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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That selenite needles is a sulfate speleothem having the shape of a needle that grows from gypsiferous cave soils [13]. see also speleothem.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for triassic (Keyword) returned 128 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 128
Karst-like features in badlands of the Arizona Petrified Forest, 1963, Mears Brainerd,
Sinks, disappearing streams, hanging valleys, and natural bridges add a karst-like element to the miniature mountain topography represented in badlands. The Chinle Formation [Triassic] of the Petrified Forest in Arizona largely consists of compact, montmorillonitic and illitic claystones. Sinks in it result from disaggregation of swelling clay minerals rather than solution which affects limestone in true karsts. Ravines whose bottoms are pierced by sinks may develop into hanging valleys because their channels, robbed of surface flow downstream from these swallow holes, cannot keep pace with downcutting in the master drainage to which they are tributary. Growth of the sinks soon creates a disappearing stream that continues to deepen the upstream segment of a ravine. Thus the abandoned downstream segment beyond the sinks, no longer eroded by the stream, develops into a transverse barrier. Where the abandoned channel was initially short, the barrier may be eventually narrowed by weathering and slope erosion to form a natural bridge. Other bridges consist of jumbled material. that has collapsed from steep valley walls, undercut by small stream meanders

Hydrological and chemical investigations of running waters of the Schlitzerland (Western Germany). A. Springs, I. Survey., 1976, Brehm Jorg
In a Triassic sandstone woodland (Schlitzerland in Hesse, Western Germany) 17 springs were hydrologically and hydrochemically investigated throughout one year (April 1973; April 1974). Measurements were carried out on water volume, temperature, electrolytical conductivity, pH, aikalinity, chlorinity, dissolved molecular oxygen, dissolved organic material (COD), ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and free phosphate. Among the hydrochemical factors investigated the pH-value was closely related especially to the micro-climate in the spring drainage area. In particular the pH rose both with increasing length of the drainage area and within the same spring with decreasing water supply. On the other hand the pH-value diminished with increasing altitude of the drainage area. Simultaneously the highest values were found on SW-slopes and the lowest ones in NE-exposures.

Karst development and the distribution of karst drainage systems in Dejiang, Guizhou Province, China, 1983, Song Linhua, Zhang Yaoguang, Fang Jinfu, Gu Zhongxong,
The nature of karstification of two contrasting areas on the north Guizhou Plateau (south China) is shown to be controlled by structure, lithology, geomorphic history and tectonics, and causes significant differences to arise in the subsurface drainage systems of the areas.The Shaqi area lies in a syncline of Permo-Triassic limestones underlain by an insoluble sandy shale which forms the local base level. Karst landforms are strongly influenced by the presence of four erosion levels corresponding to four periods of rejuvenation of the drainage systems. Drainage is concentrated along the syncline axis, and one system (Naoshuiyan) has been pirating another (Lengshuiyan) by headward retreat. Cave passages are typically phreatic.The Dejiang Town area lies in an anticline of Cambrian dolomite and Ordovician limestone. Three large subsurface drainage systems have developed along parallel faults, and have typically vadose cross-sections

Les palokarsts des Alpes occidentales du Trias l'Eocne, 1984, Guendon, J. L.
WESTERN ALPS PALEOKARSTS FROM TRIASSIC TO EOCENE - In western Alps, before complete emersion during the Oligocene and Miocene, the marine sedimentation has been locally interrupted by three important continental phases: 1/ during Early Jurassic, in "brianonnais" domain; 2/during middle Cretaceous, in Provence area; 3/ during early Tertiary, in subalpine range and Jura. These locally and temporary regression are the consequence of tectonic activities in relation to the movements of eurasiatic and italo-african plates, which are at the edge of the alpine oceanic basin (Tethys). After an abstract on the tectonic and sedimentological history of western Alps, a description is given of continental formations (bauxites, fire-clay, clay with flints, siderolitic formations, white and ochrous sands, siliceous and ferruginous crusts) and karst phenomena elaborated during these regressions.

