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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That mean value is the statistical average or measure of central tendency [16].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for statistical analysis (Keyword) returned 18 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 18
Essai sur l'analyse des cavits kars-tiques du massif de Marseilleveyre et des archipels de Riou et du Frioul (Marseille), 1983, Blanc J. J. , Monteau R.
ESSAY ON THE ANALYSIS OF THE KARSTIC CAVES OF THE MASSIF DE MARSEILLEVEYRE AND OF THE RIOU-FRIOUL ARCHIPELAGOS, MARSEILLE, FRANCE - Statistical analysis and numeric treatment about the karstic caves of the Marseilleveyre Massif and Riou-Frioul archipelagos. We deal with the relationships between the lithology of consolidated speleothems, geologic framework, jointing intensity, morphology and mechanical phenomena (decompression and neotectonic actions).

Structures des aquifres carbonats d'aprs les donnes de captages d'eau, 1984, Pulidobosch A. , Castillo E.
STRUCTURE OF CARBONATE AQUIFERS IN EASTERN SPAIN FROM THE DATA DERIVED FROM WELLS - From a statistical analysis of the data from several wells, pumping the carbonate materials of Creu Formation (Cenomanian-Senonian), in an area in Eastern Spain, it can be deduced that the yield and specific capacity fits well to a log-normal theoretical distribution. The biggest capacity of the wells located in discharge areas respect to the wells situated in recharge areas is interpreted as a result of the "hierarchical" role of karstification processes.

Le karst des Monts Padurea Craiulu (Roumanie), 1986, Badescu, D.
THE KARST OF PADUREA CRAIULUI MOUNTAINS AND THE SYSTEM OF TINOASA-CIUR-TOPLITZA DE ROSIA (ROMANIA) - Padurea Craiului mountains represent one of the most interesting karstic area of Romania. The existence of limestones affected by a lot of tectonics accidents had done these mountains to have distinct morphological aspects. The relative developed hydrographic network, together with the geological structure and the favourable tectonic, brought about a lot of endokarstic and exokarstic phenomena too. This is very clear in Runcuri plateau, which lodges the karstic systems Tinoasa-Ciur-Toplitza. The influence of the tectonic is demonstrated by the underground observations about the fissures. The development of these systems, as well as the morphology of the caves, are influenced by the structure and texture of the different jurassic limestones.

Les surfaces karstiques du plateau de Montrieux (Var), tude quantitative de la fracturation, 1990, Blanc J. J. , Nicod J.
THE KARSTIC SURFACES OF MONTRIEUX PLATEAU (VAR) - Statistical analysis of the jointing. Network jointing analysis in relation to the karstic areas with dolomitized Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous limestones (Valbelle, Montrieux and Morieres forest). Statistical results show some networks and tectonic occurrences correlated with an anisotropic status. Stresses repartition in space and time are linked to an ancient polygenic evolution. Data treatment outputs mark some relations with the quantitative spectrum of jointing extension, dolomitic surface morphology and eventual water drains.

Morphometric analysis of dolines, 1992, Bondesan Aldino, Meneghel Mirco, Sauro Ugo
The doline is the most specific surface form of karst landscapes, which enables one to distinguish them from "normal" erosion landscapes shaped by surface water. From a morphodynamic point of view the doline constitutes an elementary hydrographic unit, comparable to a simple basin, which, with its system of slopes, conveys water to the absorbing points at the bottom into an underground network. The morphometric study of these karst landforms enables a quantitative analysis of karst environment. Comparisons of the various parameters may give unexpected results and lead to new hypotheses about the evolution and the dynamism of the karst "geo-ecosystem". All the main morphometric parameters of the dolines are listed and explained and a preliminary discussion about some methods of spatial analysis is developed. It is intended to give methodological suggestions about data sources, systems of measurement, and to stimulate some reflection on the choices of possible processing of morphometric variables and on the significance of statistical analysis applied to different parameters. After a brief review of some morphometric and spatial analyses made in the past by different authors, three different examples are presented, relative to karst areas of the Venetian Prealps (Cansiglio-Cavallo, Montello) and of the Carso di Trieste. From these few examples one can understand how to confront this complex subject and what kind of results the analysis of morphometric parameters may give. In interpreting the results it is evident that one must not forget the geological, geomorphological, pedological, vegetational and climatic context of the karst area.

