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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That pyrite is iron sulfide mineral (fes2) also known as iron pyrites and fool's gold. pyrite occurs in trace amounts in many sedimentary rocks. it may be locally common in dark carbonaceous limestone and in thin non-carbonate beds such as shales, coals and wayboards. pyrite may break down spontaneously, with or without bacterial mediation, to form sulfates, particularly sulphuric acid, that may be involved in early speleogensis [9].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for u.s.a. (Keyword) returned 37 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 37
New cavernicolous Millipeds of the Family Cambalidae (Cambalidae: Spirostreptida) from Texas (U.S.A.) and Mexico., 1964,
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Causey Nell B.
The cavernicoles include: (1) Cambala speobia (Chamberlin), troglobitic in central and southwest Texas; (2) C. reddelli reddelli n. sp. and subsp., troglophilic in west Texas and epigean in New Mexico; (3) C. reddelli inornatus n. subsp., troglobitic in northwest Texas; and (4) Mexicambala russelli n. gen. and sp., troglobitic in southern San Luis Potosi. They are described and figured, and a key is given.

Underground solution canyons in the Central Kentucky karst, U.S.A., 1967,
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Watson Richard A.
Solution canyons are underground voids 1 to 15 + meters wide, 3 to 45 + meters high, and 30 to 300 + meters long. Floors are stepped, ceilings level. Size increases downstream. Their course is sinuous, with some angularity. They occur parallel to and directly under or slightly offset from the thalwegs of re-entrant valleys tributary to major karst valleys. A section across a re-entrant and underlying solution canyon shows a rough hour-glass shape. Solution canyons are related genetically to solutional vertical shafts, forming where removal of the impermeable sandstone caprock permits the vertical descent of water through jointed limestone. Surface runoff concentrates along re-entrant thalwegs where a largo quantity of water goes underground. This water, plus subsurface water flowing over the caprock breached by the valleys, follows the easiest route to baselevel down major vertical joints oriented parallel to the thalwegs. Solution by water seeping down these joint planes forms solution canyons.

Further Remarks on the Big Hole, Near Braidwood, New South Wales, 1967,
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Jennings, J. N.

The new data from the Big Hole and its vicinity give some further support to the view maintained previously as to its origin, though an approach through water chemistry proved non-committal. Difficulties attaching to an origin by true phreatic solution of underlying limestone through circulations of groundwater of meteoric provenance remain however. Nevertheless, the possibility, not considered previously, that the Big Hole is due to hydrothermal solution in the manner of many collapse structures associated with uranium ore bodies in southwestern U.S.A. finds no support in the regional geology of the Shoalhaven valley, though it could produce features of the right dimensions. Previous lack of a complete parallel to the Big Hole has been removed by reference to the furnas of southern Brazil where a similar origin to the one proposed here is also inferred.

Sedimentation in karst drainage basins along the Allegheny Escarpment in southeastern West Virginia, U.S.A. McMaster Univ. PhD thesis, 1973,
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Wolfe O. A.

Paleohydrology and Streamflow Simulation of three Karst Basins in Southeastern West Virginia, U.S.A., PhD Thesis, 1975,
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Coward, Julian Michael Henry

