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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That meander niche is a conical or crescent-- shaped opening in the wall of a cave, formed by the downward and lateral erosion of a stream on the floor of a passage [10].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for water pollution (Keyword) returned 30 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 30
An introduction to Japanese groundwater animals with reference to their ecology and hygienic significance., 1976, Matsumoto Koichi
1) Nearly two hundred species of troglobites are known from the groundwaters of Japan. Most of these troglobiontic species, sixteen of seventy-seven genera, and what is more, four of fortyseven families are endemic to Japan. Uchidastygacaridae, Nipponacaridae, and Kantacaridae are endemic acaridan families of Japan. The coleopterous family, Phreatodytidae, is alto endemic to Japan. 2) Though studies on Protozoa, Turbellaria, Annelida, Aschelminthes, and Ostracoda, etc. remain sparse, the interstitial fauna is actively investigated recently and many specimens of Bathynellacea, Ingolfiella, Bogidiella, Microcerberus, Pseudovermis (Opisthobranchia), and Nerillidae, etc. have been collected from freshwater and marine environments. 3) None of the troglobites is known to be directly detrimental to human health and most of them have been collected from well-waters which are regarded as chemically clean in many cases, but they have also been obtained occasionally from bacteriologically contaminated well-waters. 4) Ecological and taxonomic knowledge, of even the limited amount which we possess at present, has enabled us to utilize various animals which occur in well-waters as biological indicators of well-water pollution and to have some insight as to the origin of the pollution.

Groundwater pollution by sewage, creamery waste heavy metals in the Horse Cave area, Kentucky, 1983, Quinlan J. F.

Threat of Triassic water quality deterioration as a results of planned closing of ores mines in the Olkusz region. [in Polish], 1993, Niewdana, Jzef

Quality of karst fissure waters from the Krakw-Cz?stochowa Jurassic formations and the source of their degradation. [in Polish], 1996, R?kowski Jacek, R?kowski Andrzej, Pacholewski Andrzej

Optimum well design to avoid salt water pollution of a coastal karst aquifer, 1997, Dermissis V,
The maximum freshwater well pumping flowrate, from an underground karst channel, is defined as function of the channel length, between the well and the submarine spring, in which the channel is terminated. The differential equations that describe the phenomenon of saltwater intrusion into the channel have been analytically solved. The derived dimensionless graphs are suitable for practical applications. Their use can lead to a freshwater exploitation up to 90% of the submarine spring discharge without brackishnesh of the well freshwater

Examples of the anthropic impact of karst environment in southern part of the Cracow Upland. [in French], 1998, R?kowski, Jacek

Recharge: the key to groundwater pollution and aquifer vulnerability, 1998, Robins N. S. ,
Recharge is pivotal to understanding the processes by which groundwater pollution can occur. It is implicit in the classification of aquifer units according to their vulnerability to pollution. The management of both groundwater resources and of individual groundwater sources cannot sensibly be undertaken without some knowledge of recharge: its quantity, its seasonality and, above all, the different routes through the sub-soil and the unsaturated zone by which it can occur. However, current estimates of recharge, other than on a research site basis, may be poor, both in the UK and overseas. This volume provides a review of current research into these issues; this introductory paper attempts to highlight the thread throughout all of this work which collectively provides the basic information in support of the current and future management of groundwater resources and sources

Groundwater lowering in karstic aquifers due to agricultural activity in the Fucino plain (Abruzzi, Central Italy) , 1998, Burri Ezio, Petitta Marco

The alluvial-lacustrine sediments that fill the Fucino Plain (>200 km2) contain an important aquifer, mostly fed by the karstic water. The Plain displays high vulnerability by agricultural activity (potential pollution, depletion of groundwater resources). In order to find water, more than 200 wells have been drilled since the 1950s, with a seasonal delivery of about 2,000,000 m3. The possible consequences can be summarised: 1. Decreased efficiency of the operating wells because of the lowering of the piezometric levels. This kind of problem is already evident and it may determine economic losses and environmental degradation, especially if the summer water shortage causes precarious hygienic conditions in the canal network of the Plain. 2. Reduced discharge in springs. This phenomenon involves the decrease of both available drinking water supplies and regular downflow in the canals. 3. Increased vulnerability of the surrounding carbonate aquifers by the infiltration of poor-quality irrigation waters in the karst aquifers.

