldives Archipelago, a double chain of atolls delineating an internal basin, corresponds only to the latest phase of a long and dynamic evolution, far more complex than the simple vertical build-up of reef caps on top of thermally subsiding volcanic edifices. Through the Cenozoic evolution of the Maldives carbonate system, distinct phases of vertical growth (aggradation), exposure, regional or local drowning, and recovery of the shallow banks by lateral growth (progradation) have been recognized. The volcanic basement underlying the Maldives Archipelago is interpreted to be part of a volcanic ridge generated by the northern drift of the Indian plate on top of the hotspot of the island of Reunion. The volcanic basement recovered at well NMA-1 and ODP Site 715 has been radiometrically dated as 57.2 1.8 Ma (late Paleocene) by 40Ar-39Ar. Seismic and magnetic data indicate that this volcanic basement has been affected by a series of NNE-SSW trending subvertical faults, possibly associated with an early Eocene strike-slip motion along an old transform zone. The structural topography of the volcanic basement apprears to have dictated the initial geometry of the Eocene and early Oligocene Maldives carbonate system. Biostratigraphic analyses of samples, recovered by drilling in Site 715 and exploration well NMA-1, show that the Maldives shallow carbonate system was initiated during the early Eocene on top of what were originally subaerial volcanic edifices. The Eocene shallow carbonate sequence, directly overlying the volcanic basement at NMA-1, is dolomitized and remains neritic in nature, suggesting low subsidence rates until the early Oligocene. During this first phase of the Maldives carbonate system evolution, shallow carbonate facies aggraded on top of basement highs and thick deep-water periplatform sediments were deposited in some central seaways, precursors of the current wider internal basins. In the middle Oligocene, a plate reorganization of the equatorial Indian Ocean resulted in the segmentation of the hotspot trace and the spreading of the Maldives away from the transform zone. This plate reorganization resulted in increasing subsidence rates at NMA-1, interpreted to be associated with thermal cooling of the volcanic basement underlying the Maldives carbonate system. This middle Oligocene event also coincides with a regional irregular topographic surface, considered to represent a karst surface produced by a major low-stand. Deep-water carbonate facies, as seen in cuttings from NMA-1, overlie the shallow-water facies beneath the karst surface which can, therefore, be interpreted as a drowning unconformity. In the late Oligocene, following this regional deepening event, one single central basin developed, wider than its Eocene counterparts, and the current intraplatform basin was established. Since the early to middle Miocene, the shallow carbonate facies underwent a stage of local recovery by progradation of neritic environments towards the central basin. The simultaneous onset in the early middle Miocene of the monsoonal wind regime may explain the development of bidirectional slope progradations in the Maldives. During the late Miocene and the early Pliocene, several carbonate banks were locally drowned, whereas others (i.e. Male atoll) display well-developed lateral growth through margin progradations during the same interval. Differential carbonate productivity among the atolls could explain these diverse bank responses. High-frequency glacialeustatic sea-level fluctuations in the late Pliocene and Pleistocene resulted in periodic intervals of bank exposure and flooding, and developed the present-day physiography of atolls, with numerous faros along their rims and within their lagoons

On Grand Cayman, freshwater bodies present in the Bluff Formation are typically small and occur as thin lenses floating on top of dense saline water. Evaluation of the water resource potential of these freshwater lenses is difficult because of their variable hydrological conditions, complex paleohydrogeology and aquifer heterogeneity. Secondary porosity created by preferential dissolution of aragonitic fossil components is common. Open fissures and joints developed under tectonic stress and karst development associated with sea-level fluctuations are, however, the two most important causes of porosity and permeability in the aquifers on Grand Cayman. Fracture and karst porosity control the lens occurrence by: (1) acting as avenues for the intrusion of seawater or upward migration of saline water; (2) acting as recharge focal points; (3) enhancing hydrodynamic dispersion; (4) defining lens geometry; (5) facilitating carbonate dissolution along joints and fissures. A clear understanding of the hydrological and geological conditions is important in developing small lenses in a setting similar to that on Grand Cayman. This pragmatic approach can help identify the optimum location of the well field and avoid areas particularly susceptible to saline water intrusion

