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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That evapotranspiration is 1. the combined loss of water from a given area and during a specified period of time, by evaporation from the land and transpiration from plants [22]. 2. the return of water in vapor form to the atmosphere through the combined actions of evaporation, plant transpiration, and sublimation [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for soil-water (Keyword) returned 9 results for the whole karstbase:
A hydrogeological study was conducted, during the 1991-1992 water year, in the clay-soil mantled portion of a limestone terrain in southern Indiana. The purpose of the study was to investigate the modes of soil-water infiltration contributing to rapid transport of nitrate to the saturated zone. The I-year-cycle profiles of nitrate concentration vs. time show a consistent increase of nitrate at various depths in the unsaturated zone during the period of investigation. The increase of nitrate in soil water is attributed to the rapid flushing of the inorganic fertilizers from the fields after the area received sufficient rainfall in late fall. The investigation also showed a major movement of nitrate in quick pulses through the unsaturated zone, rather than a slow uniform recharge, immediately after a major storm event. The asymmetric profiles of nitrate concentration vs. depth point to the existence of preferential flow through macropores in the clay-soil mantle above the bedrock. Soil-water transport between storm events is by matrix type flow. Nitrogen isotopes were analyzed for representative groundwater samples collected before and immediately after fertilization of fields in the summer, 1991. The delta(15)N values of the samples did not show any major shift in nitrate sources between the sampling periods. The summer of 1991 was extremely dry prohibiting vertical transport of nitrate from the fields to the groundwater system. Any change in nitrate concentration in groundwater during this time is attributed to the mixing through lateral flow within the aquifer

Elevated and variable values of 13C in speleothems in a British cave system, 1997, Baker A, Ito E, Smart Pl, Mcewan Rf,
[delta] 13C isotope variations in speleothems have been investigated for samples from the British Isles, where plants which use the Hatch-Slack or C4 photosynthetic pathway are not present. The range of [delta] 13C expected in speleothem carbonate formed in isotopic equilibrium with soil CO2 derived from the overlying C3 vegetation should thus fall in the range -12 to -6[per mille sign]. Forty-one actively growing speleothem samples from low-discharge sites were analysed from Stump Cross Caverns, Yorkshire, England. Ten percent have [delta] 13C greater than -6%. In addition, a large range of [delta] 13C was observed (-8.06 1.38[per mille sign], a 1 [sigma] variability of 17%), with adjacent samples having [delta] 13C differing by a maximum of 4.74[per mille sign]. Similar findings were obtained from a review of analyses of late Quaternary speleothem samples from the British Isles, with 75% of flowstone samples and 57% of high-flow stalagmite samples exhibiting elevated [delta] 13C. Three possible processes are proposed as possible causes of elevated [delta] 13C in speleothems. Firstly, fractionation may occur between the stalactite and stalagmite due to evaporation or degassing. Secondly, degassing of the groundwaters may have occurred within the aquifer before reaching the cave void, allowing release of some CO2 from the water whilst remaining saturated in calcium. Finally, the elevated [delta] 13C may be due to short water residence times in the soil, such that equilibrium between soil water and soil CO2 is not reached. Evidence presented here demonstrates that any one of these mechanisms may be important in the karst areas of the British Isles. Caution is needed before interpreting the [delta] 13C signal within speleothems in terms of palaeovegetation

Agriculture, landscape and human impact in some karst areas of Italy, 1999, Burri Ezio, Castiglioni Benedetta, Sauro Ugo
Italy is made up for about 1/5 of its surface by soluble rocks, which represent the arena of karst environments. The karst morpho-units, some hundreds, are mainly distributed inside the alpine structure of the Mediterranean mountains. A very large number of rock formations are present, different in facies, lithology, age, etc. Among these, carbonate rocks prevail, followed by gypsum and salt. Most of the carbonate rocks are limestones sedimented in a platform environment and they show a wide range of porosity, frequency of fractures and bedding planes. The climatic processes, the expression of some different sub-types of Mediterranean climate (from the typical Mediterranean to sub-atlantic and sub-continental varieties), are the main control of the recent morphodynamics inside the karst morpho-units. In some areas the variability of precipitation is very high. The soil-water deficit during summer, together with the steep slopes, makes these environments highly vulnerable to human impact, especially in relation to soil use for grazing and agriculture. The soils, with enriched mineral contents from the fall of loess-like sediments or of volcanic ashes, were surely very appealing to the first farmers.