Hydraulic structure of karst-fissured Triassic rocks in the vicinity of, Olkusz (Poland), 1984, Motyka Jacek, Wilk Zbigniew

Hydrogologie karstique du polj d'lrmene, Bodrum (Turquie), 1985, Canik, B.
KARSTIC HYDROGEOLOGY OF THE IRMENE POLJE - BODRUM (TURKEY) - The Irmene polje (25 km2) is located in the Bodrum peninsula, Turkey. The formation exposed, are coloured argilaceous schists, blackish shales and sandstones of a paleozoic age. They are overlapped by unconformable carbonate formations of Early Triassic to Late Jurassic. The karstification is mostly developed on the non-dolomitic parts of the fissured limestones. The groundwater flow is generally northwards, towards coastal or submarine springs. Thus, it is calculated that a discharge of about 40 l/s can be obtained from possible wells to supply water for the Irmene village. We propose to increase the infiltration rate within the karstic aquifer by building barriers, which would favour runoff towards natural wells or sinks not active for the moment.

Les aiguilles de gypse du Verneau (Doubs), 1986, Couturaud, A.
THE GYPSUM NEEDLES OF THE VERNEAU SYSTEM (DOUBS) - These crystals are both exceptionally long (up to 225mm) and very well preserved. They were discovered on the floor of an old choked passage close to a large gallery and a collector. They appear to have grown during a flooded period where the Triassic or paleokarstic gypsum was re-dissolved.

Palokarst palozoque en Antarctique, 1986, Maire R. , Laurent R.
PALEOZOIC KARST IN ANTARCTICA - Karst features in Antarctica have been rarely observed. In their study on the geology of the Beardmore Glacier area in the Transantarctic Mountains (south of Ross Ice Shelf), BARRET and al. (1968) describe a pre-glacial karst topography (Mt. Counts) and especially a former cave (diameter 10 m) 10 m below the erosion surface and filled with coarse green sandstone. Shaped in the "Shackleton limestone" (Low to Middle Cambrian) probably during the Permo-Carboniferous (hercynian cycle), this karst is fossilised by the Pagoda formation, a permian tillite of the Beacon sequence (Devonian-Permian- Triassic).

Triassic Palaeokarst in Britain, 1990, Simms M. J.

Sr isotope study of vein and cave calcites from southern Israel, 1990, Avigour A, Magaritz M, Issar A, Dodson Mh,
The strontium isotope compositions of secondary calcites from the Negev, southern Israel, were compared to those of the marine carbonate host rocks, which range in age from Triassic to Eocene, in order to understand fluid source and migration through fracture systems in dominantly carbonate strata. The Sr isotopes of these calcite clusters are divided into two groups: (1) calcites with 87Sr/86Sr values greater than those of the host carbonates; and (2) calcites with 87Sr/86Sr values close to the values of the host carbonate. 1. (1) These secondary calcites were found on the main tectonic lines of the Negev (faults and fold axes) and are enriched in 87Sr (87Sr/86Sr = 0.707709-0.709151) relative to the marine carbonate country rocks (87Sr/86Sr = 0.707251-0.70755, with one exception). These calcites are associated or crossed by thin veins filled by Fe- and Mn-oxides.2. (2) Secondary calcites with 87Sr/86Sr values close to those of the marine carbonate country rocks (0.7073-0.7077) are found in karstic caves and veins, and are located in sites which are not on the major faults and fold axes. These calcites are not crossed by Fe- and Mn-oxides.The isotopic results indicate that the solutions from which the secondary minerals of the first group precipitated were not in isotopic equilibrium with the marine host rocks. The possible source of the precipitating solutions can be either surface rain descending through the fault system or ascending groundwaters from the deep Nubian aquifer (Paleozoic to Early Cretaceous in age). In both cases there would be a limited interaction with the host sandstone rock which usually is depleted in Sr. The similarity of the 87Sr/86Sr values to those of the host rocks in the second group suggests that the main source of Sr in these calcite crystals was from the dissolution of the marine carbonate country rocks by rain- and flood waters