The role of high-energy events (hurricanes and/or tsunamis) in the sedimentation, diagenesis and karst initiation of tropical shallow water carbonate platforms and atolls, 1998, Jan F. G. B. L. ,
Karst morphology appears early, even during carbonate sediment deposition. Examples from modern to 125-ka-old sub-, inter- and supratidal sediments are given from the Bahamas (Atlantic Ocean) and from Tuamotuan atolls (southeastern Pacific Ocean), with mineralogical and hydrological analyses. Karstification is favoured by the aragonitic composition of bioclasts coming from the shallow marine bio-factory. Lithification by aragonite cements appears as a rim around carbonate deposits and dissolution and non-cementation start at the same time on modern supratidal deposits (Andros micrite or atoll coral rudite) and provoke the formation of a central depression on small or large carbonate platforms. In fact, this early solution of the centre of platforms is closely related to the location of each of the studied examples on hurricane tracks. High-energy events, such as hurricanes and tsunamis, affect sediment transport but hurricanes also affect diagenesis as a result of the enormous volume of freshwater carried and discharged along their paths. This couple, lithification- solution, is localised at sea level and accompanies sea-level fluctuations along the eustatic curve. Because of the precise location of hurricane action all around the Earth, early karstification by aragonite solution, cementation and supratidal carbonate sediment accumulations thigh-energy trails) act together on all the platforms and atolls located inside the Tropics (23 degrees 27') between roughly 5 degrees-10 degrees and 25 degrees on both hemispheres. However, early karstification acts alone on shallow carbonate platforms including atolls along the equatorial belt between 5 degrees-10 degrees N and 5 degrees-10 degrees S. These early steps of karstification are linked to the ocean-atmosphere interface due to the bathymetrical position of shallow carbonate platforms, including atolls. They lead to complex karstified emerged platforms, called high carbonate islands, where carbonate diagenesis, together with the development of bauxite- and/or a phosphate-rich cover and phreatic lens, will occur. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Upper Miocene karst collapse structures of the east coast, Mallorca, Spain, 2000, Ardila Pedro Robledo, Pomar Luis

In the sea cliffs on the Mallorca Island, Western Mediterranean there are extensive outcrops of Upper Miocene carbonate rocks. On the Eastern coast of Mallorca, the reefal complex is overlain by a Messinian shallow-water carbonate complex. There are abundant Paleokarst collapse structures. The Santanyí Limestone beds are affected by V-incasion structures produced by roof collapse of caverns developed in the underlying reefal complex. According to the model, the origin of some of these karst-collapse structures may be related to early diagenetic processes controlled by high-frequency sea-level fluctuations. During lowstands of sea level, fresh-water flow might have create a cave system near the water table by dissolution of aragonite in the reef front facies and coral patches existing in the lagoonal beds. This cave system developed near the subaerial erosion surface. During subsequent rise of sea level inner-shelf beds overlaid the previously karstified reef-core and outer-lagoonal beds. Increase of loading by subsequent accretion of the shallow-water carbonates might have produced V-incasion structures by gravitational collapse of cave roofs when these beds were still not completely consolidated.

Water-upwelling pipes and soft-sediment-deformation structures in lower Pleistocene calcarenites (Salento, southern Italy), 2001, Massari F. , Ghibaudo G. , D'alessandro A. , Davaud E. ,
A thin sedimentary blanket, consisting mostly of subtidal, unconformity-bounded calcarenite units, was deposited in the small Novoli graben (Apulian foreland, southern Italy) in Pliocene-Pleistocene time. In a limited part of the study area the lower Pleistocene 'Calcarenite di Gravina,' forming the thicker part of this blanket, is crossed by continuous to discontinuous cylindrical pipes as much as 12 m high, most commonly consisting of stacked concave- upward laminae, locally grading upward into soft-sediment-deformation features and large dishes. The evidence favors an origin linked to upwelling of overpressured groundwater from a large karstic reservoir hosted in the Mesozoic carbonate rocks; the reservoir periodically developed a relatively high hydrostatic head due to Tertiary to Pleistocene cover acting as an aquitard or aquiclude. As a result, submarine springs were generated, the activity of which was primarily controlled by relative sea-level fluctuations. It is suggested that the pipes were located in those points where the hydrostatic pressure was sufficient to fluidize the overlying sediment and could be released without notably affecting the surrounding sediments. Some pipes cross calcarenitic infills of karstic sinkholes developed in the underlying units, whereas others follow the course of vertical to high-angle extensional synsedimentary tectonic fractures generated when the calcarenites were still in an unconsolidated to semiconsolidated state. The former relationships suggest that vertical routes of water upwelling during highstand of base level commonly coincided with axes of vadose solution during base-level lowstand; the latter suggest that opening of fractures enhanced the connection of the deep aquifer with the surface, hence intensifying water upwelling. We think that fluidization along the fractures was not hindered by the partially coherent state, and that pipes with a cylindrical geometry could form in spite of the planarity of the fractures. The formation of the pipes and their internal structure of stacked concave-upward laminae is thought to be consistent with a process of fluidization due to through-flowing waters. We believe that essential in this process is the role of upward-migrating transient water-filled cavities, akin to the voidage waves (Hassett's [1961a, 1961b] parvoids) experimentally reproduced by several authors in liquid fluidized beds, and regarded as true instability phenomena of a fluidized suspension occurring above minimum fluidization velocity. It is suggested that the process is akin to the production of the dish structure. It consists of the filling of transient, upward-migrating, water-filled cavities through steady fallout of particles from the cavity roof, their redeposition in a more consolidated state, and subsidence of the roof due to water seepage upward from the cavity. The process was accompanied by segregation of grains according to their size and density, as well by elutriation of finest particles, and led to a new pattern of sediment texture, packing, and fabric with respect to the surrounding calcarenites