This study was undertaken to gain a better understanding of karst hydrology. To do this, the present day hydrology and the paleohydrology were determined in three karst basins. The basins chosen were the Swago, Locust and Spring Creek basins in Pocahontas and Greenbrier Counties, West Virginia. A number of conventional field techniques were used successfully in this study, including the following: current meter and dye dilution gauging; dye and lycopodium stream tracing; geological and cave mapping; the setting up of stage recorders; geochemistry; and limestone erosion measurements. The climate of the region was investigated to obtain realistic precipitation, temperature and potential evaporation data over the study basins.
It was found that the mean precipitation over two of the basins was 30% higher than recorded data in the valleys. The karst development of the basins was found to take place in four major stages. These were: A) initial surficial flow, B) strike controlled drainage, C) major piracies from one sub-basin to another, and D) shortening of the flow routes. The major controls on the karst development were found to be: A) the Taggard shale, B) the strike direction, which controlled early basin development, and C) the hydraulic gradient from the sink to rising, which controlled later basin development.
To better assess the quantitative hydrology, and to assist in determining the type of unexplorable flow paths, a watershed model was developed. This modelled the streamflow from known climatic inputs using a number of measured or optimized parameters. The simulation model handled snowmelt, interception, infiltration, interflow, baseflow, overland flow, channel routing, and evaporation from the interception, soil water, ground water, snowpack and channel water. The modelled basin could be split up into 20 segments, each with different hydrological characteristics, but a maximum of 3 segments was used in this study.
A total of 29 parameters was used in the model although only 10 (other than those directly measurable) were found to be sensitive in the three basins. The simulated streamflow did not match the real flows very well due to errors in the data input and due to simplifications in the model. It was found, however, that as the proportion of the limestone in a segment increased the overland flow decreased, the interflow increased, the baseflow and interflow recessions were faster, the soil storages were smaller and the infiltration rate was higher, than in segments with a larger proportion of exposed clastics. The flow characteristics of the inaccessible conduits were inferred from the channel routing parameters and it was postulated that the majority of the underground flow in the karst basins was taking place under vadose conditions.

The role of groundwater in eutropication of a lake in glacial outwash terrain., 1976,
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Lee David Robert
The nutrient contribution of groundwater in glacial outwash terrain was evaluated at Lake Sallie in north-central U.S.A. (4646' N., 95 54' W.). Groundwater entering the lake was collected with seepage meters consisting of bottomless cylinders vented to a thin membrane bag. A theoretical flow net and comparison of nutrient concentrations in well and seepage water indicated that seepage meters can be used in high velocity discharge areas to obtain site-specific water samples of groundwater for nutrient analyses. Based on an average value of 0.25 mg/l PO4, groundwater inflow along an 800 km segment of shoreline transported 37 kg of phosphorus per year into the lake. Groundwater inflow was nitrate rich along shoreline adjacent so land used for agriculture and lakeside septic tanks, but there was no apparent pattern regarding land use and phosphorus content of groundwater inflow. A nearby eutrophic lake was a suspected source of phosphorus in groundwater inflow. Because surface flow has carried large quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus into this lake, its present eutrophic condition cannot be attributed to nutrient influx by groundwater. However, groundwater nutrient influx could be highly significant in other lakes where surface nutrient influx is small.

Variation among Populations of the Troglobitic Amphipod Crustacean Crangonyx antennatus Packard (Crangonyctidae) Living in Different Habitats, III: Population Dynamics and Stability., 1981,
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Dickson Gary W. , Holsinger John R.
Populations of the troglobitic amphipod Crangonyx antennatus from caves in Lee Co., Virginia (U.S.A.) were investigated on both a short and long term basis. The dynamics of populations living in two distinct aquatic cave habitats (mud-bottom pools and gravel-bottom streams) were compared seasonably for one year. Sex ratios indicated a larger number of females in both pool and stream habitats. The majority of males in both habitats were found to be sexually mature throughout the year investigated. Seasonal fluctuations in female maturity were observed in both habitats, with larger numbers collected in June and August. In addition, a larger number of ovigerous females were observed in the spring, indicating the possibility of a circannian reproductive cycle in both pools and streams. The structure of populations from the caves studied appears to reflect a controlled recruitment of females from immature to mature stages. In order to determine the stability of population structure, collection data from a pool and a stream habitat for a l0-year period were analyzed. Population structures were found to be relatively stable over long periods in both habitats, with immature females comprising the dominant population class.