Spectacular towers (average 130 m high) are to be seen in the Lijiang plain near Guilin in middle and upper Devonian limestone forming a downthrown structural panel surrounded by the high relief of a cockpit karst. The limestone was fractured by at least three Triassic and Tertiary tectonic episodes. Statistical analysis of the altitudes of tower summits shows that they are distributed according to a log-normal law with a well marked mode at 250-280 m. This mode is very similar to that of the depression altitudes of the cockpit karst. It was deduced that tower summits and cockpit bottoms show that there was an ancient, relatively flat surface which was the basic level for flow in the surrounding karstic relief (water table at ground level). Fall in this ground water caused preferential karstic breakdown in very fractured zones, leaving the stronger blocks. This subsidence must have taken place in stages, as is shown by Pliocene and lower Quaternary fossil cavities at various altitudes of the towers. Observation of fracturing in the field, in aerial photographs and satellite images show that the edges of the towers are mainly transverse faults with sub-vertical planes

Interprtation morphomtrique et splo_gense : exemple de rseaux karstiques de Basse-Provence (directions de galeries, modle et maillage structural), 1997, Blanc Jeanjoseph, Monteau Raymond
Successive tectonic phases on limestone massifs are at the origin of a fracturation grid with several pattern dimensions, and linear or organized drain directions. Mechanical reactivations are observed from Oligocene until Plio-Quaternary on a former "pyreneo-provenale" structure (Eocene). Statistical analysis of gallery and fracture directions, cave levels and descent stages (overdeepening) show several erosional stages occurring after the formation of the Antevindobonian erosional surface. The active speleogenesis during Oligocene and Miocene was controlled by tectonics in connection with European rifting and mediterranean opening. In Messinian a short and significant lowering of mediterranean base level (and water table) made drastic erosion and created vertical pits. The horizontal cave level dug during the stabilization phase of Pliocene, now perched over underground rivers, shows a new overdeepening because of glacio-eustatic Quaternary oscillations. Compressive or distensive mechanical reactivations (Upper Miocene, Pliocene, Quaternary) modified the drainage and consequently the cave organization: self-piracy, confluence and diffluence. In the endokarst, the drainage inversion can be detected in late Upper continental Miocene and early Messinian (6,5 Ma), in correlation with the tilting and extension of the continental margin. Five caves in Provence are studied: Sabre, Petit Saint-Cassien, Rampins, Planesselve river, and Tete du Cade networks.

Reconstruction of Alpine Cenozoic paleorelief through the analysis of caves at Siebenhengste (BE, Switzerland), 2002, Hauselmann P. , Jeannin P. Y. , Monbaron M. , Lauritzen S. E. ,
The cave region of Siebenhengste, situated north of Lake Thun (Switzerland), contains one of the most important cave systems in the world, which extends from 500 to 2000 m a.s.l. It has a complex multiphase history. The recognized speleogenetic phases are related to spring level and to old valley floors. The six most recent phases were investigated in St. Beatus cave and Barenschacht. They suggest a progressive Quarternary Aare valley incision to 890, 805, 760, 700, 660, and 558 in a.s.l. that is confirmed by statistical analysis of small caves. U/Th-datings of flowstone allowed a timing of the valley deepening phases: the valley bottom was at 760 in already before 350 ka, the one at 700 in was active between 235 and 160 ka. The cave morphology in the upper part of the cave system was coupled with sedimentological observations. This combination leads to the hypothesis that the uppermost (oldest) cave parts were already created in the Miocene, during and after the last deposition of the Molasse. Ideas about the evolution of the paleorelief suggest that today's Aare valley is a product of glacial erosion, and that the old Aare valley shifted its position several times between the Miocene and today. (C) 2002 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved

An approach to the multi-element and multi-scale classification of the Limestone Pavement environment of Hutton Roof and Farleton Fell, Cumbria, UK, 2004, Huxter, Eric Andrew