Paleocollapse structures as geological record for reconstruction of past karst processes during the upper miocene of Mallorca Island, 2004, Robledo Ardila P. A. , Durn J. J. , Pomar L.
Paleocollapse structures and collapse breccias are one of the major features for paleokarst analysis and paleoclimate record. These are affecting the Llucmajor and Santany carbonate platforms. These platforms, of southern and eastern Mallorca respectively, are a good example of progradation reef platform in the western Mediterranean. The Santany platform is constituted of two sedimentary units, both affected by paleocollapse structures: (1) The Reef Complex attributed to the upper Tortonian-lower Messinian; (2) Santany Limestone attributed to the Messinian. There are abundant paleocollapse outcropping in the Reef Complex and Santany Limestone units. These structures have been produced by roof collapse of caverns developed in the underlying reefal complex. According to the genetic model, the origin of same paleocollapse structures may be related to early diagenetic processes controlled by high-frequency sea-level fluctuations. During the lowstands of sea level, fresh water flow or mixing zone might have created a cave system near the water table by dissolution of aragonite in the reef front facies and coral patches existing in the lagoonal beds. During subsequent rise and highstands of sea level, inner-shelf beds overlaid the previously karstified reef-core and outer-lagoonal beds. Increase of loading by subsequent accretion of the shallow-water carbonate might have produced paleocollapse structures by gravitational collapse of cave roof. Morphometric and structural classification of paleocollapse is based on geometric and structural criteria according to the type of deformed strata and strata dip. Paleocollapse structures can be classified according to geometric section, size of the paleocave and lithification degree of the host rock when collapsed. Breccias are classified as crackle, mosaic and chaotic types. In same paleocollapse the type of breccias present a vertical and lateral gradation, from crackle in the upper part, to chaotic in the lower part of the paleocollapse. Chaotic breccias grade from matrix-free, clasts-supported breccias to matrix-supported breccias. Relationship with high frequency of sea-level fluctuation, facies architecture, classification features and products permit to enhance a general paleoclimatic framework.

Sequence Biostratigraphy of Prograding Clinoforms, Northern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia: A Proxy for Variations in Oligocene to Pliocene Global Sea Level?, 2004, Moss Graham D. , Cathro Donna L. , Austin James A. Jr. ,
Sequence biostratigraphic analyses from five industry wells in the Northern Carnarvon Basin (NCB), Western Australia, are tied to seismic stratigraphic interpretations from a set of 3D and 2D seismic data. Distribution patterns of [~]286 benthic and 73 planktonic foraminiferal taxa in sidewall cores and ditch cuttings from Eocene to Pliocene intervals are documented and supplemented with observations of other fossil groups (e.g., fragments of ostracodes, bryozoans, corals, and mollusks) and lithological components such as calcite cement and quartz sand. Preservation of foraminiferal assemblages is extremely variable in latest Eocene to Pliocene stratigraphy, depending upon the location of wells and the interval investigated. Nonetheless, consistent, detectable faunal signals correlate between wells and with prominent seismic horizons and sequences. The late Oligocene to middle Miocene is characterized by deeper-water benthic assemblages dominated by infaunal taxa and a high planktonic abundance. Stratigraphic events in the middle Miocene, including turnover in benthic foraminifera, are interpreted to record a regional flooding event (equivalent to cycle Tejas B (TB) 2.3) at the beginning of the mid-Miocene climatic optimum ([~]16-14.5 Ma). Following this event, seismically defined geomorphic features include karstification on the shelf and incision on the clinoform front. All wells show a major transition to shallow-water, warm conditions on the shelf in the middle and late Miocene, with benthic assemblages dominated by larger foraminifera. This transition appears higher in more-basinward wells and appears to be a result of progradation. Geomorphic features in the late middle Miocene ([~]12 Ma) identified from 3D seismic analyses show an intensification of earlier gully formation, resulting in the development of submarine canyons. Detailed analyses of faunal patterns also provide evidence of higher-frequency sea-level fluctuations (0.5-3 Ma), not detected in the seismic stratigraphic patterns

