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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That calibration is the experimental evaluation of the scale readings of an instrument against an absolute standard [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for seasonal-changes (Keyword) returned 5 results for the whole karstbase:
Cambial growth of Swietenia macrophylla King studied under controlled conditions by high resolution laser measurements, 2003, Dunisch O, Schulte M, Kruse K,
The kinetics of phloem and xylem formation of two-year-old plants of Swietenia macrophylla King (true mahogany) was studied in a model system along the shoot circumference (experiment 1) and along the shoot axis (experiment 2). The radius increment of the shoot was registered by high resolution laser measurements (accuracy: 2 mum) in a spatial resolution of 7.8 to 41.3 mum along the stem circumference and 1.5 mm along the stem axis. The temporal resolution of the measurements was 2 s in experiment 1 and 20 s in experiment 2. The radius increment of the shoot detected by the laser measurements was predominately due to the radial enlargement of the phloem and xylem derivatives. On the phloem side the reinitiation of radial cell enlargement after a cambial dormancy occurred first in sieve tubes with contact to ray parenchyma cells, while on the xylem side the radial cell enlargement of vessels and paratracheal parenchyma was induced almost simultaneously along the shoot circumference. In the phloem and xylem derivatives, which were formed first after the cambial reactivation, radial cell enlargement was induced almost simultaneously along the shoot axis. In more advanced phases of phloem and xylem formation, radial cell enlargement of phloem and xylem derivatives was induced shoot downwards with a rate of approximately 13 mm per min. The mean rate of radial cell enlargement of the phloem and xylem derivatives was 2.26 and 4.37 mum per min, respectively. These findings suggest that the kinetics of cambial growth of tropical tree species differ significantly from kinetics observed in trees from temperate regions. The laser measurements might provide a useful experimental approach for studies of cambial activity in situ

Seasonal changes of fulvic acid, Ca and Mg concentrations of water samples collected above and in the Beke Cave of the Aggtelek karst system (Hungary), 2004, Tatar Eniko, Mihucz Victor G. , Zambo Laszlo, Gasparics Tibor, Zaray Gyula,
Magnesium and Ca concentration ratios, fulvic acid content, total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and pH were determined in seepage water and drip water samples collected during one seasonal cycle between June 2000 and May 2001 above and in the Beke Cave of Aggtelek (Hungary). Seepage water samples were collected at 0.5 and 7 m below ground level from an observation point situated above the cave. Drip water was collected 40 m underground from a group of stalactites. The fulvic acid concentrations were determined by fluorescence spectrometry after pre-concentration on a XAD-8 chromatographic column. Calcium and Mg concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry. DIC was determined with a CO2 - selective electrode. DIC values increased and the fulvic acid concentrations and Mg and Ca concentration ratios, generally, decreased with depth. The highest flux of fulvic acid was observed in spring. The fulvic acid flux increased by a factor of 2.6-3.6 and 1.4 for groundwater and drip water, respectively, compared with those registered in the winter samples. The variations in the Ca, Mg and fulvic acid concentrations of the seepage and drip water samples relate to the variable drip rate. The results revealed that there is a strong correlation between the daily average surface temperature, daily amount of precipitation and drip water rate registered in the cave

Stable isotope (H-2, O-18 and Sr-87/Sr-86) and hydrochemistry monitoring for groundwater hydrodynamics analysis in a karst aquifer (Gran Sasso, Central Italy), 2005, Barbieri M, Boschetti T, Petitta M, Tallini M,
This paper deals with chemical and isotope analyses of 21 springs, which were monitored 3 times in the course of 2001; the monitoring program was focused on the groundwater of the Gran Sasso carbonate karst aquifer (Central Italy), typical of the mountainous Mediterranean area. Based on the hydrogeological setting of the study area, 6 groups of springs with different groundwater circulation patterns were distinguished. The hydrogeochemistry of their main components provided additional information about groundwater flowpaths, confirming the proposed classification. The spatial distribution of their ion concentrations validated the assumptions underlying the hydrogeological conceptual model, showing diverging groundwater flowpaths from the core to the boundaries of the aquifer. Geochemical modelling and saturation index computation elucidated water-carbonate rock interaction, contribution by alluvial aquifers at the karst aquifer boundaries, as well as impacts of human activities. The analysis of O-18/O-16 and H-2/H values and their spatial distribution in the aquifer substantiated the hydrogeology-based classification of 6 groups of springs, making it possible to trace back groundwater recharge areas based on mean isotope elevations; the latter were calculated by using two rain monitoring stations. Sr-87/Sr-86 analyses showed seasonal changes in many springs: in winter-spring, the changes are due to inflow of new recharge water, infiltrating into younger rocks and thus increasing (87)sr/Sr-86 values; in summer-autumn, when there is no recharge and spring discharge declines, changes are due to base flow groundwater circulating in more ancient rocks, with a subsequent drop in Sr-87/Sr-86 values. The results of this study stress the contribution that spatio-temporal isotope monitoring can give to the definition of groundwater flowpaths and hydrodynamics in fissured and karst aquifers, taking into account their hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical setting. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

