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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That microhabitat is a miniature habitat within a larger one; a restricted area where environmental conditions differ from those in the surrounding area. a sheltered nook in a cave wall is an example of a microhabitat within the cave [23].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for sulphide oxidation (Keyword) returned 4 results for the whole karstbase:
Controls on bacterial sulphate reduction in a dual porosity aquifer system: the Lincolnshire Limestone aquifer, England, 2000, Bottrell Sh, Moncaster Sj, Tellam Jh, Lloyd Jw, Fisher Qj, Newton Rj,
Chemical and sulphur isotopic analyses are presented of fissure-waters and pore-waters in the deep confined zone of a dual porosity carbonate aquifer. Some of the fissure-waters show good evidence for bacterial sulphate reduction, with low concentrations of sulphide present which is strongly to moderately depleted in 34S relative to sulphate. The sulphur geochemistry is best interpreted as mixing between: (i) a reduced water with sulphide ~60[per mille sign] depleted in 34S relative to sulphate; and (ii) a sulphate-rich water from up-dip in the aquifer. In addition, sulphide oxidation occurs where sufficiently oxidizing water is drawn in by abstractions. The large isotope fractionation factor associated with the sulphidic waters is probably the result of redox cycling of sulphur with little net reduction, rather than a true kinetic fractionation factor. By contrast, pore-waters in the 'sulphate reducing zone' show little or no evidence for the effects of sulphate reduction, despite the fact that the pore-waters represent a significant reservoir of sulphate for reduction. Some pore-waters have been modified recognizably by diffusional exchange with the fissure-waters, but the aquifer matrix has not been colonized by sulphate reducing bacteria, probably because porethroats in the limestone are too small for bacteria to pass. Physical exclusion of bacteria from the aquifer matrix and limited diffusional exchange are likely to exert fundamental controls on bacterial redox processes in dual porosity aquifer systems and other systems with low permeability due to small pore interconnections

The geochemistry of sulphur in a mixed allogenic-autogenic karst catchment, Castleton, Derbyshire, UK, 2000, Bottrell Sh, Webber N, Gunn J, Worthington Srh,
Analyses are presented of anion chemistry and sulphur isotopic compositions of sulphate in sinking streams and groundwaters in a mixed allogenic-autogenic karst catchment. Using the sulphur isotopic data, sources of sulphate from agriculture and the effects of sulphate reduction arising from slurry application can be distinguished from natural rock weathering sources. Within the aquifer, sulphate in known autogenic waters has isotopic compositions distinct from allogenic waters, the autogenic waters being dominated by sulphate from rainfall and rock weathering in these low agricultural intensity catchments. On this basis, water rising at low flow from Whirlpool Rising, Speedwell Cavern, has been identified as dominantly autogenic. Groundwater flow between the sinks and risings in Speedwell Cavern is believed to be along conduits following mineralized faults (rakes). During transit SO42-/Cl- in the water increases. Isotopic mass balance shows that this must be due to addition of sulphate from the oxidation of ore minerals by groundwater. Mass balance considerations show that the present rate of sulphide oxidation must be the result of enhancement by lead mining operations on the rakes. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

The influence of bedrock-derived acidity in the development of surface and underground karst: Evidence from the Precambrian carbonates of semi-arid northeastern Brazil, 2003, Auler As, Smart Pl,
Very extensive cave systems are developed in Precambrian Una Group carbonates in the Campo Formoso area, eastern Brazil. In contrast, the area is largely devoid of significant surface karst landforms, as would be expected given its semi-arid climate. The caves in the area display many morphological features characteristic of deep-seated hypogenic caves, such as lack of relationship with the surface, ramiform/network pattern, abrupt variations of passage cross-sections and absence of fluvial sediments, but do not show evidence of vertical passages marking the ascending path of acidic water nor present extensive gypsum or acid clay mineral deposits. Hydrochemical analyses of present-day ground water indicate that oxidation of bedrock sulphide is an active process, and sulphuric acid may be the main agent driving carbonate dissolution in the area. A shallow mode of speleogenesis is thus proposed, in which sulphuric acid produced through the oxidation of sulphide beds within the carbonates controls cave initiation and development. Moreover, the geological situation of the area in an ancient stable passive margin precludes the possibility of deep-seated sources of acidity. Under dry climate, due to the absence of recharge, solutional landforms will be largely subdued in the surface. Hypogenic processes, if present, are likely to predominate, producing a landscape characterized by a marked disparity in the comparative degree of development between surface and underground landforms. Rates of karst landform development have traditionally been analysed through a climatic perspective, runoff being the main controlling factor in promoting karst development. This view needs to be reassessed in the light of the growing awareness of the importance of climate-independent processes related to hypogenic sources of acidity.

Ogof Draenen: speleogenesis of a hydrological see-saw from the karst of South Wales, 2011, Farrant Andrew R. , Simms Michael J.

 Discovered in 1994, Ogof Draenen is currently the longest cave in Britain and among the thirty longest caves in the World, with a surveyed length in excess of 70km. Like other great caves, Ogof Draenen has had a complex multiphase history. This interpretation of the genesis of the cave is based on speleo-morphological observations throughout the system. Evidence of at least four phases of cave development can be identified, associated with major shifts in resurgence location and changes in flow direction of up to 180°. Joints have had a dominant influence on passage genesis. In particular joints have facilitated the development of maze networks and remarkably shallow horizontal phreatic conduits. The amplitude of these conduits is much shallower than predicted by models based on flow path length and stratal dip. Here, we suggest that presence of laterally extensive open joints, orientated perpendicular to the regional neo-tectonic principal stress field, determines the depth of flow in the aquifer, rather than fissure frequency per se as suggested in Ford’s Four State Model. We argue that the rate of base-level lowering, coupled with the depth of karstification determines whether a cave responds by phreatic capture or vadose incision. Maze cave networks within Ogof Draenen were probably initiated by bedrock-hosted sulphide oxidation and sulphuric acid speleogenesis.

(Note: Welsh terms used in this paper: Ogof = Cave; Afon = River; Cwm = Valley; Mynydd = Mountain).


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