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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That water content is the amount of water lost from the soil after drying it to constant weight at 105oc, expressed either as the weight of water per unit weight of dry soil or as the volume of water per unit bulk volume of soil [22]. see moisture content.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for tracer testing (Keyword) returned 10 results for the whole karstbase:
Experimental design, technique and protocol in fluorometric tracing of ground water, 1997, Smart C. C. , Zabo L.
Detector-spectrofluorometer and water-filter fluorometry provide two complementary tools in tracer testing. Current practice largely relies on the former technique, despite some limitations in quality assurance. A set of technical enhancements have been undertaken on the Turner Designs Model 10 Series filter fluorometer to redress this imbalance by improving efficiency. In addition, improvements in protocol are suggested. A preliminary framework for optimal design of tracer tests is presented. Nevertheless, there remain barriers to wider deployment of filter fluorometers, notably in complex traces and borehole tests.

A comprehensive strategy for understanding flow in carbonate aquifers, 1999, Worthington S. R. H.

Studies of carbonate aquifers usually either concentrate on sampling the channel flow (egsink-to-spring tracer testing, spring monitoring) or on sampling the non-channel flow (egborehole measurements)A comprehensive approach is advocated here, involving the integration of both sources of information, as well as measurements of the porosity and permeability of the unfractured rockRepresentative sampling can be achieved by treating carbonates as triple-porosity aquifers, with one-, two-, and three-dimensional porosity elementsThe division of carbonate aquifers into "karstic" or "non-karstic" types is unwarranted


A comprehensive strategy for understanding flow in carbonate aquifers, 2003, Worthington, S. R. H.

Studies of carbonate aquifers usually either concentrate on sampling the channel flow (e.g. sink to spring tracer testing, spring monitoring) or on sampling the non-channel flow (e.g. borehole measurements). A comprehensive approach is advocated here, integrating both sources of information, as well as measuring the porosity and permeability of the unfractured rock. Representative sampling can be achieved by treating carbonates as triple porosity aquifers, with one-, two-, and three-dimensional porosity elements. The division of carbonate aquifers into "karstic" or "non-karstic" types is unwarranted.


Karstic behaviour of groundwater in the English Chalk, 2006, Maurice L. D. , Atkinson T. C. , Barker J. A. , Bloomfield J. P. , Farrant A. R. , Williams A. T. ,
SummaryAlthough the Chalk is only weakly karstified, tracer testing from stream sinks has demonstrated groundwater flow velocities comparable to those observed in highly karstic aquifers. Field survey of surface karst features in the catchments of the Pang and Lambourn rivers in southern England demonstrates the importance of overlying and adjacent Palaeogene strata in the development of karst features. Tracer techniques employed within the catchments enable further characterisation of the range and connectivity of solutional voids in this area of the Chalk, and allow assessment of the relative importance of different mechanisms of contaminant attenuation. Quantitative tracer test results suggest that groundwater flow may be through a complex combination of small conduits, typically 10-1000 mm in diameter, and more laterally extensive fissures with apertures of 1-50 mm. Evidence of connectivity between conduits and fissures suggest that in areas of the Chalk with rapid groundwater flow, fissures supplying abstraction boreholes may be connected to karst conduit networks with low potential for contaminant attenuation

Catchment scale tracer testing from karstic features in a porous limestone, 2010, Maurice L. , Atkinson T. C. , Williams A. T. , Barker J. A. , Farrant A. R.

