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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That rock texture is the geometrical aspects and arrangement of the component particles of a rock [16].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for u/th dating (Keyword) returned 24 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 24
Speleothems and paleoglaciers, , Spotl Christoph, Mangini Augusto,
Ice and speleothems are widely regarded as mutually exclusive as the presence of liquid water is a fundamental prerequisite for speleothem deposition. Here we show that speleothems may form in caves overlain by a glacier, as long as the temperature in the cave is above freezing and the conduits are not completely flooded by melt water. Carbonate dissolution is accomplished via sulfide oxidation and the resultant speleothems show high [delta]13C values approaching and locally exceeding those of the parent host rock (lack of soil-derived biogenic C). The [delta]18O values reflect the isotopic composition of the melt water percolating into the karst fissure network and carry an atmospheric (temperature) signal, which is distinctly lower than those of speleothems formed during periods when soil and vegetation were present above the cave. These `subglacial' speleothems provide a means of identifying and dating the former presence of warm-based paleoglaciers and allow us to place some constraints on paleotemperature changes

Les mouvements tectoniques rcents dans les grottes du Monte Campo dei Fiori (Lombardie, Italie), 1992, Bini A. , Quinif Y. , Sules O. , Uggeri A.
Recent tectonic movements have been studied in the caves of Monte Campo dei Fiori in Lombardy (Italy). These develop in limestones and dolomites ranging from the Lower Trias to the Lower Lias. In the Frassino cave, movements can be observed along the layers (shifts in galleries) as well as speleothems that have been broken and displaced. U/Th datings of speleothems indicate ages of more 350.000 years. Karstification therefore preceded neotectonic movements. On the whole, observations point out an increasing folding of the syncline of the Varese Lake, together with an uplift of the neighbouring anticlines.

Datation dune stalagmite dans la caverne de Tnhet (Wildhorn, Valais, Suisse), 1993, Quinif Y. , Leroy J. , Morverand P. , Pahud A.
The Tenehet cave (669 m, -120 m) is situated at 2770m near the Wildhorn glacier. Numerous speleothems (stalagmites) are present in an old gallery (-70 m). U/Th dating (400 000 years) shows this cave is probably preglacial (before Quaternary period) when the climate was warmer and the geomorphology different.

Late Quaternary climatic history of the Helderberg Plateau, New York, USA;Preliminary results from U/Th dating of speleothems, 1996, Lauritzen Se. , Mylroie J. E.

Karst and the evolution of rivers: a case study of Ardennes, 1999, Quinif Y. ,
In karstic areas, tectonic phenomena have two major influences. (i) By uplift, they give potential energy to karst and valley hollowing. (ii) An active tectonic regime is necessary for the development of karstification. The opposition between the development of valleys or karstic networks depends on the type of dissipated energy. Karstic systems in the Ardennes Massif are essentially between 5 and 15 m above the water table for the dry networks, and in the phreatic zone for the active parts. The structuration of the karstic systems is dependent on the uplift of Ardennes and an active tectonic regime is necessary for the genesis of large caves. It is during the Upper and Middle Pleistocene that the Ardennes area underwent tectonic activity; these karstic levels are more than 400 000 years old. (C) Elsevier, Paris

Karst et evolution des rivieres: le cas de l'Ardenne, 1999, Quinif Yves,
In karstic areas, tectonic phenomena have two major influences. (i) By uplift, they give potential energy to karst and valley hollowing. (ii) An active tectonic regime is necessary for the development of karstification. The opposition between the development of valleys or karstic networks depends on the type of dissipated energy. Karstic systems in the Ardennes Massif are essentially between 5 and 15 m above the water table for the dry networks, and in the phreatic zone for the active parts. The structuration of the karstic systems is dependent on the uplift of Ardennes and an active tectonic regime is necessary for the genesis of large caves. It is during the Upper and Middle Pleistocene that the Ardennes area underwent tectonic activity; these karstic levels are more than 400 000 years old.ResumeDans les regions karstiques comprenant des vallees epigenetiques, les phenomenes tectoniques ont deux influences majeures: a) la surrection donne de l'energie potentielle en creant des differences d'altitude, generant a la fois le creusement des vallees et celui du karst; b) une tectonique active est necessaire pour que le processus de karstification debute. L'opposition entre le developpement privilegie soit des vallees, soit des reseaux karstiques depend ainsi du type d'energie dissipee. Les reseaux karstiques de l'Ardenne se situent surtout entre 5 et 15 m au-dessus de la surface piezometrique pour les reseaux secs, et dans la zone saturee pour les parties actives. La structuration de ces reseaux karstiques est favorisee par un ralentissement de la surrection et une activite tectonique. Cette periode se situe dans le Pleistocene moyen et recent, d'apres les datations U/Th de speleothemes

