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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That neutrality point is the separation point between acid and basic solution with a ph of 7.0 [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Your search for subrosion (Keyword) returned 6 results for the whole karstbase:
Principal features of evaporite karst in Canada, 1997, Ford Dc,
Outcrops of sulfate arid mixed sulfate-carbonate rocks are common everywhere in Canada outside of the Shield province. Interstratal salt deposits are abundant in the interior lowlands. Types of karst that occur are determined chiefly by relations between (i) formation thickness and purity, (ii) regional topography and hydraulic gradient (iii) effects of receding Wisconsinan and earlier glaciers, and (iv) extent of modern permafrost. Exposures of bare karst on thick, pure sulfate formations are comparatively rare. Two principal landform types found on them are: (1) high-density polygonal karst (micro-sinkhole densities of thousands per km(2)); where hydraulic gradients are high and tills are thin; (2) hills and ridges of blocks uplifted and fractured by hydration (anhydrite) tectonics at paleo-icefront positions where hydraulic gradients are low. Deeply till-mantled karst dominated by collapse and suffosion sinkholes in the mantling detritus is well developed in southwestern Newfoundland and in central and northern Nova Scotia. Covered karst is abundant on sulfates conformably overlain by carbonate br elastic strata; collapse sinkholes ale the principal landform. Very large breccia pipes (up to 25 x 15 km) ale associated with deep subrosion of salt during glacier recessions. Syngenetic breccia karst is a fourth, distinct category created in some formations of thin, interbedded dolostones and sulfates. Where these are exposed td high hydraulic gradients, deep calcite-cemented breccias were formed in a first generation, upon which sinkhole and pinnacle karsts and dissolution drape topographies were able to develop rapidly in late-glacial and post-glacial conditions

Karst and caves in salt diapirs, SE Zagros Mts. (Iran), 1999, Bosá, K Pavel, Bruthans Jirí, , Filippi Michal, Svoboda Tomá, š, , Š, Mí, D Jakub

About 200 salt diapirs (plugs) have been known in the region of the Persian Gulf. numerous are still active. Karst rocks are represented by a rock salt, less frequently by gypsum and anhydrite. Karst developed especially in relics of planated surfaces. Karst forms are completely comparable with karsts in classical carbonate rocks. Different forms can be distinguished: karren, solution pipes, solution dolines, solution-collapse dolines, uvala-like to polje-like depressions, blind valleys, canyon-like forms, ponors, springs and caves. Two World longest caves in salt were discovered and explored here. Long caves are developed especially in a watertable, large ones in plugs near the seacoast. Caves are often outlets of closed depressions (polje-like). Some caves at bottoms of collapse-solution dolines or swallow holes are subvertical. Karst processes are caused dominantly by dissolution of salt, less frequently of gypsum. The process of subrosion of halite under gypcretes plays the main role. Deep circulation of meteoric waters was proved in some plugs.


The Salt That Wasn't There: Mudflat Facies Equivalents to Halite of the Permian Rustler Formation, Southeastern New Mexico, 2000, Powers Dennis W. , Holt Robert M. ,
Four halite beds of the Permian Rustler Formation in southeastern New Mexico thin dramatically over short lateral distances to correlative clastic (mudstone) beds. The mudstones have long been considered residues after post-burial dissolution (subrosion) of halite, assumed to have been deposited continuously across the area. Hydraulic properties of the Culebra Dolomite Member have often been related to Rustler subrosion. In cores and three shafts at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), however, these mudstones display flat bedding, graded bedding, cross-bedding, erosional contacts, and channels filled with intraformational conglomerates. Cutans indicate early stages of soil development during subaerial exposure. Smeared intraclasts developed locally as halite was removed syndepositionally during subaerial exposure. We interpret these beds as facies formed in salt-pan or hypersaline-lagoon, transitional, and mudflat environments. Halite is distributed approximately as it was deposited. Breccia in limited areas along one halite margin indicates post-burial dissolution, and these breccias are key to identifying areas of subrosion. A depositional model accounts for observed sedimentary features of Rustler mudstones. Marked facies and thickness changes are consistent with influence by subsidence boundaries, as found in some modern continental evaporites. A subrosion model accounts for limited brecciated zones along (depositional) halite margins, but bedding observed in the mudstones would not survive 90% reduction in rock volume. Depositional margins for these halite beds will be useful in reconstructing detailed subsidence history of the Late Permian in the northern Delaware Basin. It also no longer is tenable to attribute large variations in Culebra transmissivity to Rustler subrosion

Salt Karst, 2013, Frumkin, A.

Halite is the most soluble common mineral. Salt karst is concerned with extremely soluble and erodible rock-salt geomorphology, which demonstrates a dynamic end member to karst processes. Salt outcrops are rare, due to the high solubility, and common total dissolution underground, but subsurface salt is common, and commonly associated with environmental problems. These are associated with salt hazards, generally due to anthropogenic modification of hydrological systems, causing aggressive water to attack salt rock. Most salt outcrops appear under desert conditions, where the salt mass escapes total dissolution. In such outcrops, runoff produces well-developed karst terrains, with features including karren, sinkholes, and vadose caves. Existing salt relief is probably not older than Pliocene, but the known well-developed


Die Erdflle von Layla und Al-Kharj Einblicke in die Karst-Hydrogeologie des oberen Jura von Saudi-Arabien, 2013, Schleusener Florian, Kempe Stephan, Dirks Heiko, Rausch Randolf, Gbel Patricia

Until the end of the 20th century, the sinkhole lakes of Layla and Al-Kharj formed oases in central Saudi Arabia. They were fed by ascending groundwater from the karstified Upper Jurassic anhydrites of the Arab and Hith formations. Morphologic features of a cave near Al-Kharj and hydraulic heads in wells of the Layla region show that the karstification of the anhydrites was hypogene. The karstification led to zones of collapse in the overlying Cretaceous sediments. Because of the exploitation of the underlying aquifer, the sinkhole-lakes dried up, exposing worldwide singular sublacustrine gypsum tufas on their walls. The gypsum tufas and widespread gypsum crusts in the vicinity of the sinkholes reflect the former ascent of the sulphate enriched groundwater.


Die Erdflle von Layla und Al-Kharj Einblicke in die Karst-Hydrogeologie des oberen Jura von Saudi-Arabien, 2013, Schleusener Florian, Kempe Stephan, Dirks Heiko, Rausch Randolf, Gbel Patricia

Until the end of the 20th century, the sinkholelakes of Layla and Al-Kharj formed oases in central Saudi Arabia. They were fed by ascending groundwater from the karstified Upper Jurassic anhydrites of the Arab and Hith formations. Morphologic features of a cave near Al-Kharj and hydraulic heads in wells of the Layla region show that the karstification of the anhydrites was hypogene. The karstification led to zones of collapse in the overlying Cretaceous sediments. Because of the exploitation of the underlying aquifer, the sinkhole-lakes dried up, exposing worldwide singular sublacustrine gypsum tufas on their walls. The gypsum tufas and widespread gypsum crusts in the vicinity of the sinkholes reflect the former ascent of the sulphateenriched groundwater.


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