Tracer testing was undertaken from sinking streams feeding the Chalk, a porous limestone aquifer characterised by frequent small-scale surface karst features. The objective was to investigate the nature and extent of sub-surface karstic development in the aquifer. Previous tracer testing has demonstrated rapid flow combined with low attenuation of tracer. In this study, at two sites rapid groundwater flow was combined with very high attenuation and at two other sites no tracer was detected at springs within the likely catchment area of the stream sinks tested, suggesting that tracer was totally attenuated along the flowpath. It is proposed that the networks beneath stream sinks in the Chalk and other mildly karstic aquifers distribute recharge into multiple enlarged fractures that divide and become smaller at each division whereas the networks around springs have a predominantly tributary topology that concentrates flow into a few relatively large cavities, a morphology with similarities to that of the early stages of karstification. Tracer attenuation is controlled by the degree to which the two networks are directly connected. In the first state, there is no direct linkage and flow between the two networks is via primary fractures in which tracer attenuation is extreme. The second state is at a percolation threshold in which a single direct link joins the two networks. A very small proportion of tracer reaches the spring rapidly but overall attenuation is very high. In the third state, the recharge and discharge networks are integrated therefore a large fraction of tracer reaches the spring and peak concentrations are relatively high. Despite the large number of stream sinks that recharge the Chalk aquifer, these results suggest that sub-surface conduit development may not always be continuous, with flow down smaller fissures and fractures causing high attenuation of solutes and particulates providing a degree of protection to groundwater outlets that is not seen in more highly karstic aquifers. Bacteriophage tracers that can be detected at very large dilutions (1015) are recommended for investigating groundwater pathways where attenuation may be high.


Comparative tracing experiments to investigate epikarst structural and compositional heterogeneity, 2011, Sinreich M. , Flynn R.

Comparative tracer testing may be used to evaluate the vulnerability of groundwater to specific contaminants by comparing reactive tracer response to that of a simultaneously injected non-reactive “conservative” substance. Conversely, knowledge of tracer reaction with specific materials permits information about subsurface heterogeneity to be inferred. A series of tests completed in the vadose zone overlying a limestone aquifer employed a cocktail of particles along with reactive and
non-reactive solute tracers to investigate transport rates between the ground surface and monitoring points approximately 10 m below ground. Short pulse tests revealed both solutes and particulate contaminants could travel at rates of over 10 m/h. Comparison of particle (microorganisms) and non-reactive solute tracer breakthrough revealed that particle tracers experience pore exclusion resulting in higher peak relative concentrations which arrive earlier than those of the solute. Prolonged tracer injection during subsequent experiments confirmed the response observed and illustrated that over 40 % of flow paths between
injection and monitoring points were inaccessible to particles, but could allow solutes to pass through them. Similarly, the difference in response between various reactive tracers demonstrated tracers reached monitoring points via multiple flow paths and suggests geochemical heterogeneity plays an important role in influencing tracer behaviour. The results of this investigation highlight the complexity of water flow through the epikarst and the vulnerability of groundwater in karst aquifers to contamination when soil cover is thin to absent.


Using Tracer Testing Data for Resource Management Planning, 2011, Schindel Geary, Johnson Steve

Interconnection of the Trinity (Glen Rose) and Edwards Aquifers along the Balcones Fault Zone and Related Topics, 2011,

The proceedings volume contains nine contributions presented during the Karst Conservation Initiative Meeting held in February 17, 2011 at The University of Texas at Austin.

The Edwards and Trinity Aquifers are critical water resources, supplying high-quality potable water to over two million people in the greater Austin-San Antonio region of central Texas, USA. These Cretaceous carbonate aquifers are hydrogeologically juxtaposed by extensive Miocene tectonic deformation associated with the Balcones Fault Zone, where the younger Edwards Group limestone has been downthrown relative to the older Trinity Group. The karstic aquifers are managed separately by regional water regulatory entities, and they have been historically treated as independent systems, both scientifically and from a water policy standpoint. Recent awareness of a significant interconnection between the Edwards and Trinity Aquifers has resulted in a number of hydrogeologic investigations documenting how they may actually operate as a single system. Studies related to upland recharge variability (spatial and temporal), stream loss, phreatic dye tracing, multi-port well monitoring, geochemistry, biologic habitat analysis, geophysics, and groundwater modeling indicate that the two are much less separated than previously observed. Summaries of these investigations conclude that changes in management strategies may be required to properly protect the quantity and quality of water in the Edwards and Trinity Aquifers.

