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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That spring, contact is a spring formed at the intersection of the land surface and a permeable water-bearing formation overlying a less permeable formation [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for spatial heterogeneity (Keyword) returned 5 results for the whole karstbase:
MICROBIAL DECOMPOSITION OF ELM AND OAK LEAVES IN A KARST AQUIFER, 1993, Eichem Ac, Dodds Wk, Tate Cm, Edler C,
Dry Chinquapin oak (Quercus macrocarpa) and American elm (Ulmus americana) leaves were placed in four microcosms fed by groundwater springs to monitor changes in dry mass, ash-free dry mass, and microbial activity over a 35-day period. Oxygen microelectrodes were used to measure microbial activity and to estimate millimeter-scale heterogeneity in that activity. Oak leaves lost mass more slowly than elm leaves. Generally, there was a decrease in total dry weight over the first 14 days, after which total dry weight began to increase. However, there were consistent decreases in ash-free dry mass over the entire incubation period, suggesting that the material remaining after initial leaf decomposition trapped inorganic particles. Microbial activity was higher on elm leaves than on oak leaves, with peak activity occurring at 6 and 27 days, respectively. The level of oxygen saturation on the bottom surface of an elm leaf ranged between 0 and 75% within a 30-mm2 area. This spatial heterogeneity in O2 saturation disappeared when the water velocity increased from 0 to 6 cm s-1. Our results suggest that as leaves enter the groundwater, they decompose and provide substrate for microorganisms. The rate of decomposition depends on leaf type, small-scale variations in microbial activity, water velocity, and the length of submersion time. During the initial stages of decomposition, anoxic microzones are formed that could potentially be important to the biogeochemistry of the otherwise oxic aquifer

Contribution of correlation and spectral analyses to the regional study of a large karst aquifer (Charente, France), 1998, Larocque M. , Mangin A. , Razack M. , Banton O. ,
The purpose of the study is to demonstrate that correlation and spectral analyses can contribute to the regional study of a large karst aquifer. An example is presented for the La Rochefoucauld karst aquifer (Charente, France). Different types of spatially distributed time series provide valuable spatio-temporal information for the karat aquifer. The available time series consist of the spring flow rates, the flow rates at different locations in sinking streams, the piezometric levels, the electrical conductivity and temperature of the water, the atmospheric pressure and the precipitation The analysis of the flow rates at the springs shows that the aquifer empties very slowly and has a large storage capacity. Hydrodynamic links were established between three of the four rivers flowing on the aquifer and the springs. The results also demonstrate the important spatial heterogeneity of the aquifer and indicate that the most rapid flow occurs in the northern part of the aquifer. Hourly piezometric and electrical conductivity time series indicate that the transmissivity of the aquifer varies when some conductive channels become desaturated during the low water period. The delays between the distributed recharge and the piezometric level, between the localized river input and the how rates at the springs and between the electrical conductivities in rivers and the main spring provide information on the travel times in the aquifer, The observation of earth tides and barometric effects indicate that this apparently unconfined aquifer has a confined behaviour. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Stochastic discrete model of karstic networks, 2004, Jaquet O. , Siegel P. , Klubertanz G. , Benabderrhamane H. ,
Karst aquifers are characterised by an extreme spatial heterogeneity that strongly influences their hydraulic behaviour and the transport of pollutants. These aquifers are particularly vulnerable to contamination because of their highly permeable networks of conduits. A stochastic model is proposed for the simulation of the geometry of karstic networks at a regional scale. The model integrates the relevant physical processes governing the formation of karstic networks. The discrete simulation of karstic networks is performed with a modified lattice-gas cellular automaton for a representative description of the karstic aquifer geometry. Consequently, more reliable modelling results can be obtained for the management and the protection of karst aquifers. The stochastic model was applied jointly with groundwater modelling techniques to a regional karst aquifer in France for the purpose of resolving surface pollution issues. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

