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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That original dip is dip due to deposition of sediments [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for shear (Keyword) returned 38 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 38
Le rseau de la Diau, 1983, Lismonde, B.
The DIAU SYSTEM - Diau Cave is the resurgence of an important underground drainage system in the massif des Bornes in Haute-Savoie (France). The system's catchment is approximately 9km2, between an altitude of 1200m and 1800m. The average discharge is about 4001/s. Speleological explorations have discovered two sections of the master drainage cave (Diau and Pertuis caves). Two tributaries have also been explored. The total length of the Diau cave system is 14.9km with a height difference of 702m. The master cave occurs in the bottom of the Pertuis syncline at the boundary between the urgonian limestone and hauterivian marls. According to the gradient and the fractures, four types of gallery structure occur, of which two are vadose. The two known tributaries (inlet of the Grenoblois and Tanne des Mtores) follow a NW-SE anticlockwise shear fault, which exists in the Parmelan plateau fracture zone.

Un karst subalpin mditerranen : la rgion Audibergue-Mons (Alpes-Maritimes et Var), 1984, Julian M. , Nicod J.
THE KARSTIC AREA AUDIBERGUE-MONS (Prealps of Grasse, Maritime Alps and Var departments) - This area, very important for the karstic superficial features and the caves, is formed by the proximity of plateaus belonging to the structural system of Provence and the higher main subalpine unit of Audibergue. Three fields of sinkholes are especially characteristic: 1/ central Audibergue, controlled by shear fractures and under the influence of nival phenomena; 2/ Fort d'Esclapon, with more various forms and perhaps an older karstic evolution that explains the large inheritance of terra rossa; 3/ Biron that shows deep furrows and sinkholes. The study of the poljes, fluvio-karstic (Caille) or half-opened (Canaux), introduces the problem of the underground karstic hydrology. The dynamics of neotectonics and morphoclimatic systems, specially the old periglacial processes, is considered with reference to the main forms and deposits shown on the map.

The hydraulics of conduit flow in carbonate aquifers., 1984, Gale S. J.

Analysis of the morphology of dissolution-bedform assemblages and hydraulically-transported sediments found within conduits in carbonate aquifers in North America and the British Isles has allowed the hydraulic conditions under which conduit flows occur to be established. Mean values of flow velocity, boundary-shear stress, conduit Reynolds number, conduit Froude number, boundary friction factor, boundary roughness and flow power have been calculated. The values obtained are in agreement with other evidence in the conduits and are comparable to those obtained from other, similar, hydraulic systems.


Use of cave-maps for tectonic surveys., 1986, Jaskolla Franz, Volk Peter
Results of the author's investigations show the useful application of cave-map-data for tectonic assessment. Considering speleological features, cave genesis, and structural differences, it is possible to select of the cave map's pattern various jointing and stress systems. By 7 selected cave maps, representing areas of different tectonic history (W-Germany, Austria and Switzerland) it will be demonstrated that three types of kinematic joint-systems can be identified (fundamental, orthogonal- fold- and shear-system). Therefore, tectonic models are expected to become more valuable. It must be stated that future tectonic investigations in karst-areas should include the additional use of cave maps.

Signification godynamique des rseaux karstiques tags du canyon de Baudinard (moyennes gorges du Verdon, 1992, Blanc, J. J.
GEODYNAMIC SIGNIFICATION OF LEVELLED KARSTIC NETWORKS IN THE BAUDINARD CANYON (VERDON CANYON, FRANCE) - An intense speleogenic activity can be observed in the Baudinard canyon: some levelled systems in relation to the lowering karstic water-table linked to the formation of the canyon, during Messinian, Pliocene and Quaternary periods. An active tectonic framework shows many deformations of the ante-vindobonian surface during the plio-quaternary burrowing canyon phases. Azimuth gallery direction analysis reveals several sorts of drainage network: linear, smoothed with loops, labyrinths and drainage-confluences. Networks are induced by local and successive tectonic actions. The gallery wall deformations are strongly marked by the shrinking stresses and interstrata shearing.

