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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That discharge, maximum is the maximum discharge of a river or spring during high flow conditions [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for soil formation (Keyword) returned 12 results for the whole karstbase:
Barbuda--an emerging reef and lagoon complex on the edge of the Lesser Antilles island are, 1985, Brasier M, Donahue J,
The Pliocene to Holocene limestones of Barbuda have formed on a wide, shallow, outlying bank of the Lesser Antilles island arc, some 50 km east of the older axis of the Limestone Caribbees and 100 km east of the newer axis of the active Volcanic Caribbees. Contrasts with neighbouring islands of similar size include the lack of exposed igneous basement or mid-Tertiary sediments, the dominance of younger flat-lying carbonates, and the greater frequency of earthquake shocks. The history of emergence of the island has been studied through aerial reconnaissance, mapping, logging, hand coring, facies and microfacies analysis. These show a pattern of progressively falling high sea level stands (from more than 50 m down to the present level) on which are superimposed at least three major phases of subaerial exposure, when sea levels were close to, or below, their present level. This sequence can be summarized as follows: 1, bank edge facies (early Pliocene Highlands Formation) deposited at not more than c. 50-100 m above the present sea level; 2, emergence with moderate upwarping in the north, associated with the Bat Hole subaerial phase forming widespread karst; 3, older Pleistocene transgression with fringing reefs and protected bays formed at l0 to l5 m high sea level stands (Beazer Formation); 4, Marl Pits subaerial phase with widespread karst and soil formation; 5, late Pleistocene transgression up to m high stand with fringing and barrier reefs, protected backreefs and bays (Codrington Formation Phase I); 6, gradual regression resulting in emergence of reefs, enclosure of lagoons, and progradation of beach ridges at heights falling from c. 5 m to below present sea level (Codrington Phase II); 7, Castle Bay subaerial phase produced karst, caliche and coastal dunes that built eastwards to below present sea level; and 8, Holocene transgression producing the present mosaic, with reefs, lagoons and prograding beach ridge complexes, with the present sea level reached before c. 4085 years BP. The evidence suggests that slight uplift took place in the north of the island after early Pliocene times. Subsequent shoreline fluctuations are consistent with glacio-eustatic changes in sea level, indicating that the island has not experienced significant uplift during the Quaternary

Differences in the fracture type of limestone rocks have resulted in the formation of several main plant soil ecosystems in the montane and subalpine zones of the Jura (800-1 700 m). The sites were on stable landscape with slope < 5%. Locations were chosen to reflect the variation in physical properties of the bedrock and lithic contact. The rock fractures (densities and size), the shape and size of the fragments and the hydraulic conductivities were described and analyzed to characterize the 3 main bedrocks in the area studied (table 1): 1), lapiaz, ie, large rock fragments separated from each other by wide fractures (figs 1-2), 'broken' rocks traversed by numerous fine fractures (fig 2-3), paving-stones crossed by infrequent narrow fractures (fig 3). The effects of rock fracturing on vegetation (table II) and soil formation were significant in reference to porosity and permeability relationships (figs 6-7). Under similar precipitation, meteoric waters flow through the soil and porosity is relative to fracture systems (figs 4, 5). The weathering of cobbles in the soil profiles and along the lithic contacts maintains different soil solution Ca levels and is an important variable in soil and ecosystem formation (table III). Regarding the regional orogenic phases and the tectonic origin of the fractures, we postulate that the different types of fracturation originated from the different chemical and mineralogic composition of the rocks. Significant differences exist in both the calcite and dolomite content, in the insoluble residue content (table IV) and in the percentage of organic matter of the carbonate-free residues (table V, fig 8). The results indicate that the differences in rock composition arose early at about the period of sedimentation. The origin of the differentiation might be due to the sedimentation conditions and environment (fig 9). It is concluded that the present-day plant soil ecosystems may be related to the marine sediment environments of the Jurassic period (fig 10)

Ironstone is any chemical sedimentary rock with > 15% Fe. An iron formation is a stratigraphic unit which is composed largely of ironstone. The solutes which have precipitated to become ironstone have dissolved from the Earth's surface, from the upper crust, e.g. the basaltic layer of oceanic crust, or from deeper within the Earth. Genetic modellers generally choose between surficial weathering, e.g. soil formation, and hydrothermal fluids which have convected through the upper kilometre of oceanic crust. Most genetic modellers attribute cherty laminated iron formations to hydrothermal convection and noncherty oolitic iron formations to surficial weathering. However, both types of iron formations are attributable to the exhalation of fluids from a source region too deep for convection of seawater. Evidence for a deep source of ferriferous fluids comes from a comparison of ancient ironstone with modern ferriferous sediment in coastal Venezuela. A deep-source origin for ironstone has wide-ranging implications for the origins of other chemical sedimentary ores, e.g. phosphorite, manganostone, bedded magnesite, sedimentary uranium ore, various karst-filling ores, and even petroleum. Preliminary study of a modern oolitic iron deposit described herein suggests that the source of iron and silica to iron formations may have been even deeper than envisioned within most hydrothermal convection models

