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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That subsurface divide is see underground divide.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for vaucluse (Keyword) returned 26 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 26
Les exutoires de l'aquifre karstique de la Fontaine de Vaucluse, 1985, Michelot Cl. , Mudry J.
REMARKS ABOUT THE OUTLETS OF THE LIMESTONE AQUIFER OF THE FONTAINE DE VAUCLUSE (SOUTHEASTERN FRANCE) - The Fontaine de Vaucluse is apparently the single outlet of the Vaucluse table-lands, a calcareous aquifer of more than 1000 square kilometres. The hydro-geochemical study (major ionic elements and isotopes) of the different water spots of the western boundaries of this area (springs and wells) enables one to identify the different families of water (coming from the Vaucluse table-lands or from the Comtat plain) that emerge out of the Fontaine de Vaucluse or out of other places covered with the tertiary and quaternary deposits.

Compte rendu hydrogologique de l'opration Splnaute du 2/8/85 (Fontaine de Vaucluse), 1987, Bayle B. , Graillot D. , Societ_spelologique_de_fontaine_de_vaucluse
THE SPELEONAUT OPERATION AT THE FONTAINE DE VAUCLUSE (AUGUST 1985) - During August 1985, while the water level was low, the Fontaine de Vaucluse was explored down to 315m. Examination of the recorded video tape shows that the Spelenaut reached a sandy ledge at the entrance of what appears to be a continuation of the submerged gallery The aspect of the limestone is varied and it is difficult to determine lithology from erosive phenomena. Analysis of the samples collected by the machine illustrates the need for similar explorations in order to obtain further information concerning the geology of drainage basin.

Le karst de Vaucluse (Haute Provence), 1991, Mudry J. , Puig J. M.
The catchment area of the Fontaine de Vaucluse system is more than 1100km2 wide, with an average altitude of 870m. The thickness of the Lower Cretaceous limestone (1500m) gives the system a very thick (800m) unsaturated zone. Karstification is highly developed (four shafts are more than 500m deep) as well as on the valley (pit of 300m depth inside the spring). The bottom of the shafts of the Plateau does not reach the saturated zone of the karst, as their flows are the chemical content of the seepage water. The maximum hydraulic gradient from the Plateau to the spring is low, only 0.3%. Dye tracings permit the assignment of the Ventoux-Lure rang (including its calcareous northern slope with a southward dipping) and the Vaucluse Plateau in the catchment area. The water balance computed by altitude belts shows that the rainfall strongly increases with altitude: 120mm at 200m, 1380mm over 1800m. The dynamic of the system, studied by discharge and physical and chemical content, shows of a well karstified media, that reacts with slight inertia upon the rainy periods, and that is made up of important reserves, particularly within the unsaturated zone, that supply long decline and depletion episodes.

Traages en bordure du systme karstique de Vaucluse, 1992, Couturaud A. , Puig J. M.
TRACING AT THE EDGE OF THE KARST SYSTEM OF THE VAUCLUSE - A double tracing was carried out in 1989 at the edge of the large karst system of the Vaucluse: 25 kg of fluorescein were poured into the trou du Vent, 1335m up on the north side of mont Ventoux and 20kg of sulforhodamin into the sinkhole of a stream at Mthamis, at an altitude of 280m, during high water. Some 20 outlets or boreholes were watched for 6 months (9 months at the Fontaine de Vaucluse). 2000 analyses were carried out on 400 charcoal detectors and 700 samples. Only the fluorescein showed up at the Fontaine de Vaucluse, involving a part of the north side of mont Ventoux in the catchment area. The maximum speed is of about 20m/h over a distance of 31km and a relief difference of 1250m. The experiment was carried out at exceptionally low water.

The karst system of the Fontaine de Vaucluse (Southeastern France), 1992, Blavoux B, Mudry J, Puig Jm,