Approche gomorphologique des karsts du gypse de la Vanoise (la zone alpine et glaciaire du vallon du Fruit-Gbroulaz,Alpes), 1991, Chardon, M.
GYPSUM KARSTIC LANDFORMS IN VANOISE: the alpine and glacial valley of Vallon du Fruit-Gbroulaz (Alps, France) - In the inner part of the northern french Alps, the higher regions of the Vanoise offer outcrops of Triassic gypsum of which the surface and thickness vary. In the vallon du Fruit, the Gbroulaz glacier partially covers a long strip of gypsum, which reaches its highest point at the Roc de la Soufrire (2940 m). Rivers and springs in the vallon du Fruit are fed both by sub-aerial glacial outflows and by karstic underground flows, which are pro-glacial and sub-glacial. A very low chemical dissolution exists under the glacier and along the fast pro-glacial underground and sub-aerial flows, whereas the rate of karstic denudation is high in the margin of the glacier where it reaches 1500 mm/ky at around 2500m (1 ky = 1000 years). The formation and evolution of the dolines is rapid and occurs through underground sucking and dissolution once the area is deglaciated, thanks to underground active flows fed by the glacier and snow melting. Gypsum domes are uplifted under the effects of neotectonic movements and postglacial decompression brings about considerable superficial fissuring because of the elasticity of the rock. Over 10,000 years, the morphogenesis of these domes in the humid and cold climatic conditions of these high alpine mountains has transformed them into perforated ladle and domes. Small outcrops are changed into monoliths or gypsum inselberg. A model of the geomorphologic post-glacial evolution of these domes, over some 20,000 years, is proposed.

IMPLICATIONS OF A PALEOMAGNETIC STUDY OF THE SILICA NAPPE, SLOVAKIA, 1991, Marton P. , Rozloznik L. , Sasvari T. ,
The Silica nappe (s.l.) of the Inner West Carpathians consists of an essentially non-metamorphic, platform-type sedimentary complex of Mesozoic (chiefly Triassic) age. Palaeomagnetic samples were collected from 16 sites throughout the southern and northern Gemeric parts of this unit and from one site of the Mesozoic Meliata series which underlies the Silica nappe (s.s.) in south Gemer. The samples from each site were treated using thermal demagnetization and well-grouped magnetic directions of individual components were found for 13 (14) sites. Detailed analysis of the directional data showed (a) post-folding magnetization for four late Triassic-Jurassic sites in the eastern Slovak Karst, (b) synfolding magnetization for five sites in the western Slovak Karst with a direction corresponding to local palaeomagnetic data of African affinity for the late Cretaceous and (c) primary magnetizations in the northern Gemeric area for only two rock units with a declination difference which implies a relative rotation between these units. As all secondary remanences are of normal polarity it is very likely that their acquisition is related to the emplacement of the Silica nappe during the early late Cretaceous. The dominant remagnetization mechanism probably is CRM but occasional contributions of TVRM are also conceivable