Modeling of soil cover genesis and evolution, 1996, Goryachkin S. V. ,
In order to develop agenetic approach to soil cover studies, the algorithm of qualitative modeling of soil cover genesis and evolution is suggested. During a modeling process of this kind, a system of models is created, including sequentially: (1) a spatial model-soil cover structure, presented on a detailed map; (2) an ecological-genetic model-factor-ecological matrix, demonstrating the relations between the soil and the factors of soil formation; (3) a process-genetic model, reflecting processes and mechanisms that form soil cover, in the same way as the concept of elementary soil-forming processes describes the origin of soil profiles; (4) a spatial-genetic model-a soil map with differentiated demonstration of soil boundaries connected to soil genesis and stability; (5) evolutionary and/or prognostic models of the soil cover, describing its change in time. The algorithm was applied to soil cover of the karst denudation plain of the European North

Land use in the karstic lands in the Mediterranean region, 1999, Atalay Ibrahim
Karstic lands have special importance in terms of soil formation and land-use. Soil appears only on the flat and slightly undulating karstic lands, while soils are found along the cracks and bedding surfaces between the layers on the hilly karst areas although these lands are rocky in appearance. Karstic lands in the hilly area are not conducive to cultivation. But rocky areas create a favourable habitat for the growth of forests except in an arid climate. Because the tree roots easily follow and develop along the cracks in the limestone. As a general rule soil erosion does not occur on sub-horizontal karst surfaces due to the fact that atmospheric waters easily infiltrate along the cracks. Natural generation of vegetation like the maquis-type occurs via the root suckers, but coniferous trees such as cedar, fir, pine through seed dispersal. The clearance of natural vegetation on the karstic lands leads to the formation of bare lands. That is why the slopes of the limestone hillsides have been converted into bare and/or rocky terrains in places where natural vegetation has been completely destroyed.

Eustatic sea-level and climate changes over the last 600 ka as derived from mollusc-based ESR-chronostratigraphy and pollen evidence in Northern Eurasia, 2002, Molodkov Anatoly N. , Bolikhovskaya Nataliya S. ,
We reconstruct and correlate palaeoclimatic events and deposits from shelf, glacial, periglacial, and extraglacial zones of northern Eurasia over the last 600,000 years. The chronostratigraphical correlation of identified palaeoenvironmental and sea-level events and corresponding horizons is based on electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis of subfossil mollusc skeletal remains from marine, freshwater and Acheulian-bearing cave-site deposits. Over 230 shell samples from more than 40 sites along the continental margin of Eurasian north, in the Black and Caspian sea basins and terrestrial shells from a Lower Palaeolithic cave-site in the Northern Caucasus were dated via ESR to produce a late Quaternary geochronology. The Pleistocene composite section of the loess-palaeosoil formation includes two reference sections--Likhvin and Arapovichi--from the centre of the East-European plain. The palyno-chronostratigraphic record is interpreted as the product of six warm-climate/high sea-level events including the current interglacial, and six glacial events. They are presented either as complete climatic rhythms of glacial and interglacial rank, or by considerable portions of climatic-phytocoenotic phases constituents of the rhythm. The full-interglacial conditions are centred at about 580, 400, 310, 220 and between 145-70 calendar ka. A broad correspondence between long palynological sequence, directly ESR-dated warm-climate-related events and other palaeoenvironmental records described in the literature has been noted for 11 upper oxygen isotope stages (11 to 1). The results obtained in this study exemplify the potential of integrated chrono-climatostratigraphic sequences in linking marine and terrestrial palaeoclimate records that may eventually span the whole Brunhes chron

Soil types and eolian dust in high-mountainous karst of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Zugspitzplatt, Wetterstein Mountains, Germany), 2003, Kufmann C. ,
This, study deals with the soil formation on pure limestone in the high-mountainous karst of Wetterstein Mountains (Northern Calcareous Alps). The study area in detail covers the alpine (2000 to 2350 in) and the subnivale zone (2350 to 2600 in) of Zugspitzplatt, a tertiary paleosurface situated next to the highest summit of Germany (Zugspitze 2963 in). The formation of autochthonous soils is determined by the following parameters: uniform geology and geochemistry of Triassic limestone (CaCO3 MgCO3 greater than or equal to 98%), variable substrata (solid rock, debris, local moraine), hypsometric pattern of vegetation modified by microclimate and aspect, variety of micro-environments in karst relief. In the subnivale zone, only leptosols (lithic, skeletic) and regosols (calcaric, humic) occur, whereas in the alpine zone different stages of folic histosols and rendzic leptosols prevail due to the diversity of vegetation. The purity of limestone prevents a distinct contribution of residues to soil formation. Instead of expected A-B-C profiles, the residues are mixed with organic matter of folic horizons (O-OB-C). Only in karst depressions or on local moraines small Bt horizons (2 to 5 cm) occur. They mark a developed stage of folic histosol (O-OB-Bt-C) representing the climax of autochthonous mineral soil genesis in the study area. Special features are brown deposits (mean thickness 30 cm) covering large parts of the alpine zone. On the basis of mineralogical (X-ray diffraction, heavy minerals) and pedological data (grain size, soil chemistry), eolian origin is indicated. The resulting soils are classified as loess loam-like cambisols (Ah-Bw-2(Bt)-2C) and are related to late glacial loess deposition (Egesen-Stade of Younger Dryas). The abundance of mica and silt in the surface layers and the grain size distribution of snow dust samples prove that dust influx by southerly winds is still continuing. The major sources for both late glacial and present-day dust are magmatic and metamorphic rock formations of the Central Alps. Additionally, local dust transport from adjacent outcrops of Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous sediments is evident. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Kitzsteinhorn high alpine karst (Salzburg, Austria): Evidence of non-glacial speleogenesis., 2004, Audra, Ph.
Cave and karst development in a recently deglaciated alpine area (Kitzsteinhorn, Salzburg, Austria) is examined and compared to presently and previously glaciated karst regions elsewhere. Field evidence suggests that cave genesis occurs mainly during warm, interglacial periods when vegetation and soil formation provide chemically aggressive runoff during the melting season. During periods of extensive glacier coverage, the glacial contribution to karst development is restricted to surface abrasion, shaft development in pre-existing vadose caves and infill of fine-grained sediment in the epiphreatic zone. [Feichtner-Schachthhle (2573/3)]