Stable isotope analysis of the Cenomaniane Turonian (Late Cretaceous) oceanic anoxic event in the Crimea, 2005, Fisher J. K. , Price G. D. , Hart M. B. , Leng M. J.

Carbon and oxygen isotope data from Cenomaniane Turonian sediments from the southwest of the Crimea are presented. The sediments consist of limestones, marls and organic-rich claystones, the latter with total organic carbon values up to 2.6 wt. %, representing Oceanic Anoxic Event 2. A shift to more negatived 18 O values through the uppermost Cenomanian into the lowermost Turonian may be the result of warming; however, petrographic analysis shows that the samples have undergone a degree of diagenetic alteration. The carbon isotope data reveal a positive excursion fromw2.7&to a peak of 4.3&at the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary; values then decrease in the early Turonian. This excursion is comparable to those of other Cenomaniane Turonian sections, such as those seen in the Anglo-Paris Basin, and is thought to be due to global changes in the oceanic carbon reservoir. On this curve are a number of negatived 13 C excursions, just below the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary. It is suggested that these negative excursions are associated with the uptake of light carbon derived from the oxidation and deterioration of or-ganic material during localised exposure of the sediments to oxic or meteoric diagenetic conditions, possibly during sea-level fluctuations. 

Relative Sea-Level Changes Recorded on an Isolated Carbonate Platform: Tithonian to Cenomanian Succession, Southern Croatia, 2006, Husinec Antun, Jelaska Vladimir,
Superb sections of Tithonian to Cenomanian carbonates of the Adriatic (Dinaric) platform are exposed on the islands of southern Croatia. A succession approximately 1,800 m thick consists exclusively of shallow-water marine carbonates (limestone, dolomitized limestone, dolomite, and intraformational breccia), formed in a protected and tectonically stable part of the platform interior. Several phases of exposure and incipient drowning are recorded in the platform interior. Four are crucial for understanding the Late Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous evolution of the wider peri-Adriatic area: (1) latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous sea-level fall, (2) Aptian drowning, followed by (3) Late Aptian platform exposure, and (4) Late Albian-Early Cenomanian sea-level fall. Deciphering these complex events from the vertical and lateral facies distribution has led to an evaluation of facies dynamics and construction of a relative sea-level curve for the study area. This curve shows that long-term transgression during the Early Tithonian, Hauterivian, Early Aptian, and Early Albian, resulted in generally thicker beds deposited in subtidal environments of lagoons or shoals. Regression was characterized by shallowing-upward peritidal parasequences, with well-developed tidal-flat laminites commonly capped by emersion breccia and/or residual clay sheets (Early Berriasian, Barremian, Late Aptian, Late Albian). The southern part of the Dinarides was tectonically quiet during the Tithonian through Aptian; sea-level oscillations appear to have been the primary control on facies stacking. Some correlation exists between local sea-level fluctuations and the published global eustasy charts for the Tithonian through Aptian. A significant departure is recognized at the Albian-Cenomanian transition, suggesting that it was influenced by tectonics associated with the disintegration of the Adriatic (Dinaric) platform