Cave air control on dripwater geochemistry, Obir Caves (Austria): Implications for speleothem deposition in dynamically ventilated caves, 2005, Spotl C. , Fairchild I. J. , Tooth A. F. ,
There are very few process studies that demonstrate the annual variation in cave environments depositing speleothems. Accordingly, we initiated a monitoring program at the Obir Caves, an Austrian dripstone cave system characterized by a seasonally changing air flow that results in a predictable pattern of high pCO(2), during summer and low pCO(2), in winter. Although similar seasonal changes in Soil pCO(2) occur, they are not directly connected with the changes in the subsurface since the dripwaters are fed from a well-mixed source showing little seasonal variation. Cold season flushing by relatively CO2-poor air enhances degassing of CO2 in the cave and leads to a high degree of supersaturation of dripwater with regard to calcite. Forced calcite deposition during the cold season also gives rise to a pronounced pattern of synchronous seasonal variations in electrical conductivity, alkalinity, pH, Ca and delta(13)C(DIC) which parallel variations recorded in delta(13)C(cave air). Chemical components unaffected by calcite precipitation (e.g., delta D,delta(18)O,SiO2,SO4) lack a seasonal signal attesting to a long residence in the karst aquifer. Modeling shows that degassing of CO2 from seepage waters results in kinetically-enhanced C isotopic fractionation, which contrasts with the equilibrium degassing shown from the Soreq cave in Israel. The Obir Caves may serve as a case example of a dripstone cave whose seepage waters (and speleothems) show intra-annual geochemical variability that is primarily due to chemical modification of the groundwater by a dynamic, bidirectional subsurface air circulation. Copyright (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd

Seasonal Variations in Modern Speleothem Calcite Growth in Central Texas, U.S.A, 2007, Banner Jl, Guilfoyle A, James Ew, Stern La, Musgrove M,
Variations in growth rates of speleothem calcite have been hypothesized to reflect changes in a range of paleoenvironmental variables, including atmospheric temperature and precipitation, drip-water composition, and the rate of soil CO2 delivery to the subsurface. To test these hypotheses, we quantified growth rates of modern speleothem calcite on artificial substrates and monitored concurrent environmental conditions in three caves across the Edwards Plateau in central Texas. Within each of two caves, different drip sites exhibit similar annual cycles in calcite growth rates, even though there are large differences between the mean growth rates at the sites. The growth-rate cycles inversely correlate to seasonal changes in regional air temperature outside the caves, with near-zero growth rates during the warmest summer months, and peak growth rates in fall through spring. Drip sites from caves 130 km apart exhibit similar temporal patterns in calcite growth rate, indicating a controlling mechanism on at least this distance. The seasonal variations in calcite growth rate can be accounted for by a primary control by regional temperature effects on ventilation of cave-air CO2 concentrations and/or drip-water CO2 contents. In contrast, site-to-site differences in the magnitude of calcite growth rates within an individual cave appear to be controlled principally by differences in drip rate. A secondary control by drip rate on the growth rate temporal variations is suggested by interannual variations. No calcite growth was observed in the third cave, which has relatively high values of and small seasonal changes in cave-air CO2. These results indicate that growth-rate variations in ancient speleothems may serve as a paleoenvironmental proxy with seasonal resolution. By applying this approach of monitoring the modern system, speleothem growth rate and geochemical proxies for paleoenvironmental change may be evaluated and calibrated

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