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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That fracture spring is see spring, fracture.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for surface waters (Keyword) returned 31 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 31
Observations at the Blue Waterholes, March 1965 - April 1969, and Limestone Solution on Cooleman Plain, N.S.W., 1972, Jennings, J. N.

After brief descriptions of the geomorphology of the Cooleman Plain karst and in particular of the Blue Waterholes, the methods adopted to analyse the functioning of these major risings are detailed. The discharge regime of Cave Creek below them is oceanic pluvial in type perturbed by drought and snow. There is much annual variation both in seasonal incidence and total amount, with catchment efficiency correspondingly variable. Suspended sediment concentration is even more erratic and monthly determinations are inadequate for calculating corrasional denudation rates. Mean concentrations of suspended solids are about 1/18th of solute load. Total dissolved salts have a strong inverse relationship with discharge, and mean values are high compared with those for other catchments in eastern Australia but none of these determinations are from limestone catchments. Sodium, potassium, and chlorine contents are low compared with the same catchments but silica is relatively high. The ratio of alkaline earths to alkalis indicate that Cave Creek carries carbonate waters and there is an inverse regression of the ratio on discharge. There is inverse correlation of total hardness on discharge likewise due to concentration of surface waters by evaporation in dry periods, together with reduced underground solution rate at times of large, rapid flow. The spring waters remain aggressive. Close regressions of hardness on specific conductivity now permit the latter to be determined in the place of the former. Much evidence converges to indicate that all the springs at the Blue Waterholes are fed from the same conduit. The intermittent flow which comes down the North Branch on the surface to the Blue Waterholes differs significantly in many characters from the spring waters. Rates of Ca + M carbonate equivalent removal vary directly with discharge since hardness varies much less than does water volume. These gross rates have to be adjusted for (a) atmospheric salts entering the karst directly, (b) peripheral solute inputs from the non-karst two-thirds of the catchment and (c) subjacent karst solution before they can be taken as a measure of exposed karst denudation. The methods for achieving this are set out. The total corrections amount to about one third of the total hardness, though the correction for subjacent karst on its own lies within the experimental error of the investigation. The residual rate of limestone removal from the exposed karst also shows a winter/spring high rate and a summer/autumn low rate but the seasonal incidence and annual total varied very much from year to year. In comparison with results from karsts in broadly similar climate, the seasonal rhythm conforms and so does the high proportion (78%) of the solution taking place at or close to the surface. This reduces the importance of the impounded condition of this small karst but supports the use of karst denudation rate as a measure of surface lowering. Cave passage solution may however be more important in impounded karst than its absolute contribution might suggest, by promoting rapid development of underground circulation. The mean value of limestone removal is low for the climatic type and this is probably due to high evapotranspirational loss as well as to the process of eliminating atmospheric, peripheral non-karst and subjacent karst contributions. The difficulties of applying modern solution removal rate to the historical geomorphology of this karst are made evident; at the same time even crude extrapolations are shown to isolate problems valuably.


Fluoreszenzmikroskopische Untersuchung der Bakterienflora und Bestimmung ihrer heterotrophen Aktivitt in organisch belastetem und unbelastetem Grundwasser sandig-kiesiger Ablagerungen., 1981, Marxsen Jurgen
Bacteriological investigations were carried out in the groundwater of sandy and gravelly deposits of the river Fulda valley in an area named Johannesaue near the town Fulda (Hesse, Fed. Rep. of Germany). In January 1979 water samples were collected from 16 pumping tubes distributed in organically polluted and unpolluted areas. For characterizing the bacterial populations, methods used for surface waters were modified and, as far as the author is aware, these methods were used for the first time for investigations pertaining subterranean waters. The bacteria were counted by means of epifluorescence microscopy after staining the bacteria with the fluorochrome acridine orange. This technique renders possible the simultaneous registration of shape and size of bacteria. Parameters characterizing the heterotrophic bacterial activity were measured with 14C-labelled glucose. The number of bacteria in the groundwater collected through pumping tubes, varied from 1.4 to 11.3 million bacteria per ml. The relative glucose uptake potential vr, which was measured at one substrate concentration (600 microg glucose .1-1) where the maximum uptake velocity is almost reached, was 0.12; 0.74 microg glucose 1-1 .h-1. The corresponding specific potential was 0.02-0.18 microg glucose h-1 cell-1. The results agreed with the values of maximum uptake velocity Vmax which was measured at the same time in some of the groundwater samples. The data give first information about distribution of the number of bacteria and of heterotrophic bacterial activity in the groundwater of the investigation area. Relationships could be shown between the bacteriological parameters on the one hand and the concentration of oxygen and the values of COD measured with KMnO4 on the other hand.