Distribution and Habitat Diversity of Subterranean Amphipods in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, U.S.A., 1981,
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Holsinger John R. , Ward James W.
Subterranean amphipods have been collected from 35 locations on the eastern and western slopes of the Continental Divide in Colorado. All belong to the exclusively subterranean genus Stygobromus. Five species have been identified, two of which are undescribed. Specimens have been collected from (a) the hyporheic zone of rivers, (b) interrupted streams, (c) springs, and (d) seeps at elevations from 1597-2134 m a.s.l. Stygobromus occurs in several habitat types in interrupted drainage basins including sources, seeps, and isolated pools containing leaf detritus. All habitats contained waters which were cool to cold with dissolved oxygen values ranging from 4.3 ppm to fully saturated. Most waters exhibited soft or medium hardness, although one spring containing an undescribed species of Stygobromus had very hard waters (203 ppm bound CO2) and was mildly saline (913 mg/l TDS). There is evidence that the subterranean amphipods are phreatobites which, only under special conditions, establish relatively permanent populations in epigean habitats. Although little is known regarding ecology, zoogeography, or even taxonomy of the subterranean fauna of this region, stygobromid amphipods from the Cordilleran of western North America are apparently represented by fewer well differentiated species per unit area than their congeners from the geobiologicably older Appalachian region of eastern North America where numerous species are found in caves.

Variation among populations of the yroglobitic Amphipod Crustacean Crangonyx Antennatus Packard (Crangonyctidae) living in different habitats Il. Population distribution., 1982,
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Dickson Gary W.
Population densities and factors affecting the distribution of the troglobitic (i.e., obligatory cavernicole) amphipod Crangonyx antennatus were examined in two distinct aquatic habitats. Observations were made seasonally for one year in six Lee Co., Virginia (U.S.A.) caves, three with mud-bottom pools and three with gravel-bottom streams. Pool habitats were found to contain greater C. antennatus densities than stream habitats, while the highest seasonal densities were recorded in August. Availability of food is considered to be the major factor allowing these increased population densities. The population distribution of C. antennatus was not found to be related to current velocity, water depth, macro-detrital food sources or isopods densities in both pool and stream habitats. The distribution of C. antennatus was observed to be related to substrate type. Substrate selection appeared to be passive in five of the amphipod populations, while in one cave, substrate selection may be influenced by competitive interactions. The fact that population distributions were not related to environmental parameters which differ markedly between habitats indicates that this troglobitic species retains ecological flexibility.

Relict caves as evidence of landscape and aquifer evolution in a deeply dissected carbonate terrain: south-west Edwards Plateau, Texas, U.S.A., 1983,
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Kastning E. H.

The role of the subcutaneous zone in karst hydrology, 1983,
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Williams Paul W. ,
The subcutaneous zone is the upper weathered layer of rock beneath the soil, but above the permanently saturated (phreatic) zone. It is of particular hydrological importance in karst because of its high secondary permeability, arising from the considerable chemical solution in this zone. However, corrosional enlargement of fissures diminishes with depth; thus permeability decreases in the same direction with the result that percolation is inhibited, except down widened master joints and faults. Storage of water consequently occurs in this zone, particularly after storms. The upper surface of this suspended saturated layer in the subcutaneous zone is defined by a perched water table, which slopes towards points of rapid vertical percolation. The potential induces lateral water movement converging on the most permeable areas such as beneath dolines. Leakage from the subcutaneous store sustains slow percolation in the vadose zone. Cross-correlation of rainfall with percolation rates in caves in New Mexico, U.S.A., and New Zealand reveal response lags of 2-14 weeks with no apparent relationship to depth below the surface. Other percolation sites show no correlation with rainfall; interpreted as being a consequence of considerable friction in tight fissure networks. The recognition of storage and rapid as well as very slow percolation from the subcutaneous zone requires re-interpretation of the components of hydrographs from karst springs and of some conceptual models of karst aquifers. The importance of subcutaneous storage in sustaining baseflow discharge at some sites must be recognised, as must the contribution of subcutaneous water to flood hydrographs. Methods of estimating the volumes of subcutaneous and phreatic components of karst-spring flood hydrographs are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the significance of subcutaneous hydrologic processes for an understanding of karst geomorphology. The desirability of explaining karst landform evolution in terms of hydrologic processes is stressed

Paleoenvironmental data for N.W. Georgia, U.S.A., from fossils in cave speleothems, 1987,
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Brook George A. , Keferl Eugene P. , Nickmann Rudy J.
Pollen grains and gastropod shells in two speleothems from Red Spider Cave, Georgia indicate that ca. 10,000 yr B.P. the vegetation near the cave was Mixed Mesophytic Forest. Conditions were cooler and moister than today and a shallow pond existed in the doline above the cave. As these findings support palynologic evidence from nearby pond sites it is clear that cave speleothems are a potential source of paleoecological data to ca. 350,000 yr. B.P.