With the intention of reconstructing Late Pleistocene – Holocene sea-level changes along the Eastern Adriatic coast, a series of speleothems were collected from several submerged caves and pits, in order to constrain periods of their deposition and ceased growth related to sea-level fluctuations. For that purpose, stalagmites provide more reliable records than stalactites, due to their successive layers deposited perpendicularly to the growth direction. Therefore, stalagmites have been collected preferably. But, two of 17 speleothems displayed unexpected interior morphology – speleothem L-1 collected at the depth of 1.5 m in Medvjeđa spilja Cave on Lošinj Island, and speleothem M-25 from Pit near Iški Mrtovnjak Islet collected at the depth of 25 m. Both of the samples were taken from the cave floor, in the growth position of the stalagmite. But the insight into the perpendicular cut with evident central tube revealed their true (stalactitic) origin and additional confirmations were obtained by longitudinal cut and U-Th and 14C dating. Just as the causes of their breakdowns were probably different, so were their falls; speleothem M 25 (together with several other speleothems around it) stuck in the marine sediment in its primary position, while L-1 turned upside-down and even continued crystallizing during the lower sea level. These events are possible in the continental caves, as well. Evidently, it is much easier to recognize and avoid these problems in air-filled caves than in the submarine ones where the speleothems are almost always covered with marine overgrowth, which disguises their outer morphology. Additionally, the bases of the stalagmites are also sometimes covered with marine sediment, which makes correct estimation rather difficult.

Plava Grota, Cres Island, Croatia, is a flank margin cave developed in a coastal setting in talus breccia facies. The internal cave geometry of small entrances, intersecting adjacent chambers, remnant dissolutional bedrock pillars, and low arches matches diagnostic features used to separate flank margin caves from epigenic stream caves on one hand, and sea caves on the other. Plava Grota is found, along with adjacent smaller caves, solely in a breccia facies that is most probably of Pleistocene age. This breccia is comprised of clasts derived from diagenetically mature, or telogenetic, Cretaceous carbonate rocks. The clasts are loosely cemented by vadose calcite cements. The breccia facies provide a three-dimensional porosity and permeability structure that behaves hydraulically in a manner similar to the high primary porosity and permeability of young eogenetic carbonate rocks in settings such as the Bahamas or Puerto Rico, and the many flow paths found in highly-tectonized telogenetic carbonate rocks in New Zealand. Plava Grota is the first described flank margin cave from the coastal carbonate rocks of the Adriatic Sea. According to present sea-level position in relation to the cave, fresh-water springs in and adjacent to the cave, general tectonic subsidence of the area and Quaternary eustatic sea-level fluctuations, we propose the hypotheses that the cave was primarily formed during the MIS 5e sea-level highstand.

Underwater Caves of the Yucatn Peninsula, 2012, Coke Iv, James G.

The Yucatán Peninsula is one of the largest limestone platforms in the world. The Mexico isthmus region of the peninsula is a low-relief pitted karst plain containing few surface drainage systems or lakes. Karst windows punctuate the scrubby terrain, exposing a shallow aquifer that engulfs an ancient dry cave environment. These openings, called cenotes, allow modern explorers to document a growing assemblage of deep underwater sinks, and exceptionally long and complex underwater cave systems. Deep classic sinks are common to the interior of the isthmus. Long horizontal caves remain a coastal phenomenon. Their complexity is derived from irregular sea-level fluctuations produced during Pleistocene glaciations. Fractures within the parent strata and tidal fluctuations of the halocline are crucial elements in sustaining extant speleogenesis.

Geologic constraints and speleogenesis of Cova des Pas de Vallgornera, a complex coastal cave from Mallorca Island (Western Mediterranean), 2014, Ginés J. , Fornós J. J. , Ginés A. , Merino A. , Gràcia F.

The flat areas of eastern and southern Mallorca host a remarkable coastal karst, where Cova des Pas de Vallgornera stands out due to its length (more than 74 km) and its special morphological suite. The pattern of the cave is quite heterogeneous showing sharp differences produced by the architecture of the Upper Miocene reef: spongework mazes and collapse chambers dominate in the reef front facies, whereas joint-guided conduits are the rule in the back reef carbonates. Regarding the speleogenesis of the system, a complex situation is envisaged involving three main agents: coastal mixing dissolution, drainage of meteoric diffuse recharge, and hypogene basal recharge related to local geothermal phenomena. The cave system is disposed in two main tiers of passages, of which geomorphologic interpretations are derived from their elevation data. The evolutionary trends as well as the chronology of the different cave sections are difficult to establish owing to the frequent shifting of the coastal base level during the Plio-Quaternary. In this respect, the genesis and evolution of the cave were fully controlled by sea-level fluctuations in the Western Mediterranean basin, with the main phases of cave formation, based on vertebrate paleontological data, going back to mid-Pliocene times.

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