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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That hydrology is the study of atmospheric, surface, and subsurface waters and their connection with the water cycle [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for soil gas (Keyword) returned 4 results for the whole karstbase:
Controls on the geochemistry of speleothem-forming karstic drip waters, PhD thesis, 2000, Tooth, A.

Research was performed at Crag Cave, Castleisland, southwest Ireland, and P8 Cave, Castleton, Derbyshire, in order to determine the main factors responsible for modifying rainwater geochemistry during flow through soil and karstic aquifer zones. Monitoring was performed on a daily basis in summer and winter at Crag Cave, and on a monthly basis over one year at P8 Cave. At both sites, biannual peaks in karst system Ca2+ concentrations occurred due to: (i) promotion of microbial CO2 production by increased summer temperatures, and (ii) retardation of gaseous exchange by ponding of elevated winter rainfall input leading to an unseasonable build up in soil zone CO2. Therefore, speleothems at both sites may form biannual bands in hydrological years subject to elevated winter rainfall input.

In addition to variations in carbonate weathering due to fluctuations in CO2 levels, cation yields in Crag Cave matrix soil water were controlled by dolomite dissolution (Mg2+), plant uptake (K+), and evapotranspiration balanced by enhanced winter marine aerosol input (Na+). Strontium isotope analysis indicates that Sr2+ was derived from a 50:50 silicate/carbonate mixture, whereas the relatively light ?13C signal was related to direct evolution of CO2 into the aqueous phase in water-logged pores.

Within the Crag Cave aquifer variations in karst water geochemistry were controlled by dilution, flow switching, prior precipitation of calcite, and dolomite dissolution along the flow path. Strontium isotope analysis indicates that dissolution in the aquifer dominated, with Sr2+ being sourced from a 25:75 silicate/carbonate mixture. Light karst water 13C values were constrained by the supply of light soil gas to the aquifer.

Elevation in the Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios in the Crag Cave speleothem record compared to present day analogues indicates that the former Holocene climate was drier, whereas heavier 87Sr/86Sr ratios and 13C values suggest variation in soil hydrology over time.


Soil gas screening for chlorinated solvents at three contaminated karst sites in Tennessee, 2002, Wolfe W. J. , Williams S. D. ,
Soil gas was sampled using active sampling techniques and passive collectors at three sites in Tennessee to evaluate the effectiveness of these techniques for locating chlorinated solvent sources and flowpaths in karst aquifers. Actively collected Soil gas samples were analyzed in the field with a portable gas chromatograph, and the passive soil gas collectors were analyzed in the lab with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results of the sampling indicate that the effectiveness of both techniques is highly dependent on the distribution of the contaminants in the subsurface, the geomorphic and hydrogeologic characteristics of the site, and, in one case, on seasonal conditions. Both active and passive techniques identified areas of elevated subsurface chlorinated solvent concentrations at a landfill site where contamination remains concentrated in the regolith. Neither technique detected chlorinated solvents known to be moving in the bedrock at a manufacturing site characterized by thick regolith and an absence of surficial karst features. Passive soil gas sampling had varied success detecting flowpaths for chloroform in the bedrock at a train derailment site characterized by shallow regolith and abundant surficial karst features. At the train derailment site, delineation of the contaminant flowpath through passive soil gas sampling was stronger and more detailed under winter conditions than summer