A four-component mixing model for water in a karst terrain in south-central Indiana, USA. Using solute concentration and stable isotopes as tracers, 2001, Lee E. S. , Krothe N. C. ,
The study area lies in a highly karstified carbonate terrain in south central Indiana. Sinkholes, conduits, and caves form large secondary pathways for the subsurface flow. As a result, the discharge from a main emergence point for the subsurface flow system, the Orangeville Rise, quickly responds to the storm events and shows wide variations in flow rate, water chemistry, and stable isotopic compositions. These responses are attributed to the mixing of water in secondary pathways. In the study area, recharge occurs through the thick, mantled karst plain and the sinkhole plains, and the role of soil layer and epikarst in the recharge process is of great importance. Rain (DIC: 2 HCO3- mg/l, delta C-13 (DIC): - 7%o) soil water (DIC: 544 HCO3- mg/l, delta C-13(DIC): - 14.7%o), epikarstic water (DIC: 224 HCO3- mg/l delta C-13(DIC): - 13.6%o), and phreatic diffuse flow water (DIC: 299 HCO3- mg/l, delta C-13(DIC): - 11.8%o) generally showed unique and constant dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and delta C-13(DIC) values over time. Using DIC and delta C-13(DIC) as tracers, a four-component mixing model was established for the karstic flow system. By constructing the discharge hydrograph separation curves, the mixing ratio of each component, rain (10.6%), soil (3.1%), epikarstic (52.3%), and phreatic (34.0%) water, was determined for the Orangeville Rise discharge over the testing period of 104 h after the storm event of 10/4/90. Vadose water occupied 55.4% of spring discharge and this demonstrates the importance of the unsaturated zone, especially the epikarst, in the karstic flow systems. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Variation of delta C-13 in karst soil in Yaji Karst Experiment Site, Guilin, 2002, Pan G. X. , He S. Y. , Cao J. H. , Tao Y. X. , Sun Y. H. ,
This study deals with delta(13)C variation in karst soil system of Yaji Karst Experiment Site, Guilin, a typical region of humid subtropical karst formations. Samples of near ground air, plant tissue, soil and water (soil solution and karst spring) were respectively collected on site in different seasons during 1996-1999. Considerable variation of delta(13)C values are not only found with different carbon pools of soil organic carbon, soil air CO2 and soil water HCO3-, but also with the soil depths and with different seasons during a year. The delta(13)C values Of CO2 both of near ground air and soil air are lower in July than those in April by 1parts per thousand-4parts per thousand PDB. Our results indicate that the delta(13)C values of carbon in the water and air are essentially dependent on interface carbon interaction of air-plant-soil-rock-water governed by soil organic carbon and soil CO2 in the system