Le palokarst littoral de Provence (Estaque, Calanques et zone de Bandol), 1993, Blanc, J. J.
The general features of coastal paleokarst in Provence are describes: suspended gallery sections and drain-pipes cut across by fracturations or fault reactivation. The types of deformations and breaking observed are tilting, stalactite fall, extension fault sealing, reactivation and speleothem shearing, coastal wall and karstic cleft collapse as well as network deformation. The influence of structural environment is represented by overlapping strata, coastal faults and crossed-fault systems. Emphasis has been laid on the tectonic inheritance as well as the geodynamic context. To conclude, the importance of provenal-ligurian rifting mechanisms and the transition to faulted and distorted margin is underlined.

Geology, geochemistry, and origin of the continental karst-hosted supergene manganese deposits in the western Rhodope massif, Macedonia, northern Greece, 1997, Nimfopoulos M. K. , Pattrick R. A. D. , Michailidis K. M. , Polya D. A. , Esson J. ,
Economic Mn-oxide ore deposits of commercial grade occur in the Rhodope massif near Kato Nevrokopi in the Drama region, Northern Greece. The Mn-oxide mineralization has developed by weathering of continental hypogene rhodochrosite-sulphide veins. The vein mineralization is confined by tectonic shear zones between marble and metapelites, extending laterally into the marble as tabular, pod or lenticular oreshoots (up to 50 m x 20 m x 5-10 m). Supergene oxidation of the hypogene mineralization led to the formation of in-situ residual Mn-oxide ore deposits, and secondary infills of Mn-oxide ore in embryonic and well developed karst cavities. Whole rock geochemical profiles across mineralized zones confirm the role of thrusts and faults as solution passageways and stress the importance of these structures in the development of hydrothermal and supergene mineralization at Kato Nevrokopi. Three zones an recognized in the insitu supergene veins: (A) a stable zone of oxidation, where immobile elements form (or substitute in) stable oxide mineral phases, and mobile elements are leached; (B) a transitional (active) zone in which element behavior is strongly influenced by seasonal fluctuations of the groundwater table and variations in pH-Eh conditions; and (C) a zone of permanent flooding, where variations in pH-Eh conditions are minimal. Zone (B) is considered as the source zone for the karst cavity mineralization. During weathering, meteoric waters, which were CO2-rich (P-CO2 similar to 10(-3.8) to 10(-1.4)) and oxygenated (fO(2) -10(-17) for malachite), percolated downward within the veins, causing breakdown and dissolution of sulfides and marble, and oxidation of rhodochrosite to Mn-oxides. Karat cavity formation was favored by the high permeability along thrust zones. Dissolved Mn2 was transported into karst cavities in reduced meteoric waters at the beginning of weathering (pH similar to 4-5), and as Mn(HCO3)(2) in slightly alkaline groundwaters during advanced weathering (pH similar to 6-8). Mn4? precipitation took place by fO(2) increase in ground waters, or pH increase by continuous hydrolysis and carbonate dissolution. In the well developed karst setting, some mobility of elements occurred during and after karst ore formation in the order Na>K>Mg>Sr>Mn>As>Zn>Ba>Al>Fe>Cu>Cd>Pb. (C) 1998 Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petrolem. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

Vertebrate Paleontology of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico, 1998, Frank, E. F. , Benson, R.
Vertebrate fossil materials were collected from over a dozen cave localities on Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico. Guano deposits at these localities were excavated and sifted to recover bone materials. The predominant vertebrate fossils recovered at every sifting site were Audubons shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri) bones. Fragmentary undifferentiated lizard bones were also found sporadically in the sifted material. Fossil skeletal bones and fresh bones from other bird species were found on the surface of the cave floors at several localities. Extensive fossil guano deposits on the island are interpreted to be of mixed origin with deposits near entrances primarily derived from bird guano, and deposits from the darker interiors of the caves derived from bat guano.