The karst aquifer of the well-known Fontaine de Vaucluse has been recently studied, results have been got about delimitation of the system and its working. Geological data (lithology and structure) have allowed to delimit an 1115 Km2 intake area including Ventoux-Lure north facing range (1,909-1,826 m) and the Plateau which is prolonging it southwards (Fig. 1 and 2). The average altitude of the whole area, obtained by balancing elevation belt surfaces, is about 870 m. This elevation squares with results of tracing tests (Fig. 3), environmental physical, chemical and isotopic tracings, that allow to value a 850 m average altitude for the intake area (Fig. 4). The moisture balance has been computed from an altitude belts climatic model, using local rain an temperature gradients (Fig. 5 and Table II), because the weather network is not representative. So, rainfalls rise of about 55 mm per 100 m elevation and temperature decreases of about 0.5-degrees-C per 100 m. The consequence of these two antagonist phenomena is the quasi constant value of actual evapotranspiration on each altitude belt. With the Fig. 7 organigram, curves of effective rainfalls and infiltration coefficient versus elevation can be plotted (Fig. 6). This computation shows that 3/4 of the total and the whole of dry season effective rainfalls are provided by the part of the intake area situated above the average altitude: on the lowest belt, effective rainfalls are only 120 mm per year and increase to 1380 mm on the upper section (Fig. 8 and Table 1). The weighted effective rainfalls are about 570 mm per year for the whole intake area. Hydrodynamical and physico-chemical studies show, despite its large size, the weak inertia of the system, so proves its good karstification, that confirms for the whole system the pin-point speleological observations. The discharge of the spring, which average value is 21 m3.s-1 (only 18 for the last ten years), can exceed 100 m3.s-1 and the minimum has never been lower than 3.7 m3.s-1 (Fig. 9). When it rains on the intake area, the increase of the discharge is very sudden in a rainy period : one to four days. This short delay is due to seepage through epikarst and unsaturated zone. During dry periods, the spring reaction is deadened, due to storage in the unsaturated zone. The silica content distribution was plotted during several hydrokinematical phases (Fig. 10). It shows: an almost unimodal distribution for the 8 km2 fissured limestone aquifer of Groseau; a multimodal one for the 1115 km2 karst aquifer of Fontaine de Vaucluse. This proves that karstification is more important than size in the response of the system. Weak summer rainfalls do not influence the discharge, nevertheless they influence chemistry of the spring water, and so interrupts the water depletion phasis. Then, the decrease of discharge can continue after the end of the chemical depletion phasis, water which is overflowing after summer rainfalls (in a dry period) is influenced hy the chemistry of seepage water : on the graph of a principal components analysis, done on chemical variables. an hysteresis phenomenon can be seen (Fig. 11). A discriminant analysis (Fig. 12) confirms that these autumn waters, with high ratio seepage tracers, are not reserve waters from the saturated zone. The ratio of reserve water in the total discharge, is preponderant: 3/4 and 2/3 respectively of the yearly runoff volumes for 1981 and 1982 (Fig. 13), but an important part of these reserves can be stored in the unsaturated zone. This storage capacity can be valued by different means: transposing to Vaucluse (1115 km2) the volume measured on another karst system in the Pyrenees (13 km2); it gives about 100 million m2; using setting parameters of Bezes model (1976) on the same aquifer: it gives 113 million m3; using depletion curves, that show, for instance during the 1989 summer and autumn dry period, a 80 million m3 volume. In all cases, we get a value of about one hundred million m3 for the storage capacity of the unsaturated zone. With a 20 m range of fluctuation for the water table and with a 10(-2) specific yield, on a 500 to 1,000 km2 saturated zone, the zone of fluctuation can release about 10 to 20 million m3. Then, the volume of water stored in the whole saturated zone, with a 300 m minimum thickness (depth of the waterlogged pit of the Fontaine), a 500 km2 minimum surface and a 10(-3) specific yield, is about 150 million m3, including 27 million m3 stored in the channels. So, the unsaturated zone represents a significant part of the whole storage capacity and most of the yearly renewable reserves. Paradoxically, the biggest french spring is not tapped at all; as its intake area is neither a regional nor a national park, no general protection covers it : because of its good karstification, the vulnerability of the system is important. Good quality of water is attributable to the low population and human activities density on the intake area (4 A great part of the intake area is uncultivated (large forest and ''garrigues'' areas). Due to the lack of surface water and scantness of soils, agriculture is not intensive (lavender, thyme, sage and bulk wheat fields. meadowlands). On the mountainous zone, roads are salted in winter and snowmelt water can reach a significantly high chloride ratio than in a natural climatic functioning (for instance 25 mg.l-1 in Font d'Angiou where the ratio would have been 3 mg.l-1). As tourism is developing both on the mountain and on the plateau, the management of the highest intake area must be carefully held: its part is preponderant in the feeding of the system