Isopoda (Crustacea: Isopoda: Microcharon, Jaera, Proasellus) and other fauna in hypogean waters of southern Cyprus., 1990, Sket Boris
Springs and wells in SW and S part of Cyprus were briefly surveyed. Chlorinity was 0.1; 0.8 p.p.t. Some isopods were found in collecting galleries of springs and in wells in calcarenites and in gravel deposits. These were Proasellus coxalis ssp. with some depigmented specimens, the probably stygobitic P. c. nanus ssp. n., poorly pigmented Jaera italica, and Microcharon luciae n. sp.; they were accompanied by the stygobitic amphipod Bogidiella cypria, by Turbellaria (Tricladida), by Copepoda (Cyclopoida), and rarely by some other animals (Pisidium sp., Oligochaeta). Only slightly depigmented Turbellaria Tricladida (cf. Dugesia sp.) occur in wells far from surface waters. Descriptions of new taxa are given.

Carbonate chemistry of surface waters in a temperate karst region: the southern Yorkshire Dales, UK, 1992, Pentecost Allan,
A detailed study of surface water chemistry is described from an important limestone region in northern England. Major ions and pH were determined for 485 sites (springs, seeps, streams, rivers and lakes) during summertime. The saturation state of the waters with respect to calcite was determined as the calcite saturation ratio ([Omega]). An unexpectedly large number of samples were found to be supersaturated (65.5% of the 268 km of watercourses surveyed). As a consequence, several streams entering major cave systems were incapable of further limestone solution, at least during periods of low flow. Many waters were supersaturated from their source and some deposited travertine. A significant negative correlation was found between spring discharge and both ([Omega]) and pH. Supersaturation was caused primarily by atmospheric degassing, with some contribution from aquatic plant photosynthesis.The median total dissolved inorganic carbon and Ca concentrations were 2.49 and 1.35 millimoles 1-1 respectively. Calcium originated exclusively from limestone, and carbon dioxide mainly from the soil and dissolved limestone. South facing catchments provided springwaters with significantly higher levels of TDIC and Ca when compared with north facing catchments. The study suggests that acid rain made a measurable contribution to limestone dissolution.Carboniferous limestone denudation rates were estimated as 54 to 63 m3 km-2 a-1 (54 to 63 mm 1000 years-1). About 50% of the Mg came from limestone and the remainder, together with most K, Na, SO4 and Cl from precipitation.Concentrations of dissolved nutrients were low, medians for NO3, NH4, total PO4 and SiO3 were 24 [mu]mol, 1.4 [mu]mol, 0.64 [mu]mol and 15.5 [mu]mol 1-1 respectively. The concentration of a further 23 trace elements was determined

River water intrusion to the unconfined Floridan Aquifer, 1998, Kincaid Todd R. ,
Rapid infiltration of river water into unconfined parts of the Floridan aquifer represents a significant component of subsequent ground-water discharge in regions where the aquifer is dissected by surface streams. A two-year investigation of the Devil's Ear cave system, an extensive saturated conduit network in the Floridan aquifer which underlies a 1.5-km reach of the Santa Fe River in north-central Florida, revealed that there is an appreciable and rapid exchange of water between the river and the underlying Floridan aquifer. Natural tracers Radon-222 ( 222 Rn) and delta 18 O were used to quantify these exchanges. Cave diving was employed to collect 50 water samples which were analyzed for tracer content and to observe water clarity conditions within the saturated karst conduits as far as 1.2 km from the cave entrance. 222 Rn concentrations measured in the cave system revealed three distinct zones where river water is rapidly intruded into the Floridan aquifer. A two-component mixing model was used to quantify the intruded river water that was found to account for as much as 62 percent of the discharge at Devil's Ear spring. Observations of diminished water clarity in the cave system following large precipitation events in the highland provinces of the Santa Fe River basin indicate that river water intrusion to the aquifer can occur in as little as one or two days. The results of this investigation imply that, in regions such as the western Santa Fe River basin, there can be no clear distinction between ground and surface waters and intruded river water provides a significant vehicle for contamination of the unconfined Floridan aquifer