Magnetostratigraphy of Cueva del Aleman, Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico and the Species Duration of Audubons shearwater, 1998, Panuska, B. C. , Mylroie, J. M. , Armentrout, D. , Mcfarlane, D.
Magnetostratigraphic analysis of deposits exposed in Cueva del Aleman shows two reversed and two normal chronozones. The lower normal polarity event is observed in a clastic dike and probably predates initial cave formation. Sediments deposited inside the cave proper show a R-N-R sequence and probably date to at least 1.8 Ma. A fossiliferous clastic dike contains normal polarity with an overlying reversed magnetozone. Audubons Shearwater (bird) bones occur in the dike, which is tentatively correlated with the lower N polarity zone predating cave formation. If this correlation is correct, the Audubons Shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri) range can be extended back to at least 1.8 Ma, the Olduvai subchron

Evolution of size distributions of natural particles during aggregation: modelling versus field results, 1998, Atteia O,
In this paper a discretized model simulating aggregation of size distributions jointly with sedimentation and transport is presented. A review of the current theory provides some helpful hints about the relative importance of each aggregation process, i.e. Brownian motion, shear flow and differential sedimentation, which are tested by using collision efficiency factors. The novel aspect of the model arises from the use of a varying mean particle diameter in each size class. This allows both non-steady-state and steady-state calculations and free choice of size classes. A comparison with a classical approach shows the exactitude of the results and the improvment obtained for several cases. The simulations gave a family of curves characterized by three parts corresponding to peri-, and orthokinetic aggregation and to sedimentation. The role of collision effciency is crucial in the relative extent of each part of the size distribution. The comparison with a series of data from a karst spring showed that the model was able to fit most of the particle size distributions using significant values of each parameter. This allowed information about particle aggregation and transport within a non-accessible aquifer to be inferred.

Growth and demise of an Archean carbonate platform, Steep Rock Lake, Ontario, Canada, 1999, Kusky T. P. , Hudleston P. J. ,
The Steep Rock Group of northwest Ontario's Wabigoon subprovince is one of the world's thickest Archean carbonate platform successions. It was deposited unconformably over a 3001-2928 Ma gneissic terrane, and contains a remarkable group of biogenic and oolitic limestones, dolostones, micrites, and karat breccias capped by a thick paleosol developed between and over karst towers. The presence of aragonite fans, herringbone calcite, and rare gypsum molds suggests that the carbonate platform experienced at least local anaerobic and hypersaline depositional conditions. This sequence shows that a combination of chemical and biological processes was able to build a carbonate platform 500 m thick by 3 billion years ago. The carbonate platform is structurally overlain by a mixture of complexly deformed rocks of the Dismal Ashrock forming a melange with blocks of ultramafic volcaniclastic rocks, mafic volcanics, carbonate, tonalite, lenses of Fe-ore rock, and metasedimentary rocks, in a shaly, serpentinitic, and fragmental ultramafic volcaniclastic matrix. The melange shows evidence of polyphase deformation, with early high-strain fabrics formed at amphibolite facies, and later superimposed brittle fabrics related to the final emplacement of the melange over the carbonate platform. An amphibolite- through greenschist-grade shear zone marks the upper contact of the melange with overlying mafic volcanic and tuffaceous rocks of the ca. 2932 Ma Witch Bay allochthon, interpreted as a primitive island are sequence. We suggest an evolutionary model for the area that begins with rifting of an are sequence (Marmion Complex of the Wabigoon are) that initiated subsidence and sedimentation on the Steep Rock platform and its correlatives that extend for a restored strike length exceeding 1000 km. Shallow water carbonate sedimentation continued until the platform was uplifted on the flanks of a flexural bulge related to the approach of the Witch Bay allochthon, representing collision of the rifted are margin of the Wabigoon subprovince with the Witch Bay are. Melange of the Dismal Ashrock was formed as off-axis volcanic rocks were accreted to the base of the Witch Bay allochthon prior to its collision with the Steep Rock platform