Effects of precipitation events on colloids in a karst aquifer, 2002, Shevenell L. , Mccarthy J. F. ,
The effects of precipitation events on colloid mobilization were evaluated during several storms from six wells in a karstic aquifer at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in eastern Tennessee (USA). Turbidity increases and rapidly recedes following rain events. Although the magnitude of the turbidity increases are relatively small (less than or equal to4.78 NTU), the increased turbidity suggests transient increases in colloid abundance during storm versus non-storm periods. During the larger storms (> 19 mm), the increased turbidity is associated with increases in pH, total organic carbon (TOC) and temperature, and with decreases in dissolved oxygen (DO). These larger storms result in flushing of a greater proportion of higher pH, TOC (and lower DO) soil or matrix waters into the fractures and conduits than occurs during smaller storms. Smaller storms also result in increases in turbidity, but show increases in DO and decreases in pH reflecting less influence on the water chemistry from the longer residence time epikarst or and matrix waters, and greater impact from the more dilute, newly recharged waters. Due to the complexity of karst flow and temporal variations in flow and chemistry, controls on turbidity are not consistent through time and space at the wells. During smaller storms. recharge by lower ionic strength waters may promote colloid release and thus contribute to observed increases in turbidity. During larger storms, elevated turbidity may be more related to pH increases resulting from greater influx of matrix and soil waters into fractures and conduits. Chemical factors alone cannot account for the changes in turbidity observed during the various storms. Because of the complicated nature of flow and particle transport in karst aquifers, the presence of colloids during precipitation events is dictated by a complex interplay of chemical reactions and the effects of physical perturbations due to increased flow through the conduits and fractures. Simple trends in water quality parameters could not be identified, and broad generalizations cannot easily be made in karst settings, and some of the expected correlations between chemical parameters during the storms were not observed in this work. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Modelling of dripwater hydrology and hydrogeochemistry in a weakly karstified aquifer (Bath, UK): Implications for climate change studies, 2006, Fairchild Ij, Tuckwell Gw, Baker A, Tooth Af,
A better knowledge of dripwater hydrology in karst systems is needed to understand the palaeoclimate implications of temporal variations in Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca of calcareous cave deposits. Quantitative modelling of drip hydrology and hydrochemistry was undertaken at a disused limestone mine (Brown's Folly Mine) in SW England overlain by 15 m of poorly karstified Jurassic limestones, with sub-vertical fracturing enhanced by proximity to an escarpment. Discharge was monitored at 15 sites intermittently from the beginning of 1996, and every 10-20 days from later 1996 to early 1998. Samples for hydrochemical parameters (pH, alkalinity, cations, anions, fluorescence) were taken corresponding to a sub-set of these data and supplernented by bedrock and soil sampling, limited continuously logged discharge, and soil water observations. Three sites, covering the range of discharge (approximately 1 mu L s(-1) to 1 ml s(-1) maximum discharge) and hydrochemical behaviours, were studied in more detail. A quantitative flow model was constructed, based on two parallel unit hydrographs: responsive and relatively unresponsive to discharge events, respectively. The linear response and conservative mixing assumptions of the model were tested with hydrogeochemical data. Dripwaters at many of sites are characterized by evidence of prior calcite precipitation in the flowpath above the mine, which in the higher discharging sites diminishes at high flow. Also at low flow rates, dripwaters may access seepage reservoirs enriched in Mg and/or Sr, dependent on the site. The discharge at all three sites can be approximated by the flow model, but in each case, hydrochemical data show violations of the model assumptions. All sites show evidence of non-conservative mixing, and there are temporal discontinuities in behaviour, which may be stimulated by airlocks generated at low flow. Enhanced Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca often do relate to low-flow conditions, but the relationships between climate and hydrogeochemical response are non-linear. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Unusual Phosphate Concretions Related to Groundwater Flow in a Continental Environment, 2006, Thiry Medard, Galbois Jean, Schmitt Jean Michel,
Occurrence of phosphate cemented-sandstone concretions in alluvial sand containing archaeological layers implies that they have formed during the last 2000 years. Morphology and petrography of the concretions indicates a relationship with groundwater cementation. The phosphate cement of the concretions consists of concentric isopachous aureoles, about 10 {micro}m thick, that wrap the detrital grains. Aureoles are formed of collophane, the cryptocrystalline or amorphous variety of hydroxyapatite. Geochemical modeling indicates that the apatite cement likely results from the leaching of a preexisting phosphate deposit (bones?) in an acidic soil environment and the precipitation of dissolved phosphate under pH control at the mixing zone of down-moving soil-water with the calcite-saturated groundwater

Using isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon species and water to separate sources of recharge in a cave spring, northwestern Arkansas, USA Blowing Spring Cave, 2013, Knierim Katherine J. , Pollock Erik, Hays Phillip D.

Blowing Spring Cave in northwestern Arkansas is representative of cave systems in the karst of the Ozark Plateaus, and stable isotopes of water (δ18O and δ2H) and inorganic carbon (δ13C) were used to quantify soil-water, bedrock-matrix water, and precipitation contributions to cave-spring flow during storm events to understand controls on cave water quality. water samples from recharge-zone soils and the cave were collected from March to May 2012 to implement a multicomponent hydrograph separation approach using δ18O and δ2H of water and dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C–DIC). During baseflow, median δ2H and δ18O compositions were –41.6‰ and –6.2‰ for soil water and were –37.2‰ and –5.9‰ for cave water, respectively. Median DIC concentrations for soil and cave waters were 1.8 mg/L and 25.0 mg/L, respectively, and median δ 13C–DIC compositions were –19.9‰ and –14.3‰, respectively. During a March storm event, 12.2 cm of precipitation fell over 82 h and discharge increased from 0.01 to 0.59 m3 /s. The isotopic composition of precipitation varied throughout the storm event because of rainout, a change of 50‰ and 10‰ for δ2H and δ18O was observed, respectively. Although, at the spring, δ2H and δ18O only changed by approximately 3‰ and 1‰, respectively. The isotopic compositions of precipitation and pre-event (i.e., soil and bedrock matrix) water were isotopically similar and the two-component hydrograph separation was inaccurate, either overestimating (>100%) or underestimating (<0%) the precipitation contribution to the spring. During the storm event, spring DIC and δ13C–DIC de- creased to a minimum of 8.6 mg/L and –16.2‰, respectively. If the contribution from precipitation was assumed to be zero, soil water was found to contribute between 23 to 72% of the total volume of discharge. Although the assumption of negligible contributions from precipitation is unrealistic, especially in karst systems where rapid flow through conduits occurs, the hydrograph separation using inorganic carbon highlights the importance of considering vadose-zone soil water when analyzing storm chemohydrographs.  

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