Hydrochemical variations during flood pulses in the south-west China peak cluster karst: impacts of CaCO3-H2O-CO2 interactions, 2004, Liu Z. H. , Groves C. , Yuan D. X. , Meiman J. , Jiang G. H. , He S. Y. , Li Q. A. ,
High-resolution measurements of rainfall, water level, pH, conductivity, temperature and carbonate chemistry parameters of groundwater at two adjacent locations within the peak cluster karst of the Guilin Karst Experimental Site in Guangxi Province, China, were made with different types of multiparameter sonde. The data were stored using data loggers recording with 2 min or 15 min resolution. Waters from a large, perennial spring represent the exit for the aquifer's conduit flow, and a nearby well measures water in the conduit-adjacent, fractured media. During flood pulses, the pH of the conduit flow water rises as the conductivity falls. In contrast, and at the same time, the pH of groundwater in the fractures drops, as conductivity rises. As Ca2 and HCO3- were the dominant (>90%) ions, we developed linear relationships (both r(2) > 0.91) between conductivity and those ions, respectively, and in turn calculated variations in the calcite saturation index (SIc) and CO2 partial pressure (PCO2) of water during flood pulses. Results indicate that the PCO2 of fracture water during flood periods is higher than that at lower flows, and its SIc is lower. Simultaneously, PCO2 of conduit water during the flood period is lower than that at lower flows, and its SIc also is lower. From these results we conclude that at least two key processes are controlling hydrochemical variations during flood periods: (i) dilution by precipitation and (ii) water-rock-gas interactions. To explain hydrochemical variations in the fracture water, the water-rock-gas interactions may be more important. For example, during flood periods, soil gas with high CO2 concentrations dissolves in water and enters the fracture system, the water, which in turn has become more highly undersaturated, dissolves more limestone, and the conductivity increases. Dilution of rainfall is more important in controlling hydrochemical variations of conduit water, because rainfall with higher pH (in this area apparently owing to interaction with limestone dust in the lower atmosphere) and low conductivity travels through the conduit system rapidly. These results illustrate that to understand the hydrochemical variations in karst systems, considering only water-rock interactions is not sufficient, and the variable effects of CO2 on the system should be evaluated. Consideration of water-rock-gas interactions is thus a must in understanding variations in karst hydrochemistry. Copyright (C) 2004 John Wiley Sons, Ltd

Limitations of hendy test criteria in judging the paleoclimatic suitability of speleothems and the need for replication, 2009, Dorale J. A. And Liu Z.
Carbon and oxygen isotopes in calcite speleothems are powerful proxies for understanding past climate change. For calcite deposited under isotopic equilibrium conditions, variations in d18 O values directly reflect changes in cave temperature and the isotopic composition of meteoric water. Speleothem d13 C values have bedrock, atmospheric, and soil gas sources. Soil gases can be traced to the overlying vegetation, which is related to climate. Both d13 C and d18 O values are therefore potentially powerful tracers of climate change. Processes that could alter speleothem d13 C and/or d18 O values, and thereby mask primary environmental signals, fall in the categories of 1) kinetic processes, including deposition of calcite out of isotopic equilibrium, and 2) vadose processes, including evaporation of water at or near the land surface. In truth, there is no absolute test for the absence of these kinetic/vadose-zone processes. However, the Hendy Test is widely used for assessing whether isotopic equilibrium existed during the time of calcite deposition. Criterion (1) of the Hendy Test (i.e., that d18 O values remain constant along a single growth layer) may not be a valid control of equilibrium conditions because isotopic equilibrium could theoretically occur in the center of the speleothem at the same time that kinetic fractionation occurs at the flanks. Moreover, the concept of sampling along a single growth layer is flawed in both theory and practice. Criterion (2) of the Hendy Test (i.e., that there is no relationship between d13 C and d18 O) is based on the assumption that speleothem d13 C values are not linked to climate. However, speleothem d13 C values may well be linked to climate because climate provides a first-order control on soil productivity and the type of vegetation. Therefore, Hendy Test criterion (2) is not a prerequisite to isotopic equilibrium in all cases. We propose instead the Replication Test (i.e., the demonstration of similar isotopic profiles among two or more speleothems) for evaluating the likelihood of calcite deposition under isotopic equilibrium conditions. Replication of isotopic profiles among two or more speleothems is possible only if kinetic/vadose-zone processes are either: 1) absent or 2) have affected spatially separated speleothems in exactly the same way. Because the second scenario is highly unlikely, we propose that the Replication Test is effectively sufficient in ruling out kinetic/vadose- zone overprinting processes. We further suggest that the Replication Test is far more robust in testing for the absence of the wide range of processes described above than is the traditional Hendy Test.

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