Results of a Speleothem U/Th Dating Reconnaissance from the Helderberg Plateau, New York, 2000, Lauritzen, S. E. , Mylroie, J. E.
The Helderberg Plateau consists of Silurian-Devonian carbonates that crop out across central New York State, supporting a well-developed, multiply glaciated karst. Stalagmites and flowstone were collected from five caves spread across a 60 km long traverse of the Plateau from Albany west-northwest to Schoharie County. Subsamples from these spleothems yielded 36 U/Th alpha count dates ranging from 3 ka to >350 ka. While the data reported here are only a reconnaissance study, they represent the most comprehensive geochronologic data base for any karst area in the northeastern United States. Hollyhock Hollow, southern Albany County: two cave-fill samples yielded three dates of 70-56 ka and four dates of 41-35 ka; the mid-Wisconsin dates may reflect the caves southerly position. Onesquethaw Cave, central Albany County: two stalagmites yielded 5 dates, all Holocene (<9 ka); the dates suggest that Onesquethaw Cave may be post-glacial in origin. Caboose Cave, eastern Schoharie County: five stalagmite and flowstone samples provided 13 dates, ranging from 207-56 ka, with distinct clusters at 100-56 ka and 207-172 ka; the dates support the cave being older than the last glaciation. Schoharie Caverns, 2 km west of Caboose Cave: six samples from one flowstone all dated to >350 ka; the dates indicate that the cave has survived more than one glaciation. Barrack Zourie Cave, western Schoharie County: two stalagmites yielded four dates, which cluster at 161-158 ka, with a younger overgrowth at 61 ka (two previously reported dates were 165 ka and 277 ka); the dates support the cave being older than the last glaciation. The U/Th dates indicate that both pre- and post-glacial caves exist in New York. The dates cluster in the 100-56 ka and 207-158 ka range, and there are a surprising lack of dates from the last interglacial (130-120 ka), possibly an artifact of the sampling regime.

Polyphased uplift and erosion of the Cevennes (southern France). An example of slow morphogenesis, 2002, Seranne Michel, Camus Hubert, Lucazeau Francis, Barbarand Jocelyn, Quinif Yves,
The Cevennes are bordering the French Massif Central and the Gulf of Lion margin. The morphogenesis of this area results from an interaction between deep-seated and superficial processes, whose origin and timing is still discussed. We attempt a reconstruction of the surrection and erosion history of the area through a multidisciplinary approach including geology, geomorphology, thermochronology and geochronology. Thermochronology shows that the Cevennes basement underwent some 2 km denudation in mid-Cretaceous time. Analyses of the sediments preserved on uplifted surfaces and in peripheral sedimentary basins indicate a differential surface uplift of the Cevennes, of the surrounding calcareous plateaus, and of the coastal plain, that occurred in several stages during the Tertiary. Early Miocene rifting of the Gulf of Lion margin and opening of the NW Mediterranean drastically modified the drainage network. Geomorphology analyses of the incised rivers and karst network suggest that most of the incision results from uplift that occurred sometime in the Serravalian-Tortonian interval. U/Th dating of calcite concretions in karsts allows to chronologically bracket the formation of some fluvial terraces, and to find very low incision rates during the Pleistocene. Most of the morphogenesis predates the Quaternary. This ongoing study shows an example of polyphased and very slow morphogenesis, with present-day landscape including elements as old as Cretaceous