Kitzsteinhorn high alpine karst (Salzburg, Austria): Evidence of non-glacial speleogenesis, 2004, Audra, Ph.
Cave and karst development in a recently deglaciated alpine area (Kitzsteinhorn, Salzburg, Austria) is examined and compared to presently and previously glaciated karst regions elsewhere. Field evidence suggests that cave genesis occurs mainly during warm, interglacial periods when vegetation and soil formation provide chemically aggressive runoff during the melting season. During periods of extensive glacier coverage, the glacial contribution to karst development is restricted to surface abrasion, shaft development in pre-existing vadose caves and infill of fine-grained sediment in the epiphreatic zone.


This paper explains the investigation of shallow and sediment covered areas of the Dolenjska karst discovered during the construction of the motorway section between the villages of Hrastje and Le?nica. Research done during construction has again proved to be very useful; we came to numerous and augmentative conclusions about the development of karst features typical of the Dolenjska region. Again the importance of the participation of karst researchers in planning major activities concerning the karst and in monitoring the work was demonstrated. we have researched the unique features of the karst surface marked mostly by large areas of stone forests and characteristic karstification below the thick sediment beds.

Development of slope and related subsoil karst: A case study from Bela Krajina, SE Slovenia , 2011, Gams Ivan, Otonič, Ar Bojan, Slabe Tadej

The relief of Bela Krajina and Semiška Reber in southeastern Slovenia is mainly a consequence of post Late Miocene tectonic movements and karstic, mostly subsoil, erosion. In the lower half of the slope at Vrtača in the northwestern part of Bela Krajina, 1.3 km northeast of the center of Semič and 15 to 25 meters above the surroundings, a 250-meter long and about 150-meter wide lateral ridge rises at an inclination of 8°. The formation of the medium-sized relief between the elevated lateral ridge and the lower elongated side depressions is most probably to a large extent the consequence of differences in the rock fissuring and the varying intensity of hundreds of thousands of years lasting corrosion related to it. Traces of subsoil formation are the prevailing feature found on hundreds of rock ribs (i.e., subsoil rock formations that are not cone-shaped like teeth but rather elongated with their longer axes largely parallel to the dip of the surface) dissecting the surface area of one of the vineyard plots on the rocky lateral ridge. This indicates they were relatively recently exposed, as a consequence of human activity when soil was removed from an abandoned plot.

New data on the dolines of Velebit Mountain: An evaluation of their sedimentary archive potential in the reconstruction of landscape evolution , 2012, Ballut Christle, Faivre Sanja

The first approach to the relationships between societies and physical environments on Velebit Mountain shows narrow correlations between spatial distribution of dolines, soil formation, hydric resources, vegetation and land occupation. In 2002, sediment cores have been obtained from different dolines of Velebit Mountain to evaluate the potential of their sedimentary archives in order to reconstruct the landscape history. On the littoral slopes and on the top parts of the mountain, the dolines were difficult to dig due to the presence of rocks in depth. Nevertheless, the cores have been sampled and soil analyses have been made (physical and chemical analyses: colour, grain size, pH, CaCO3, C, N, P, K, Mg, CEC). No dating materials were found. The first results attest to rather homogeneous pedologic processes in each area studied (Kamenica, Stinica, Baške Oštarije and Bilensko Mirevo), but they also indicate colluvial contributions. These contributions differ from one doline to another according to their location and morphology. Dolines reveal themselves to be not very good traps, as the representative nature of their sedimentary archives could be very local. However, the best profile has been obtained at Bilensko Mirevo, which shows a change in the soil nutrient content from an impoverishment in its middle part toward an increase of the soil nutrients in recent parts. Those environmental changes could not be precisely dated, but could be correlated with the 17th to 20th century phase of strong human impact on the Velebit environment and with the rural depopulation observed since the second half of the 20th century.

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