Review of groundwater pollution and protection in karst areas, 1999, Kacaroglu F. ,
Karst groundwater (the water in a karst aquifer) is a major water resource in many regions of some countries. Water requirements for most of the settlements in the karstic regions are supplied from karst aquifers. Karst environments are also used for the disposal of liquid and solid domestic agricultural, and industrial wastes, which result in karst groundwater pollution. Karst aquifers have specific hydraulic and hydrogeologic characteristics that render them highly vulnerable to pollution from human activities. Karst groundwater becomes polluted more easily and in shorter time periods than water in non-karstic aquifers. Thus, protection measures are required to preserve the quality and quantity of karst groundwater that specifically consider the vulnerability of the karst environment. In order to preserve karst groundwater, the geological, hydrological and hydrogeological characteristics of the karst area must be investigated and information on polluting activities and sources must be collected. Then, a comprehensive protection and control system must be developed consisting of the following six components: (1) develop and implement a groundwater monitoring system, (2) establish critical protection zones, (3) develop proper land use strategies, (4) determine the reasonable development capacity of the karst aquifer, (5) control and eliminate when necessary sources of pollution, (6) increase public awareness of the value and vulnerability of karst aquifers

Review of groundwater pollution and protection in karst areas., 1999, Kacaroglu F.

Soil erosion and water pollution in an intensive vine cultivation area: The Entre-deux-Mers example (Gironde, France), 1999, Audra P.

Nitrates in cave waters of southern part of Cracow Upland. [in Polish], 2000, Goc Piotr, Gorny Andrzej, Klojzykarczmarczyk Beata, Motyka Jacek

Influence of contaminated Vistula River water on the groundwater entering the Zakrzowek limestone quarry, Cracow region, Poland, 2000, Motyka J. , Postawa A. ,
Chemical composition of water inflows in the Zakrzowek quarry, developed in fractured and karstified Upper Jurassic limestones, is controlled by infiltration of polluted water from the Vistula River and by infiltrating meteoric water. The river water TDS value is 2.5 g/dm(3). The quarry waters have 0.6-2.0 g/dm(3) TDS. Highly mineralised waters belong to Cl-Na type. With decreasing TDS the percentage of sulphates, calcium, magnesium and hydrocarbonates increases. This seems to result from various processes including dilution of polluted river water, leaching of aquifer rocks, and ion exchange. The transfer time of river water to the quarry is about 100-120 days. Concentration of contaminants contained in the river water declines during the migration through limestones to the quarry

Characteristics of distribution and transport of petroleum contaminants in fracture-karst water in Zibo Area, Shandong Province, China, 2000, Zhu X. Y. , Liu J. L. , Zhu J. J. , Chen Y. D. ,
Fracture-karst water is an important water resource for the water supply in North China. Petroleum contamination is one of the most problematic types of the groundwater pollution. The characteristics of distribution and transport of the petroleum contaminants in fracture-karst water are different from those in porous water. The flow velocity of fracture-karst water is much faster than the velocity of porous water on an average. Therefore, contaminant transport in fracture-karst water is an absolute advection-dominated problem. The plume of the petroleum contamination may extend to several kilometers from pollution sources. It was not caused by the oil pool floating on the water table but by the oil components dissolved and scattered in groundwater. The distribution of the petroleum contaminants over space are concentrated in the strong conductive zone on the plane. On the vertical section the highest concentration of the oil contaminants appeared in the strata where the contamination sources were located. The concentrations of the oil contaminants in wells changed greatly over time. Therefore, the curves of concentration versus time fluctuated greatly. The reasons are as follows. (a) Fracture-karst water has a very great velocity. (b) Local flow fields which were caused by pumping and stoppage in some wells changed frequently. (c) In fracture-karat aquifer the transport channels are complicated. (d) Residual oil in vadose zone was leached after rainfall, it is of great practical value for the control and remediation of petroleum contamination in fracture-karst aquifer to understand those characteristics

Investigation of groundwater infiltration to seawater in Punat Bay, Croatia, by measurements of conductivity and stable isotopes in water, 2000, Horvatinć, Ić, N. , Groening M. , Mikulić, N. , Obhođ, Aš, J. , Valković, V.

Locations of freshwater infiltration from the coast to the seawater of the Punat Bay were determined based upon the distribution of conductivity and hydrogen (2H/1H) and oxygen (18O/16O) stable isotope signatures of the seawater. Seawater samples in Punat Bay were measured and collected in three seasons: summer (25 sites), autumn (12 sites) and winter (20 sites). Freshwater samples from 7 springs and 2 accumulations on Krk Island were also collected. The position of each sampling site was determined by GPS. Conductivity, salinity, temperature and pH were measured in situ. Higher freshwater input was defined on the east and north coast of Punat Bay in the summer and winter seasons, and on the north coast in autumn. Stable isotope composition of freshwater from springs on Krk Island indicated fast circulation of groundwater, particularly in the wet winter season.

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