Reconstruction of Alpine Cenozoic paleorelief through the analysis of caves at Siebenhengste (BE, Switzerland), 2002, Hauselmann P. , Jeannin P. Y. , Monbaron M. , Lauritzen S. E. ,
The cave region of Siebenhengste, situated north of Lake Thun (Switzerland), contains one of the most important cave systems in the world, which extends from 500 to 2000 m a.s.l. It has a complex multiphase history. The recognized speleogenetic phases are related to spring level and to old valley floors. The six most recent phases were investigated in St. Beatus cave and Barenschacht. They suggest a progressive Quarternary Aare valley incision to 890, 805, 760, 700, 660, and 558 in a.s.l. that is confirmed by statistical analysis of small caves. U/Th-datings of flowstone allowed a timing of the valley deepening phases: the valley bottom was at 760 in already before 350 ka, the one at 700 in was active between 235 and 160 ka. The cave morphology in the upper part of the cave system was coupled with sedimentological observations. This combination leads to the hypothesis that the uppermost (oldest) cave parts were already created in the Miocene, during and after the last deposition of the Molasse. Ideas about the evolution of the paleorelief suggest that today's Aare valley is a product of glacial erosion, and that the old Aare valley shifted its position several times between the Miocene and today. (C) 2002 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved

Cave Genesis and its relationship to surface processes: investigations in the Siebenhengste region (BE, Switzerland), PhD Thesis, 2002, Haeuselmann, Ph.

This PhD thesis deals with the speleogenesis of the youngest six phases in the Siebenhengste system (Switzerland). A speleogenetic model is developed, linking the four-state-model with the model of Audra (1994), taking into account the speleogenetic processes in the flooding zone. The refinement of the speleogenetic phases allowed to reconstruct the valley deepening processes in the late Quarternary. Moreover, an idea about the landscape evolution since the Mio-Pliocene is sketched. U/Th datings allowed the timing of the last four speleogenetic phases as well as glacial advances and retreats during the last 400'000 years, thus considerably enhancing the continental Quarternary record. With information from Baerenschacht and St. Beatus Cave, the tectonic history and the geometry of the folds could be retraced. A comprehensive analysis of all dye tracing experiments is given. 

Intrt de lapproche morphognique pour la comprhension globale dune grotte haute valeur patrimoniale, la grotte Chauvet (Ardche - France), 2004, Delannoy Jeanjacques, Perrette Yves, Debard Evelyne, Ferrier Catherine, Kervazo Bertrand, Perroux Annesophie, Jaillet Stphane, Quinif Yves
Interest of the morphogenesis approach to improve the knowledge of a high-value heritage: Chauvet cave (Ardche, France) - This paper describes the shapes and cave deposits of the Chauvet cave. Especially, the geomorphologic approach improves the global understanding of the Chauvet cave characteristics while Man and animal prehistoric occupancies. Access to the cave, painting location in the cave, and finally cave closing, are discussed on geomorphologic basis to answer the questions asked by prehistorians and archaeologists. The ultimate goal of this paper is to enhance the contribution of the geomorphologic high resolution mapping to the prehistoric investigations. To answer the three questions above, we used shapes and deposits to relate the past cave environments. Soil detailed map allows to describe deposits and shapes in a stratigraphic approach. Some U/Th dating complete the chronology especially during Man and animal occupancy; thus, the closing of the prehistoric entrance has been dated older than 15000 years. Also, this paper shows the interest of crossing the disciplinary approaches in the understanding of such a complex scientific object: the Chauvet cave, a high value Man heritage

Ages et modalits des incursions humaines et animales prhistoriques dans ltage Cathala de la grotte dAldne (Hrault, France). Apport des analyses sdimentologiques et gochronologiques, 2004, Guendon Jeanlouis, Ambert Paul, Quinif Yves, Baumes Bernard, Colomer Albert, Dainat Denis, Galant Philippe, Gruneisen Alain, Gruneisen Nathalie
Chronologies and means of prehistoric human and animal frequentations into Aldne cave, Cathala level (Hrault, France). Sedimentology and geochronology studies - The Aldne cave forms a long network of galleries on four levels. Only the first two of these contain prehistoric vestiges. Superior level (Bousquet storey) presents a Lower Palaeolithic stratigraphy in the porch. It contained also, in the deep areas, a thick filling of clays and speleothems with bear bones, intensively quarried during the 19th and 20th centuries for phosphate ore. These workings allowed to discover the second level (Cathala storey) and, in these news galleries, human footprints trail with sooty marks on the walls, numerous animal paw prints, hyena coprolites, scratches and nests made by bears. After study establishing mesolithic age of human footprints (8 200 130 BP, 7 790 60 BP) and anteriority of animal passages, researches were directed on sedimentological and geochronological study (U/Th dating of speleothem). First, the age of the last animal presence in the second level of Aldne was precised, between 41 500 BP to 25 000 BP. Second, means and chronologies of closing of the prehistoric entrance of Cathala storey were revealed. The actual access in these galleries is only an artificial entrance opened up for phosphate mining. It begins by a cat-flap and shafts about twenty meters high. The access used by prehistoric humans and animals is completely obstructed by a very important boulder choke with speleothems interstratified, situated in North part of Cathala gallery. The studies of this boulder choke showed three principal phases of closing of this primitive access: a first collapse of the roof during Middle Pleistocene; an important bedded rock-fragments produced by frost shattering of primitive entrance porch, which filled principal gallery during periglacial stages of the Upper Pleistocene; and a second roof collapse, during Holocene. The burnt pieces of brand left on the ground allowed to recognise the last narrow passage taken by the Mesolithic humans before this last collapse finally obstructing this entrance.