Reactivated interstratal karst--example from the Late Silurian rocks of western Lake Erie (U.S.A.), 1992,
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Carlson Eh,
Interstratal karst developed in the Late Silurian rocks of western Lake Erie that, after a long interruption, was exhumed and reactivated. The dissolution front of the G evaporite of the Salina Group receded in the downdip direction during these two well-documented periods of subaerial exposure. The karst features that developed in the overlying Bass Islands Dolomite (Pridolian) consist of a large tabular body of collapse breccia and a number of smaller features including breccia pipes, partially filled pipes, blister caves and collapse dolines.The tabular breccia body and the breccia pipes, which originated penecontemporaneously during post-Silurian and pre-Middle Devonian subaerial exposure, occur along the updip edge of the present outcrop belt of the dolostone. They are monolithologic, fragment-supported rubble breccias, with the pipes exhibiting a greater fragment displacement, rotation and rounding, and a smaller fragment size. The matrix sediment of the tabular body is a quartz sand, an equivalent of the basal sandstone that filtered down from the erosion surface. The presence in the matrix sediment of nodular celestite, a later replacement of evaporites that formed when the sediment was still soft, indicates that a sabkha environment existed at the time the breccia was infilled. The partially filled pipes, which form cylindrical caves that are lined with late diagenetic celestite, are believed to be cogenetic with the collapse breccias.The blister caves and dolines occur downdip from the breccias, postdating Pleistocene glaciation and predating isostatic rebound. These caves are isolated, crescent- or oval-shaped openings with domed roofs, averaging about 60 m in width and 4 m in height. The hydration and resulting expansion of lenticular bodies of anhydrite along the receding solution front of the G unit is believed to be the cause of doming. The numerous crescentic caves, originating from the dissolution of this gypsum and the subsequent collapse of the domed roofs, are expressed at the surface as shallow dolines

Habitat use and gas bubble disease in southern cavefish (Typhlichthys subterraneus), 1993,
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Nielsen Carl D. , Noltie Douglas B. , Schubert Alex L. S.
In situ observations of habitat use by southern cavefish (Typhlichthys subterraneus) in a Missouri, U.S.A. spring suggest that groundwater discharge and that zones of substrate which have large interstitial spaces that fish can enter may be important components of the species habitat. Such substrates may also facilitate smallscale dispersal. In addition, we document the first recorded case of gas bubble disease in a laboratory-held specimen of this species. Cavefish may be particularly susceptible to this malady, and the conditions under which it occurred are important to avoid should captive maintenance or propagation of this or related species be attempted.

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Kiefer R. H. ,
Time patterns of karst denudation in northwest Georgia (U.S.A.) were investigated at three spring sites for 12 months and at five stream sites for 10 years. Rainfall was evenly distributed and showed no significant seasonality. At the springs, as well as the streams, water hardness was largely controlled by discharge. At the springs, Soil PCO2 and water pH were strongly correlated (r = -0.69 to -0.83). Solute transport in spring waters was highly seasonal, with two conduit flow springs removing more limestone in the winter, and the diffuse flow spring removing more during the growing season. At the stream sites, most denudation occurred during the winter and spring seasons, and least during the summer. Fourier analysis showed that variations in denudation occur on deterministic (long-wave) as well as stochastic (short-wave) time scales. As contributing variables, discharge varied in short-wave and long-wave cycles, whereas soil PCO2 showed only a long-wave cycle. The 12 month deterministic cycles were the most important, with changes in discharge taking precedence over Soil PCO2. Time series regression explains up to 69 per cent of changes in denudation through rain and soil pCO2. Time cycles in available water are the key controlling factor of denudation, and amounts of available Soil CO2 may not be as important in the temporal patterns of karst downwearing as has been believed previously

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