The Vazante zinc mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil; constraints in willemitic mineralization and fluid evolution, 1999, Lena Virginia Soares Monteiro, Jorge Silva Bettencourt, Baruch Spiro, Rodnei Graca, And Tolentino Flavio De Oliveira
The Vazante Mine is located in the Vazante District, the largest zinc district in Brazil. The Vazante deposit consists dominantly of an unusual willemitic ore. Small sulfide bodies are tectonically imbricated with the willemitic ore, within the Vazante shear zone. Structural styles of deformation and petrographic and isotopic evidence indicate that willemitic mineralization and deformation occurred synchronously during the Neo-Proterozoic. Various generations of hydrothermal veins and hydraulic breccias may pre-date, accompany and overprint the mineralization. Ore-formation temperatures are deduced from stable isotope geothermometry and mineral chemistry of both sulfide bodies and willemitic ore. Temperatures during the main stage of mineralization range from 206 degrees C to 294 degrees C (willemitic ore) and 317 degrees C (sulfides), and reflect the prevailing metamorphic conditions within the shear zone. The fluid from which the gangue minerals of the sulfide bodies precipitated (at 250 degrees C) had an oxygen isotopic average value of delta 18 O = +19.4 per mil. This value appears to reflect the interaction of metamorphic fluid with the carbonate rocks of the Vazante formation. At 250 degrees C, the fluid in equilibrium with the vein mineral phases and willemitic ore assemblage exhibits a uniform oxygen isotopic composition, with an average value of delta 18 O = +11.5 per mil. The positive linear covariance of delta 18 O and delta 13 C ratios of the carbonates is most likely due to the mixing of metamorphic and meteoric fluids. The delta 34 S values of sulfides indicate a direct crustal origin for the sulfur. It is suggested that the sulfur is largely derived from pre-existing sulfide bodies and has been transported by metamorphic fluids. The willemitic ore may have originated from the precipitation of metal in sulfur-poor fluids under oxidized conditions, within the Vazante shear zone.

Basement lithology and its control on sedimentation, trap formation and hydrocarbon migration, Widuri-Intan oilfields, SE Sumatra, 1999, Tonkin P. C. , Himawan R. ,
The Widuri-lntan oilfields produce from late Oligocene sandstones of the Talang Akar Formation, which were deposited in a fluid-to-deltaic setting on the NW side of the Asri Basin, offshore SE Sumatra. The Asri Basin is of rift origin and formed during the early Oligocene, with its axis oriented in a NE-SW direction. Approximately 310 million brls of oil have been produced from the fields within the 12-by-12 mile (20-by-20 km) study area. The oil occurs in a series of structural and stratigraphic traps within slightly sinuous to meandering channel sandstone bodies. The reservoir sequence (sandstone interbedded with minor mudstone and coal) overlies basement rocks, which are predominantly Cretaceous in age. Forty-nine well penetrations have shown that the basement is composed of one of four lithologies: IB hornblende granodiorite; (2) metamorphic rocks, mainly mica schist; (3) plugs of metabasalt and related volcanic rocks; or (4) dolomitic limestone. A combination of drill cuttings, sidewall and conventional cores and FMS/FMI images has been used to identify and map the distribution of basement rock type. The basement was subjected to exposure and deep weathering prior to the formation of the Asri Basin, as evidenced by the zones of surface alteration encountered during drilling. The basement palaeotopography had a strong influence on the later distribution of major fluvial channels and sand pinch-outs. Several major faults appear to be controlled by basement lithology, especially at the boundaries of granodiorite and metabasalt intrusives. An important shear zone, oriented NW-SE, appears to have offset the basement between the main Widuri and Intan fields, and was subsequently the site of silicification of the mica schists in the basement. The Lidya field is situated where the reservoir pinches out onto eroded areas of basement silicification along this shear zone. Palaeocurrents in the upper 34-2 and 34-1 channel sandstones in the Widuri field were controlled by the orientation of this basement feature . Drape and compaction ofOligocene Talang Akar Formation sediments over eroded volcanic plugs have defined or enhanced a number of structural/stratigraphic plays, including the Widuri and Chesy fields. From seismic and well evidence, the reservoir sequence at the Indri field is underlain by dolomitic limestone and exhibits a series of unusual karst-related sinkhole and collapse structures. These are circular to slightly elliptical in shape, and extend from basement level to over 900 ft vertically into the overlying Talang Akar Formation

Karst collapse mechanism and criterion for its stability, 2001, He K. Q. , Liu C. L. , Wang S. J. ,
Karst collapse, caused by natural or artificial abstraction of groundwater, has been a focus of environmental geological problems for its ever-increasing hazardousness. The potential erosion theory and vacuum suction erosion theory, which reveal the origin of karst collapse macroscopically, are popularly accepted. However, a mathematic prediction criterion for karst collapse cannot be established only by these two theories. From a new perspective, this paper attempts to explain the microcosmic mechanism of karst collapse on the basis of these two theories. When the shear stress surpasses the shear strength of soil, a certain point or a certain plane in the unconsolidated soil covering karst caves will fail under the mechanical effects of water and air as well as its load-pressure, and with the increase of damaged points, a breaking plane appears and the soil on karst caves is completely damaged; as a result, the karst ground collapses. On the basis of the Mohr-Coulomb failure theory and previous studies, the paper presents a prediction criterion of karst collapse. Finally, by taking, for example, nine typical cases of collapse caused by pumping tests in Guizhou, the paper gives the calculation process of the model and proves its reliability