The Moselle piracy: new chronological data from U/Th dating of speleothems, 2004, Losson B. , Quinif Y.

The Moselle piracy is one of the most important changes of the hydrographic network in Lorraine (France). For a long time, this phenomenon has been presumed to be relatively recent (at the end of the Middle Pleistocene) because of the well-preserved fluvial morphologies and deposits. With new relations between the surficial and subterranean data in the piracy area, the capture has been dated from 300ka using U/Th method on speleothem. This evaluation reveals an earlier time for the phenomenon, and is more precise than those proposed up to now. The latter were derived from the North-European glacial chronology and one thermoluminescence date obtained in the downstream valley of Meuse. In fact, the improvements in absolute dating, thanks to different methods and U/Th in particular, lead geomorphologists to abandon the simple relation between the glacial-interglacial periods and the accumulation-erosion processes in rivers.

Palaeomagnetic and U-series dating of cave sediments in Baradla Cave, Hungary, 2004, Bosá, K Pavel, Hercman Helena, Kadlec Jaroslav, Mó, Ga Já, Nos, Pruner Petr

Fine-grained siliciclastic sediments from the main gallery and upper cave level show nearly uniform composition and sedimentary textures. Palaeomagnetic analysis indicates normal magnetic polarisation of all samples, i.e. the age younger than Brunhes/Matuyama boundary at 780 ka. Flowstone/stalagmite covering siliciclastics in the upper cave level contains reverse polarised samples dated by U-series method to about 114ý115 ka, which can be identified as the Blake Event. The uniform composition of sediments can indicate the infill of the cave during a single event caused by the blockage of drainage routes due to geological (collapse) or palaeoclimatic (ice) changes, which took part before ca 130 to 150 ka as indicating by the oldest U-series data from the whole DomicaýBaradla Cave System.

New palaeontological assemblage, sedimentological and chronological data from the Pleistocene Ma U'Oi cave (northern Vietnam), 2006, Bacon Am, Demeter F, Rousse S, Long Vt, Duringer P, Antoine Po, Thuy Nk, Mai Bt, Huong Ntm, Dodo Y,
This paper describes recent material gathered during the second fieldwork at Ma U'Oi in November 2002 by a Vietnamese-French-Japanese team. The Ma U'Oi cave, located in the province of Hoa Binh (60 km SW from Hanoi), northern Vietnam, belongs to a karstic network developed in Triassic dark-grey limestones.The cave is filled with coarse-grained breccias containing numerous fossil remains, partially preserved at several loci inside the cave (wall, vault and ground). We describe new teeth which confirm the occurrence of mammal taxa already mentioned at Ma U'Oi (Bacon et al., 2004)[Bacon, A-M., Demeter, F., Schuster, M., Long, V.T., Thuy, N.K., Antoine, P-O., Sen, S., Nga, H.H., Huong, N.T.M., 2004. The Pleistocene Ma U'Oi cave, northern Vietnam: palaeontology, sedimentology and palaeoenvironments. Geobios 37, 305-314], while others, mainly microvertebrates, emphasize the occurrence of new species for the Pleistocene of Vietnam. We report here, for the first time, the occurrence of these microvertebrates of different groups (primates, rodents, insectivores, small reptiles and amphibians) in the faunal assemblage. Among mammal taxa, the presence of one more hominid affiliated to archaic Homo is also attested by our findings. U/Th dating carried out on 2 samples extracted from breccia speleothems confirms the biochronological estimate, with fossiliferous fillings ranging from late Middle Pleistocene to Late Pleistocene

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