Karstification is a slow geodynamical process, controlled by the interaction between dissolution kinetics and flow dynamics. Moreover, mechanisms of network clogging by calcite precipitation or non-soluble clay accumulation are slow and continuous phenomena. This evolution of a karst system can be widely modified during exceptional rainfall episodes, such as the 22/09/92 storm (> 300 mm) near Vaison-la-Romaine. Such an impulse can modify the hydraulical behaviour of a massif, by unclogging the outlets of the saturated zone or the drainage network of the aquifer, and change hydrodynamical features of a spring (storage capacity etc.). This phenomenon has been demonstrated in a north Vaucluse karst aquifer whose recession coefficient has increased 7-fold and stored volume divided by 6

The Eastern boundary of the giant karst of Vaucluse in relation to the lineament-fault of Aix-en-Provence (Provence, Alps, Cote d'Azur Region, France), 1997, Rousset C. ,
In the Saint-Donat area, along the Mardaric stream, a tributary of the mid Durance, water losses associated with temporary springs can be observed. These springs run off overflows of the Vaucluse karstic system. Their impluvium extends over the limestones of the eastern part of the Montagne de Lure; this karstic area contributes, with the runoff entering into the losses, to the underground flows of the Fontaine de Vaucluse. As it rose eastwards, the drainage network of this giant karst was halted by the faults of the Aix-en-Provence lineament, in which very strongly deepening marls form a barrier around the aquifer. This is new evidence of the part played by the Hercynian-inherited lineament framework in limiting giant karsts of the Vaucluse-type, as is the case for the Alpine carbonate platforms in which they have developed

Ladoption du terme de karst en France, approche historique dun processus lexical dcisif, 1999, Gauchon, Christophe
During the symposium ALCADI 96 in Postojna, professor Yvan GAMS appealed to all the participants to study the way in which the notion of "Karst" had been introduced into respective countries and adopted by speleologists and geographers. In France, the specific phenomenons of the eponymic Karst, as the Zirknitz Lake (Cerknisko Jezero), have been known about and described since the end of the 16th century. But it required a big step to go from these descriptions to an understanding that the Karst might be a model capable of explaining the hydrology and morphology of such regions. In the early 19th century, naturalists and geologists began to recognise the particularities of the hydrography in limestone regions, and went as far as to propose the Jura or the Causses as models. In 1879, probably for the first lime, Marius Bouvier, a French civil engineer, used Karst as a pattern to explain and describe the impluvium of the famous Vaucluse spring (Provence). It is known that E.-A. Martel disliked this word of "karst" and argued strongly in favour of "causse"; but despite this, Cvijic was generally considered most representative, and Karst was quickly adopted for all the scientific french works.

Elments de rflexion sur la morphogense des plateaux de Vaucluse (France) : les apports du karst superficiel, 2003, Depambour Christophe, Guendon Jeanlouis
ABOUT THE GENESIS OF VAUCLUSE PLATEAUX: THE LESSONS FROM KARSTIC LANDFORMS - The study of the principal forms of the surface karst gives a first diagram of evolution of the plates of Vaucluse. Paleo-surfaces now perched and/or deformed are witnesses old major phases of flattening, in regional matter, undoubtedly of ante-Miocene age. The whole of intermediate surfaces (850 m) seems to cut the Miocene deposits (Burdigalian) of the ditch of Aurel-Sault. It thus reveals a major phase of post-miocene flattening. These surfaces of karstic flattening were to be in relation to the vastpo1jes of the sectors of Saint-Christol and the ditch of Sault. Their genesis, dependent on dysfunction of the endokarstic drainage, could be related to the Pliocene transgression. Canyon of Nesque, structuring elements major landscape, present, on both sides Rocher du Cire, two distinct parts, having own morphologies. The downstream part, wide open, would have grown hollow by headwater erosion from a karstic steephead perhaps since the end of Miocene. The narrow upstream part would have incised itself, after capture of the polje of Sault, undoubtedly at the time of the cold phases of the Quaternary one.

Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and magnesium (Mg2): two complementary tracers of residence time in karstic systems, 2003, Batiot C, Emblanch C, Blavoux B,
The Total Organic Carbon (TOC) is an interesting tracer of fast infiltration within karstic systems [3,7]. Regular sampling on several aquifers. from the experimental site of Vaucluse, made it possible to demonstrate the high sensitivity of this tracer compared with other commonly used chemical and isotopic tracers in karstic hydrogeology. The complementarity of magnesium, indicator of the residence time of water within the system, and TOC appears as a relevant tool in order to characterize the behaviour of the aquifer, to differentiate the water types which participate to the karstic flow (fast infiltration, unsaturated zone, saturated zone) and then, to evaluate their vulnerability. (C) 2003 Academie des sciences/Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved

Circulation in present-day karst systems sourcing the vaucluse springs in the Polish Tatra Mts., based on tracer methods and limnimetric observations, 2003, Barczyk G,
The paper reviews research into karst system recharging the vaucluse springs in the Tatra Mts. Investigations of present-day karst systems are carried out directly with tracer methods, as well as based on interpretations of stationary observations in springs. Direct methods lead to the determination of groundwater migration routes and their rates, with further information from interpretations of results obtained from monitoring the vaucluse springs of the area

Carbon 13 of TDIC to quantify the role of the unsaturated zone: the example of the Vaucluse karst systems (Southeastern France), 2003, Emblanch C, Zuppi Gm, Mudry J, Blavoux B, Batiot C,
The total dissolved inorganic carbon (TDIC) and C-13(TDIC) have been used as chemical and isotopic tracers to evaluate the contribution of different water components discharging at the Fontaine de Vaucluse karst spring near Avignon. At the same time they have been used to separate its flood hydrograph. Waters flowing from unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) show similar concentration in TDIC. In UZ and SZ water rock interactions do not obey to the same kinetic. The mixing rate between water coming from the UZ characterised by a short residence time and water from the SZ with a longer residence time has been evaluated in the spring discharge. In a hydrodynamic system, which is rather complex as it is open to the soil CO2 in UZ and closed to the same CO2 in the SZ, C-13(TDIC) has excellent characteristics as an environmental tracer. In order to better describe the inwardness of mass movements within the aquifer, the apparent contrasting information obtained using two different isotopes (O-18 of water molecules and C-13 of TDIC) must be combined. O-18 informs whether the hydrodynamic system acts as piston flow (PF) or follows a well mixing model (WMM). Conversely, C-13 gives more complete information on the UZ contributes to the total discharge. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Karst and vaucluse springs from the Polish Tatra Mts. Results of long-term stationary investigations, 2003, Barczyk, Grzegorz

Karst (vaucluse) springs, transporting water from fissure-karst systems, result from karst development in the area. At the same time, they are the main source of information on the hydrography of the investigated karst area. Continuous monitoring of groundwaters and surface waters in the Tatra Mountains in Poland takes place for a long time. In the mid-70-ties, the team of Prof. D. Malecka organized an observation network, with water marks along the main Tatra streams right to their outlets from the massif, and with observation points of the largest springs and vaucluse springs. Readings from water marks were collected several times each month by the observers (usually Tatra National Park employees). In 1998 the National Committee for Scientific Research approved a three-year research project entitled: "Determination of retention abilities and the dynamics of denudation in the karst areas of the Polish Tatra Mountains basing on stationary investigations of vaucluse springs". In accordance with this project, between November and December 1998 automatic limnimeters were installed in selected vaucluse (five) springs.

Le paysage karstique du versant sud de la montagne de Lure (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France), 2004, Dandurand, Grgory
Karstic landscape on the south face of Lure range (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France) - The karstic landscape of the Montagne de Lure seems neither attractive nor spectacular. Karstic forms are badly developed; sinks are small and filled in with red clays. Caves are narrow and their size doesnt enable man to visit them. Only the aven des Cdres reaches 172 m deep. Still, its a major contradiction that surface runoff observed in the area are thin and as poor as karstic shapes. Infiltration and subterranean water flow are fast. Nor exhaustive inventory, neither precise study about Lure ranges karsts have been published yet. Perhaps due to the mediocrity of their superficial and subterranean shapes, or perhaps in the benefit of the more spectacular karstic landscapes of the Plateau d Albion , to the west part of studied area! Still, the main problem about Lure range is the question of the relation with the Fontaine de Vaucluse and maybe with any others springs in Durance valley. Finally, the progression of woods at the end of 19th century and at the beginning of 20th century, then the increase of population since 1970s, created a lot of environmental dysfunctions, which require a specific management. But karstic shapes are unexploited; protection or valorisation plans dont exist, when interrogation about the future of biological and landscape diversity is at the top. These reasons give a particular interest to the karst landscape of the south face of the Montagne de Lure .

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