Dachstein-Altflche, Augenstein-Formation und Hhlenentwicklung - die Geschichte der letzten 35 Millionen Jahre in den zentralen Nrdlichen Kalkalpen., 2002, Frisch W. , Kuhlemann J. , Dunkl I. , Szekely B. , Vennemann T. , Rettenbacher A.
The landscape of the central Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) is largely determined by the celebrate elevated karst plateaus, which represent relics of the Dachstein paleosurface and can be followed as far as the eastern margin of the NCA. The Dachstein paleosurface formed in late Eocene to early Oligocene times as a karstic hilly landscape. It was modified by later erosional processes to a limited extent only and is preserved as such in the karst plateaus. In the Oligocene, the paleosurface subsided and was sealed by the Augenstein Formation, a terrestrial sequence of conglomerates and sandstones, which are only preserved in small remnants on the plateaus. The poorly and contradictingly defined terms Rax landscape" and Augenstein landscape" are not used any more. From the overall geological situation, the age of the Augenstein Formation can be inferred as Lower Oligocene to early Lower Miocene. Fission track dating on zircon support the Lower Oligocene age of the basal Augenstein sediments (only these are preserved). Their source area was situated in the south and mainly occupied by weakly metamorphosed Paleozoic sequences (Graywacke Zone and its equivalents) and the latest Carboniferous to Lower Triassic siliciclastic base of the NCA. To the west, the Augenstein Formation interfingered with the Tertiary sediments of the Lower Inn Valley. Thermal modeling of fission track data from apatite, which is contained in pebbles as an accessory phase, suggest that the Augenstein Formation attained thicknesses of locally 1.3 km, possibly even more than 2 km. Augenstein sedimentation probably ended in Early Miocene times with the onset of lateral tectonic extrusion in the Eastern Alps, which caused lowering of the relief in the source area and created a new, fault-bounded river network. In the following period, the Augenstein sediments were eroded and redeposited in the foreland molasse basin. From Pannonian times (ca. 10 Ma) on, the central and eastern NCA, and therefore also the Dachstein paleosurface, experienced uplift in pulses. The paleosurface remained preserved in those areas, where thick limestone sequences enabled subsurface erosion in cave systems and considerably reduced surface erosion. Augenstein sediments became washed into the widespread cave systems of the plateau-topped limestone massifs. The arrangement of the caves in three horizons shows that uplift of the NCA occurred in pulses separated from periods of tectonic quiescence. In our model of the evolution of the NCA since the late Eocene, the highest cave system, the surface-near ruin cave system, was probably formed during formation of the Dachstein paleosurface. The largest system, the giant cave system, formed in Upper Miocene times, i.e., in the early stage of the final uplift period of the NCA. The youngest and lowest system, the source cave system, formed in Pliocene to Quaternary times. We aimed to date material from the giant cave system by radiometric methods. U/Pb dating on speleothems from the Mammut cave (Dachstein) and the Eisriesenwelt (Tennengebirge) gave no formation age because of the low U contents; however, the isotope ratios allow to infer that the speleothems formed in pre-Pleistocene time. Quartz pebbles from the Augenstein Formation, washed into the caves before the formation of the speleothems, were analyzer for cosmogenic beryllium and aluminum isotopes in order to date the time of redeposition. The isotope contents, however, did no yield a sufficiently strong signal. Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were determined on the Eisriesenwelt speleothem in order to receive information on climatic changes during speleothem growth. A 260 mm long core from the outer zone of the speleothem shower limited variation for the temperatures of the seeping rainwater, which caused the speleothems to form. This indicates moderate climate and thus, again, pre-Pleistocene formation of the speleothems. All these results are in accord with the supposed Upper Miocene formation age of the giant cave system. Displacement of a speleothem along a shear plane and normal faults visible on the plateaus by the offset of the actual surface testify young, partly Quaternary tectonics, which affected the NCA.[ausfhrliche Darstellung, geol. Krtchen, Farbbilder, ganzes Heft.]

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