Spatial heterogeneity of the soil cover in the Yucatan karst: Comparison of Mayan, WRB, and numerical classifications, 2005, Bautista F, Azgarrido S, Castillogonzalez M, Zinck Ja,
In karstic areas, geopedologic information integrating soil and relief features, especially concerning short-distance variability, is usually scarce. The aim of this paper was to compare soil classes in the Yucatan karst using the Mayan soil nomenclature, the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB), numerical soil classification (NSC), and geostatistics. The landscape is a flat-to-slightly-undulating karstic plain. Soil properties were determined at 54 sampling points on a regular grid covering an area of 1350 m(2). Six indigenous soil classes were identified on the basis of the terrain position, topsoil color, stoniness, rockiness. rock type. and soil depth. Five WRB soil units were recognized belonging mainly to Leptosols. Furthermore, six NSC groups were determined mainly on the basis of organic matter and stoniness. Soil organic material and texture explained 57% of the variation of the soil cover. An isotropic model of organic carbon shows a range of 39 m

Characterization of Spatial Heterogeneity in Groundwater Applications , 2009, Trinchero, Paolo

Heterogeneity is a salient feature of every natural geological formation. In the past decades a large body of literature has focused on the effects of heterogeneity on flow and transport problems. These works have substantially improved the understanding of flow and transport phenomena but still fail to characterize many of the important features of an aquifer. Among them, preferential flows and solute paths, connectivity between two points of an aquifer, and interpretation of hydraulic and tracer tests in heterogeneous media are crucial points that need to be properly assessed to obtain accurate model predictions. In this context, the aim of this thesis is twofold:

· to improve the understanding of the effects of heterogeneity on flow and transport phenomena
· to provide new tools for characterizing aquifer heterogeneity

First, we start by theoretically and numerically examine the relationship between two indicators of flow and transport connectivity. The flow connectivity indicator used here is based on the time elapsed for hydraulic response in a pumping test (e.g., the storage coefficient estimated by the Cooper-Jacob method, Sest). Regarding transport, we select the estimated porosity from the observed breakthrough curve (Φ est) in a forced-gradient tracer test. Our results allow explaining the poor correlation between these two indicators, already observed numerically by Knudby and Carrera (2005).

Second, a geostatistical framework has been developed to delineate connectivity patterns using a limited and sparse number of measurements. The methodology allows conditioning the results to three types of data measured over different scales, namely: (a) travel times of convergent tracer tests, ta, (b) estimates of the storage coefficient from pumping tests interpreted using the Cooper-a Jacob method, S est, and (c) measurements of transmissivity point values, T. The ability of the methodology to properly delineate capture zones is assessed through estimations (i.e. ordinary cokriging) and sequential gaussian simulations based on different sets of measurements.


Third, a novel methodology for the interpretation of pumping tests in leaky aquifer systems, referred to as the double inflection point (DIP) method, is presented. The real advantage of the DIP method comes when it is applied with all the existing methods independently to a test in a heterogeneous aquifer. In this case each method yields parameter values that are weighted differently, and thus each method provides different information about the heterogeneity distribution. In particular, the combination of the DIP method and Hantush method is shown to lead to the identification of contrasts between the local transmissivity in the vicinity of the well and the equivalent transmissivity of the perturbed aquifer volume.

Fourth, the meaning of the hydraulic parameters estimated from pumping test performed in leaky aquifers is assessed numerically within a Monte Carlo framework. A synthetic pumping test is interpreted using three existing methods. The resulting estimated parameters are shown to be space dependent and vary with the interpretation method, since each method gives different emphasis to different parts of the timedrawdown data. Finally, we show that by combining the parameter estimates obtained from the different analysis procedures, information about the heterogeneity of the leaky aquifer system may be inferred.
Fifth, an unsaturated highly heterogeneous waste rock pile is modeled using a simple linear transfer function (TF) model. The calibration of the parametric model provides information on the characteristic time of the flow through the matrix and on the fraction of the water that, within each section, is channeled through the macropores. An analysis of the influence of the scale on the results is also provided showing that at large scales the behavior of the system tends to that of an equivalent matrix reservoir masking the effects of preferential flow.


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