 Limestone Pavements are highly significant components of the physiographic and ecological landscapes of the UK. As relict glacial features they are subject to destruction by natural processes but also by human intervention. This thesis identifies the most effective methods to monitor such change at a variety of temporal and spatial scales, based on the Morecambe Bay pavements at Hutton Roof and Farleton Fell. The starting point for such a study is a methodology to define the baseline on which to base change detection and the key to this is the development of a suitably detailed scene model. This must reflect the environment at the macro-, meso- and micro- scales and also incorporate considerations of the dynamics involved in the landscape evolution. The scene model (the Land Surface Classification Hierarchy (LSCH)) was developed by field measurement of the reflectance spectra of the main elements, biotic and abiotic, with measurements of the pavement surface in terms of the scale of karren development and the texture of the limestone itself. Study of the DEM allowed a fractal dimension to be established and also the nature of ice-flow and its contribution to pavement development, with extending flow, entraining fractured limestone blocks above a plastic, impermeable shale band, being the main mechanism. At the meso scale pavements were classified according to clint form derived from intra-pavement trends in grike direction calculated by Preferred Direction Analysis. Measurements of the key karren forms, runnels, solution pits and pipes and grikes allow assessment of their contribution to the variability of the pavement surface as an element of the scene model through the identification of solution domains. Identification of different lithologies allowed an investigation of spatial variation across the study area, although lithological control on karren form and magnitude is weaker than variability from age of exposure as shown by statistical analysis of karren morphometry using univariate comparative methods and Link diagrams, bivariate and multivariate regression, discriminant analysis, cluster analysis, multi-dimensional scaling and star diagrams with the derived Star Index. Pavements were classified according to karren morphometry. The traditional view of pedestals as an indicator of solution rates, and hence the concentration of solution at the surface, is challenged through the investigation of water flow over the pavement surface and the consideration of the role of lichen as a protective agent as well as the size of solution pits and grike width. It is suggested that only 10% of solution potential is achieved at the surface with 43% in the immediate epikarst. From this solution rate diagrams were developed, allowing the dating of exposure of pavements. These were shown to be within the period when human impact in the area was becoming significant and confirms an early anthropogenic impact on this element of the landscape. Further to this the development of grikes as emergent features was confirmed and this linked to the concept of breakthrough, allowing a model of grike development to be proposed, an important consideration in the dynamics of pavement change. At the micro scale texture analysis allowed the calculation of fractal measures which are related to variations in reflectance. The radiometric response of biotic and abiotic elements of the scene model was analysed confirming the facility of the baseline scene reflectance model of the pavement. Remotely sensed images from the Airborne Digital Camera were linked to ATM, CASI and TM images assessing the effect of scale on change detection and the evaluation of the pavement environment.

Evolution spatio-temporelle du chimisme des eaux thermominrales des monts de la Cheffia (nord-est algrien), 2006, Alayat Hacne, Lamouroux Christian
Spatio-temporal chemical evolution of thermo-mineral springs in Monts of Cheffia (north-east of Algeria) - The Mounts of Cheffia, located at the extreme Algerian north-east, are the seat of thermomineral springs. The most visited by the curists are Hammam Sidi Trad, Zatout and Beni Salah. The others are forsaken for lack of arranged accesses. The preliminary results of the study of water of these griffons are presented in this note. The first analyses, of which we are informed, go up at 1968. The data collected (2001, 2002) allowed the physicochemical characterization of water, illustrated by their projection on the diagram of Piper and by the statistical analysis. We could identify several chemical facies and distinguish two groups of griffons:One characterizes unsalted water or not very mineral-bearing and with odor of hydrogen sulphide represented by Sidi Trad. The other characterizes salted water, rich in bicarbonate and out of dissolved CO2.

Etude de la karstification partir des donnes de forages : le cas des Monts de Tlemcen (Algrie), 2007, Bensaoula Fouzia
STUDY OF KARSTIFICATION FROM BOREHOLE DATA. THE CASE OF THE TLEMCEN MOUNTAINS. The Tlemcen mountains are the second largest carbonate massif in the north-west of Algeria, after the one of the Saida mountains. It is a large horst structure trending NE-SW, composed mainly of Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous formations. The aquifers within it constitute the main water resource of the area. They are tapped by more than 160 boreholes, which constitute a great tool for studying the karst, especially its phreatic part. In the holes made by conventional drills, the total loss of drilling mud indicate karstification. The registration of the altitude of those losses permit to recognize the fissured and karstified levels. Three different aspects of karstifications were observed: an important fracturation, seen by complete loss of drilling mud during the drilling, important caves, observed by the free fall of drilling tools, and caves filled by karstic sediments, found thanks to diagraphies and the study of material brought up by the drilling. A statistical analysis of these data permitted to evidence the following elements: The dolomitic facies is much more dominant than the limestone facies; The frequency of incidences slowly decreases with depth; The fracturation is most important in the first 120 to 130 m below the top of the karstified formations, although it does not disappear at depth. In the breakdown zone of Tlemcen, situated in the northern piedmont part of the Tlemcen mountain, 26 boreholes permitted to draw an isopach map of the thickness of the karstic cover as well as the top of the karstified formation. This one shows two hollow zones below 100 m depth in the SW and NE parts. The top of the jurassic carbonates shows a very irregular surface which might correspond to a karstic paleorelief that was drowned by the Miocene transgression. Finally, the last map shows a karstified surface that can possibly be connected to a pseudo-paleo-piezometric surface.