LATE TO POSTHERCYNIAN HYDROTHERMAL ACTIVITY AND MINERALIZATION IN SOUTHWEST SARDINIA (ITALY), 1992, Boni M, Iannace A, Koppel V, Fruhgreen G, Hansmann W,
Several kinds of base metal deposits occur in the lower Paleozoic of southwest Sardinia (Iglesiente-Sulcis mineral district). This paper deals with those deposits which are generally referred to as Permo-Triassic, because they accompany and postdate the Hercynian orogeny and are related to magmatic activity. A large number of previously published geochemical data, integrated with additional new data (Sr, Pb, O, C, and S isotopes), are reviewed and discussed in the frame of the late to post-Hercynian geologic evolution of southwest Sardinia. According to geological and mineralogical characteristics, three types of deposits can be distinguished: (1) skarn ores related to late Hercynian leucogranitic intrusions, (2) high-temperature veins, and (3) low-temperature veins and karst filling. Pervasive epigenetic dolomitization phenomena are geochemically related to the low-temperature deposits. Sr and Pb isotopes of the first and second types (0.7097-0.7140 Sr-87/Sr-86; 17.97-18.29 Pb-206/Pb-204; 38.11-38.45 Pb-208/Pb-204) are distinctly more radiogenic than those of the third type (0.7094-0.7115 Sr-87/Sr-86; 17.86-18.05 Pb-206/Pb-204; 37.95-38.19 Pb-208/Pb-204) which, in turn, are closer to Paleozoic ores and carbonates. Fluid inclusion data indicate that the fluids responsible for mineralization of the first and second types of deposits were hot and dilute (T(h)= 370-degrees-140-degrees-C; <5 wt % NaCl equiv). In contrast, relatively colder and very saline fluids (T(h)= 140-degrees-70-degrees-C; >20 wt % NaCl equiv) were responsible for the third type of mineralization, as well for epigenetic dolomitization of the Cambrian host rocks. O isotopes measured in minerals from the first two types (deltaO-18SMOW = 12.8-18.9 parts per thousand) are O-18 depleted with respect to the third type (deltaO-18SMOW = 15.9-22.1 parts per thousand). These data, coupled with fluid inclusion formation temperatures, indicate that the fluids responsible for the first two types of mineralization were O-18 enriched with respect to those of the third type and related hydrothermal phenomena. The deltaS-34CDT in sulfides of the first two types vary between 3.7 and 10.73 per mil, whereas the values of the third type range from 12.0 to 17.9 per mil. Late to post-Hercynian mineralization is thus explained as the result of three distinct, though partly superimposed, hydrothermal systems. System 1 developed closer to the late Hercynian leucogranitic intrusions and led to the formation of the first and subsequently the second type of mineralization. The relatively hot and diluted fluids had a heated meteoric, or even partly magmatic, origin. Metals were leached from an external, radiogenic source, represented either by Hercynian leucogranites or by Paleozoic metasediments. Sulfur had a partly magmatic signature. System 2 was characterized by very saline, colder fluids which promoted dolomitization, silicification, and vein and karst mineralization. These fluids share the typical characteristics of formation waters, even though their origins remain highly speculative. The hydrothermal system was mainly rock dominated, with only a minor participation of the external radiogenic source of metals. Sulfur was derived by recirculation of pre-Hercynian strata-bound ores. System 3 records the invasion of fresh and cold meteoric waters which precipitated only minor ore and calcite gangue. It may represent the further evolution of system 2, possibly spanning a time well after the Permo-Triassic. The timing of all these phenomena is still questionable, due to the poor geologic record of the Permo-Triassic in southwest Sardinia. Nevertheless, the hypothesized scenario bears many similarities with hydrothermal processes documented throughout the Hercynian in Europe and spanning the same time interval. A comparison with the latter mineralization and hydrothermal activities leads to the hypothesis that the first two types of mineralization are linked to late Hercynian magmatic activity, whereas the third type may be related to either strike-slip or tensional tectonics which, throughout Europe mark the transition from the Hercynian orogeny to the Alpine cycle

STRUCTURAL AND HYDROGEOLOGICAL ORIGIN OF TOWER KARST IN SOUTHERN CHINA (LIJIANG PLAIN IN THE GUILIN REGION), 1992, Drogue C, Bidaux P,
Spectacular towers (average 130 m high) are to be seen in the Lijiang plain near Guilin in middle and upper Devonian limestone forming a downthrown structural panel surrounded by the high relief of a cockpit karst. The limestone was fractured by at least three Triassic and Tertiary tectonic episodes. Statistical analysis of the altitudes of tower summits shows that they are distributed according to a log-normal law with a well marked mode at 250-280 m. This mode is very similar to that of the depression altitudes of the cockpit karst. It was deduced that tower summits and cockpit bottoms show that there was an ancient, relatively flat surface which was the basic level for flow in the surrounding karstic relief (water table at ground level). Fall in this ground water caused preferential karstic breakdown in very fractured zones, leaving the stronger blocks. This subsidence must have taken place in stages, as is shown by Pliocene and lower Quaternary fossil cavities at various altitudes of the towers. Observation of fracturing in the field, in aerial photographs and satellite images show that the edges of the towers are mainly transverse faults with sub-vertical planes

Hydrogeological characteristics of the net of fissures and caverns in carbonate Triassic rocks in the vicinity of Chrzanw. [in Polish], 1993, Goliasz Andrzej, Kryza Andrzej, Motyka Jacek, Szuwarzy?ski Marek

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