Regional groundwater flow model construction and wellfield site selection in a karst area, Lake City, Florida, 1999, Dufresne Dp, Drake Cw,
The city of Lake City is in the process of expanding their water supply facilities by 45 420 m(3) day(-1) (12 MGD) to meet future demands. One portion of wellfield site selection addressed here includes analysis of ambient groundwater quality and its potential for contamination. This study also addresses the potential impacts of groundwater withdrawals to existing legal users, wetlands, surface waters and spring flows. A regional groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) was constructed using existing hydrogeologic data from state and federal agencies in order to simulate the existing hydrologic conditions of this karst area and to predict withdrawal impacts. The model was calibrated by matching potentiometric surface maps and spring flows to within reasonable ranges. Drawdowns in the Floridan and surficial aquifers predicted by the model show minimal impacts to existing legal users and only a 5% reduction in the flow at Ichetucknee Springs ca 21 km (13 miles) away. Due to the karstic nature of the Floridan aquifer here, the equivalent-porous-medium flow model constructed would not be appropriate for contaminant transport modeling. The groundwater flow model is, however, appropriate to represent hydraulic heads and recharge/discharge relationships on a regional scale. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

A geomorphological strategy for conducting environmental impact assessments in karst areas, 1999, Veni G. ,
In their efforts to protect regional groundwater supplies, governmental agencies are increasingly requiring studies of karst areas and their features. In areas where tracer tests or geophysics are not required, funded, or otherwise feasible, geomorphological methods remain as the primary tool for assessing karst. This study proposes a geomorphologically-based environmental impact assessment strategy for karst areas. While it is supported with results from a study of the karstic Edwards Aquifer recharge zone on the Camp Bullis Military Training Installation, TX, USA, it is based on the study of several karst areas and is generalized to accommodate and be fine-tuned for regional variations. Biological and other resource issues can also be assessed with this strategy. The assessment identifies environmentally sensitive features and areas, as is often required to meet regulatory directives. In karst areas with relatively small features, excavation is a key tool for accurate assessment. Although the results of this study will help to better manage karst areas, proper management must be done on a regional scale. The highly permeable nature of karst precludes adequate management solely on a feature-by-feature basis. Studies on the relationship of water quality to impervious cover show adverse environmental impacts significantly increase when impervious cover exceeds 15% of a surface watershed. The Camp Bullis study finds similar impacts in its groundwater drainage basin, supporting the argument of 15% impervious cover as a regionally effective means of also protecting karst aquifers when coupled with protection of critical areas identified by field surveys.

Geostatistical and geochemical analysis of surface water leakage into groundwater on a regional scale: a case study in the Liulin karst system, northwestern China, 2001, Wang Y. , Ma T. , Luo Z. ,
The Liulin karst system is typical of hydrogeological systems in northern China, with a group of springs as the dominant way of regional groundwater discharge. Surface water leakage into groundwater has been observed in six sections of the rivers in the study area. To extract hydrogeological information from hydrochemical data, 29 water samples were collected from the system. On a trilinear diagram, most of the groundwater samples are clustered around the surface waters, indicating the effect of leakage on their chemistry. R-mode factor analysis was made on seven variables (Na, Ca, Mg, SO4, Cl, HCO3, and NO3) of the samples and three principal factors were obtained: the F-1 factor is composed of Ca, Mg and SO4, the F-2 of HCO3 and NO3, and the F-3 of Na and Cl. These factors are then used as regionalized variables in ordinary Kriging for unbiased estimates of the spatial variations of their scores. Considering regional hydrogeological conditions, the hydrogeological implications of the spatial distribution of the factor scores as related to the effects of the surface leakage are discussed. To evaluate the geochemical processes, the geochemical modeling code NETPATH was employed. The modeling results: show that mixing commonly occurs in the system and dolomite dissolution is more important than calcite dissolution. Dedolomitization (calcite precipitation and dolomite dissolution driven by anhydrite dissolution) is locally important, in the western flank of the system where the surface water leakage has the least effect.