Contents (click to open individual articles)

Introduction and Acknowledgements 

I nterconnection of the Edwards and Trinity Aquifers, Central Texas, U.S.A. 
Marcus O. Gary 

Spatial and Temporal Recharge Variability Related to Groundwater Interconnection of the Edwards and Trinity Aquifers, Camp Bullis, Bexar and Comal Counties, Texas 
Marcus O.Gary, George Veni, Beverly Shade, and Robin Gary

Potential for Vertical Flow Between the Edwards and Trinity Aquifer, Barton Springs Segment of the Edwards Aquifer 
Brian A. Smith and Brian B. Hunt

Could Much of Edwards Aquifer “Matrix Storage” Actually be Trinity Aquifer Contributions from the Blanco River? 
Nico M. Hauwert

Geophysical Correlation of Haby Crossing Fault (Medina County) and Mt. Bonnell Fault (Travis County) and Their Implications on T-E Interconnection 
Mustafa Saribudak

Edwards Aquifer – Upper Glen Rose Aquifer Hydraulic Interaction 
R.T. Green, F.P. Bertetti, and M.O. Candelario

Interaction Between the Hill Country Portion of the Trinity and Edwards Aquifers: Model Results 
Ian C. Jones

Using Tracer Testing Data for Resource Management Planning 
Geary Schindel and Steve Johnson

Demonstrating Interconnection Between a Wastewater Application Facility and a First Magnitude Spring in a Karstic Watershed: Tracer Study of the Tallahassee, Florida Treated Effluent Spray Field 2006-2007  
Todd R. Kincaid, Gareth J. Davies, Christopher L. Werner, and Rodney S. DeHan

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The hydrogeology of Ogof Draenen: new insights into a complex multi-catchment karst system from tracer testing, 2011, Maurice Lou, Guilford Tim

 A current understanding of the hydrology of Ogof Draenen, Wales, one of the longest and most complex cave systems in Europe, is presented. Previous tracer tests are reviewed and results of two new tracer tests presented. Numerous dolines occur on the Marros Group (formerly ‘Millstone Grit’) sandstones and the Pembroke Limestone Group (both of Carboniferous age) that crop out around the edges of the mountains overlying Ogof Draenen, with hydrologically active sinking streams common along the boundary of these strata. Surface pollution of a doline caused diesel pollution in the cave beneath demonstrating the vulnerability of groundwater. There are a few recently formed hydrologically active passages but groundwater flow is also influenced by many kilometres of relict passages formed during multiple phases of speleogenesis. This results in vertical and horizontal underfit streams that cross or flow through large relict passages. In the southeast of the cave, tracer testing revealed an underground watershed demonstrating the complexity of groundwater flowpaths. In the north a cave stream flows to springs which drain north to the Clydach Gorge. Small amounts of drainage in the cave may also reach springs in the Tumble Valley to the northeast, although these springs may be unconnected to the cave and fed entirely by stream sinks on the Blorenge mountainside. Multi-tracer injections within the cave revealed that the major underground streams flow south to feed large springs at Snatchwood and Pontnewynydd in the Afon Lwyd valley, in a different topographical catchment some 8km beyond the known cave, with rapid groundwater velocities of up to 4km/day. Nine other springs in the Afon Lwyd valley appear unconnected to the Ogof Draenen streams, being fed independently by sinking streams on the local mountainside. In addition, we show that Specific Electrical Conductance varies greatly both between and within springs, is negatively related to background fluorescence


Engineering Issues on Karst, 2011, Zhou Wanfang, Beck Barry F.

The design and construction of engineering structures in karst regions must deal with such challenges as difficulty in excavating and grading the ground over pinnacled rockheads, instability of ground surface, and unpredictable groundwater flow conditions. Detailed subsurface investigation using boring exploration, geophysical techniques, tracer testing, and groundwater monitoring helps optimize foundation designs and minimize uncertainties inherent in their construction. Based on the maturity of karst landscapes, depth and dimension of karst features, and vulnerability of groundwater contamination, methods that have been established to control surface water and groundwater and minimize sinkhole development include relocating structures to a safer site, filling voids/fractures with concrete, soil reinforcement, constructing deep foundations, and remediating sinkholes.


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