Modelling of the functioning of karst aquifers with a reservoir model: Application to Fontaine de Vaucluse (South of France), 2007, Fleury Perrine Plagnes Valé, Rie Bakalowicz Michel
This work deals with a rainfall-discharge model applied to a well known karst aquifer. A new approach is developed in order to minimize the fitting parameters: here, some of the model parameters do not result from a simple fitting, as it was the case with earlier models, i.e., some of them were assessed from the hydrograph analysis. The conceptual model of the functioning is based on a production function based on a simple calculation of effective rainfall and a transfer function consisting of two reservoirs. A slow discharge reservoir transfers the low flow and a rapid discharge reservoir feeds the high flow. The model has three fitted parameters plus one for its initialisation. Three parameters are deduced from the hydrograph analysis over the entire time series. For example, the recession coefficient of the slow discharge reservoir is determined from the hydrodynamic analysis of the recession [Mangin, A., 1975. Contribution à l?étude hydrodynamique des aquifères karstiques. 3ème partie. Constitution et fonctionnement des aquifères karstiques. Annales de Spéléologie, 30 (1), 210?124]. This model was tested over a ten years period on the Fontaine de Vaucluse French karst system. The first hydrological year is used for fitting the model; the nine other cycles validate the modelling. The good quality of the model is proved by the Nash criterion of 92.3% on the validation period. Moreover, the simulation results were validated by a statistical analysis of measured and simulated time series. The model successfully simulates both the high and low flow at the same time. Also it estimates the water volumes available in the different parts of the aquifer and it proposes a management tool capable of predicting the evolution of the discharge in different climate conditions.

Recent developments on morphometric analysis of karst caves, 2011, Piccini, Leonardo

Nowadays, the use of computers and the digital techniques for survey processing easily allows to carry out morphometric analysis of caves and karst systems. Morphometric indices have been proposed by many authors in order to describe the genetic features of some particular types of caves, such as coastal ones, maze caves or isolated voids. Large cave systems can be analyzed through the reconstruction of a 3D model. The digital model can be used to evaluate the role of the structural setting or the evolution stages through the recognizing of particular levels where epi-phreatic passages are more developed. These levels are particularly significant when a lithological or structural control can be excluded. Some morphometric indices, obtained by the ratios of simple dimension parameters of caves, allow the statistical analysis of large databases, collected in the regional speleological inventories, in the attempt to recognize different geomorphic populations of caves. Further studies and a greater number of analysis could allow to use these morphometric indices to distinguish genetic categories of caves and to get a useful instrument for the study of the evolution of karst areas.

Recent developments on morphometric analysis of karst caves, 2011, Piccini L.

Nowadays, the use of computers and the digital techniques for survey processing easily allows to carry out morphometric analysis of caves and karst systems. Morphometric indices have been proposed by many authors in order to describe the genetic features of some particular types of caves, such as coastal ones, maze caves or isolated voids. Large cave systems can be analyzed through the reconstruction of a 3D model. The digital model can be used to evaluate the role of the structural setting or the evolution stages through the recognizing of particular levels where epi-phreatic passages are more developed. These levels are particularly significant when a lithological or structural control can be excluded. Some morphometric indices, obtained by the ratios of simple dimension parameters of caves, allow the statistical analysis of large databases, collected in the regional speleological inventories, in the attempt to recognize different geomorphic populations of caves. Further studies and a greater number of analysis could allow to use these morphometric indices to distinguish genetic categories of caves and to get a useful instrument for the study of the evolution of karst areas.

Geomorphological Characteristics of the Italian Side of Canin Massif (Julian Alps) using Digital Terrain Analysis and Field Observations , 2011, Telbisz Tams, Mari Lszl, Szab Lnrd

In this paper, by the example of Canin Massif, it is demon­strated, how GIS-techniques can be used for the study of high mountain karst terrains. In case of Canin, elevation and slope histograms show characteristic differences in plateau levels and landforming processes between the northern, western and southern sectors of the mountains. Ridge and valley map (de­rived from the digital elevation model) and thalweg analysis are used to recognize drainage reorganizations north of the Italian Canin plateau. Potential snow accumulation locations and nu­nataks are determined based mainly on the slope map. Geo­morphological sketch maps and statistical analysis of closed depressions are also carried out in this study supporting the relatively young age of superficial karstification and the strong structural impact. Finally, it is concluded, that quantitative and visual capabilities of GIS are useful in discriminating the effects of glacial, fluvial, structural and karst processes.

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