Determining the source of stream contamination in a karst water system, southwest Virginia, USA, 2001, Younos T. , Kaurish F. W. , Brown T. , De Leon R. ,
Karst terrane provides a linkage between surface water and ground water regimes by means of caves, sinkholes and swallets, and sinking streams, and facilitates the inter-watershed transfer of water and contaminants through these subsurface systems. The goal of this study was to develop procedures to identify the sources of degradation of a creek situated in a complex karst-water system. The study approach consisted of using dye tracing technique to determine subsurface flow paths through the karst system, a water-sampling network to identify and characterize pollution sources within the surface watershed and subsurface flow regime, and evaluation of analytical data for several water quality parameters. The results of this study provide an interesting perspective of water and contaminant movement in karst-water systems and pinpoint the sources of stream contamination for a case study site in southwest Virginia where two springs supply water to a contaminated freshwater stream

Karst and vaucluse springs from the Polish Tatra Mts. Results of long-term stationary investigations, 2003, Barczyk, Grzegorz

Karst (vaucluse) springs, transporting water from fissure-karst systems, result from karst development in the area. At the same time, they are the main source of information on the hydrography of the investigated karst area. Continuous monitoring of groundwaters and surface waters in the Tatra Mountains in Poland takes place for a long time. In the mid-70-ties, the team of Prof. D. Malecka organized an observation network, with water marks along the main Tatra streams right to their outlets from the massif, and with observation points of the largest springs and vaucluse springs. Readings from water marks were collected several times each month by the observers (usually Tatra National Park employees). In 1998 the National Committee for Scientific Research approved a three-year research project entitled: "Determination of retention abilities and the dynamics of denudation in the karst areas of the Polish Tatra Mountains basing on stationary investigations of vaucluse springs". In accordance with this project, between November and December 1998 automatic limnimeters were installed in selected vaucluse (five) springs.


The karst of Salento region (Apulia, Southern Italy): constraints for management, 2003, Selleri Gianluca, Sansò, Paolo, Walsh Nicola

The Salento peninsula is a karstic area affected by relevant geological risk mainly due to surface water and groundwater. In particular, sinkholes have been used to convey underground large amount of surface waters (rain water, waste water, etc.) aiming to avoid the flooding of wide land surfaces. However, during the last ten years this input of surface water underground has caused several cases of rapid subsidence. In this paper, the detailed study of two areas which have been recently affected by rapid subsidence is reported.


Recent results of the dye tracer tests of the Chocholowskie Vaucluse Spring karst system (Western Tatra Mts.), 2004, Barczyk G,
The region of the Bobrowiec Massif, crucial in underground flows within the Chocholowski Stream catchment area, was not studied in details until the 50ies. The Chocholowskie Vaucluse Spring is recharged mainly by karst systems, including that of the Szczelina Chocholowska - Jaskinia Rybia caves. The remaining 20% of water in the system comes from surface waters of the Chocholowski Stream. First successful dye tests were conducted on this system in 1971/1972. The paper presents data and interpretation of the recent dye-tracer experiments for the Chocholowskie Vaucluse Spring recharge area. The results of these tests prove that the connection between the Szczelina Chocholowska - Rybia caves karst system and the Chocholowskie Vaucluse Spring is of a karst-fissure character. This hydraulic connection is a typical example of a sub-channel circulation, where flow through a karst-fissure system takes place beneath the bottom of an existing river channel. Comparing the time of dye flow through the system with water stages indicates that the system of fissures linking the sinkhole zone with the vaucluse spring is at least three fold. The inverse relation between watermark stands reflecting the degree of watering in the massif and the time, at which dye penetrates the system, is also distinctly visible

