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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That granule is small rounded grain or rock fragment [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for submerged speleothems (Keyword) returned 4 results for the whole karstbase:
Comparison of 14C and 230Th/234U dating of speleothems from submarine caves in the Adriatic Sea (Croatia), 2004, Surić, Maš, A, Jurač, Ić, Mladen, Horvatinč, Ić, Nada

Among the 16 speleothems that were collected from 7 submarine caves and pits for the purpose of 14C and U-Th dating and reconstructing sea-level changes, two speleothems were dated by both methods. Different environmental conditions during the speleothem deposition and after the submergence resulted with different appropriateness for speleothem dating by these techniques. Well preserved speleothems gave reliable results by both methods, while U-Th method showed disadvantage in the case of carbonates contaminated with detrital material, as well as in the case of carbonate from marine overgrowth that covers the speleothems. However, U-Th method using MC ICPMS technique which requires only 100-300 mg of sample per analysis (instead of ca. 30 g for 14C conventional method), offers better age resolution that is essential for speleothem dating.

Isotope records in submarine speleothems from the Adriatic coast, Croatia, 2005, Suric Masa, Horvatincic Nada, Suckow Axel, Juracic Mladen, Baresic Jadranka,
Isotope studies, using 14C dating, {delta}13C and {delta}18O measurements, were performed at eight speleothems taken from three submerged caves situated along the eastern Adriatic coast, Croatia. The speleothems were taken from 17 m to 38.5 m depth below mean sea level. The samples consist of four stalagmites and four stalactites in position of growth, covered with marine biogenic overgrowth, and the length of speleothems ranges from ~80 mm to ~190 mm. The youngest (surface) and the oldest (base) layers of speleothems were radiocarbon dated and the 14C ages range from 21,600 cal B.P. to 37,000 yr B.P. During that period the global sea level was more than 40 m below the recent one, so presently submerged objects were under the subaerial conditions necessary for speleothem deposition. 14C ages of the youngest layer range from 21,600 to 32,200 cal B.P. for different submerged speleothems. This indicates the time when the speleothem growth ceased, most probably due to flooding of the cave with either fresh or brackish water. Speleothem growth during the Last Glacial Maximum (30-19 kyr ago) and different time of growth cessation for the different speleothem samples suggest that climate change was not the reason for cessation of deposition. Samples for {delta}13C and {delta}18O measurements were taken from six submerged speleothems with sampling distances of ca. 5-10 mm from the surface to the base of speleothems. Most of the {delta}13C values are in the range from -10.5{per thousand} to -8.5{per thousand}, with few exceptions to -6{per thousand}. These values are typical for Dinaric karst, and very different values for marine biogenic overgrowth indicate that no isotopic exchange took place during the submerged period. {delta}18O values range from -6.7{per thousand} to -4.1{per thousand}. A weak correlation between {delta}13C and {delta}18O values indicates possible kinetic isotope fractionation during the calcite precipitation. If the {delta}18O record is interpreted as climatic signal, it suggests similar climatic conditions for the late Pleistocene and the Holocene, especially no significant differences in temperature and/or moisture transport

Late Pleistocene-Holocene sea-level rise and the pattern of coastal karst inundation: records from submerged speleothems along the Eastern Adriatic Coast (Croatia), 2005, Suric Masa, Juracic Mladen, Horvatincic Nada, Krajcar Bronic Ines,
In order to reconstruct the late Pleistocene-Holocene sea-level rise along the Eastern Adriatic Coast, eight speleothems were collected from three submerged caves along the Croatian coast from depths of -38.5 to -17 m. The marine biogenic overgrowth layer and the youngest and the oldest parts of the speleothems were dated by the 14C method. Their stable isotope (13C/12C and 18O/16O) contents were also measured. From the measured 14C activity of the marine overgrowth and using the model of Alessio et al. (1992, Risultati preliminari relativi alla datazione di speleotemi sommersi nelle fasce costiere del Tirreno centrale. Giornale di Geologia ser. 3 54/2, 165-193), the start of overgrowth (i.e., the time of flooding by seawater) was determined to be 10,185 cal BP at -36 m, 9160 cal BP at -34 m, and 7920 cal BP at -23 m.Our results partially match the sea-level curves reconstructed for adjacent areas (Tyrrhenian Coast and French Mediterranean Coast). However, the start of the marine overgrowth on speleothems in pit caves indicates strong dependence on the steepness of the terrain. On steep, extensively karstified coasts, marine overgrowths on speleothems coincided with the submersion of the speleothems due to the relatively short distance between the pit and the open sea and fast penetration of seawater into the pit. In contrast, marine overgrowths on speleothems in pits in the flat terrains occurred later because speleothem growth ceased due to flooding with fresh groundwater. Later, the fresh water was replaced by seawater due to the greater distance of the inland pits to the former coast


With the intention of reconstructing Late Pleistocene – Holocene sea-level changes along the Eastern Adriatic coast, a series of speleothems were collected from several submerged caves and pits, in order to constrain periods of their deposition and ceased growth related to sea-level fluctuations. For that purpose, stalagmites provide more reliable records than stalactites, due to their successive layers deposited perpendicularly to the growth direction. Therefore, stalagmites have been collected preferably. But, two of 17 speleothems displayed unexpected interior morphology – speleothem L-1 collected at the depth of 1.5 m in Medvjeđa spilja Cave on Lošinj Island, and speleothem M-25 from Pit near Iški Mrtovnjak Islet collected at the depth of 25 m. Both of the samples were taken from the cave floor, in the growth position of the stalagmite. But the insight into the perpendicular cut with evident central tube revealed their true (stalactitic) origin and additional confirmations were obtained by longitudinal cut and U-Th and 14C dating. Just as the causes of their breakdowns were probably different, so were their falls; speleothem M 25 (together with several other speleothems around it) stuck in the marine sediment in its primary position, while L-1 turned upside-down and even continued crystallizing during the lower sea level. These events are possible in the continental caves, as well. Evidently, it is much easier to recognize and avoid these problems in air-filled caves than in the submarine ones where the speleothems are almost always covered with marine overgrowth, which disguises their outer morphology. Additionally, the bases of the stalagmites are also sometimes covered with marine sediment, which makes correct estimation rather difficult.

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