Isotopic and geochemical evolution of ground and surface waters in a karst dominated geological setting: A case study from Belize, Central America, 2004, Marfia A. M. , Krishnamurthy R. V. , Atekwana E. A. , Panton W. F. ,
Analysis of stable isotopes and major ions in groundwater and surface waters in Belize, Central America was carried out to identify processes that may affect drinking water quality. Belize has a subtropical rainforest/savannah climate with a varied landscape composed predominantly of carbonate rocks and clastic sediments. Stable oxygen (delta(18)O) and hydrogen (deltaD) isotope ratios for surface and groundwater have a similar range and show high d-excess (10-40.8parts per thousand). The high d-excess in water samples suggest secondary continental vapor flux mixing with incoming vapor from the Caribbean Sea. Model calculations indicate that moisture derived from continental evaporation contributes 13% to overhead vapor load. In surface and groundwater, concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) ranged from 5.4 to 112.9 mg C/l and delta(13)C(DIC) ranged from -7.4 to -17.4parts per thousand. SO42, Ca2 and Mg2 in the water samples ranged from 2-163, 2-6593 and 2-90 mg/l, respectively. The DIC and delta(13)C(DIC) indicate both open and closed system carbonate evolution. Combined delta(13)C(DIC) and Ca2, Mg2 SO42- suggest additional groundwater evolution by gypsum dissolution and calcite precipitation. The high SO42- content of some water samples indicates regional geologic control on water quality. Similarity in the range of delta(18)O, deltaD and delta(13)C(DIC) for surface waters and groundwater used for drinking water supply is probably due to high hydraulic conductivities of the karstic aquifers. The results of this study indicate rapid recharge of groundwater aquifers, groundwater influence on surface water chemistry and the potential of surface water to impact groundwater quality and vise versa. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

Identification of localised recharge and conduit flow by combined analysis of hydraulic and physico-chemical spring responses (Urenbrunnen, SW-Germany), 2004, Birk S, Liedl R, Sauter M,
Karst aquifers are highly vulnerable to contamination due to the rapid transport of pollutants in conduit systems. Effective strategies for the management and protection of karst aquifers, therefore, require an adequate hydrogeological characterisation of the conduit systems. In particular, the identification and characterisation of conduits transmitting rapid, localised recharge to springs is of great interest for vulnerability assessments. In this work, it is demonstrated that localised recharge and conduit flow in a karst aquifer (Urenbrunnen catchment, southwest Germany) can be characterised by jointly analysing the hydraulic and physico-chemical responses of a spring to recharge events. Conduit volumes are estimated by evaluating time lags between increases in spring discharge and associated changes in the electrical conductivity and temperature of the discharged water. These estimates are confirmed by the results of a combined tracer and recharge test. Variations in electrical conductivity are also shown to assist in the quantification of the fast recharge component associated with short-term recharge pulses. However, spectral analysis of temperature fluctuations reveals that highly mineralised surface waters locally infiltrate into the aquifer during the winter and spring without causing significant electrical conductivity variations in the spring water. Hence, the most consistent conceptual model is obtained by a combined analysis of both physico-chemical parameters. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Geochemical simulation of the formation of brine and salt minerals based on Pitzer model in Caka Salt Lake, 2004, Liu X. Q. , Cai K. Q. , Yu S. S. ,
The geochemical simulation of the formation of brine and salt minerals based on Pitzer model was made in Caka Salt Lake. The evolution of the mixed surface-water and the mineral sequences were calculated and compared with the hydrochemical compositions of the brine and the salt minerals of the deposit in Caka Salt Lake. The results show that the formation temperature of the lake is between 0degreesC and 5degreesC, which is well identical with other studies. The mixing of salt-karst water with the surface waters, neglected by the former researchers, is very important to the formation of the lake, indicating that the initial waters resulting in the formation of the lake are multi-source. It is the first time to use Pitzer model in China for making geochemical simulation of the formation and evolution of inland salt lake and satisfactory results have been achieved

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