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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That resequent river is a river flowing according to a consequent drainage pattern but at a lower level than the original slope [16].?

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Your search for water source protection (Keyword) returned 5 results for the whole karstbase:
Anomalous behaviour of specific electrical conductivity at a karst spring induced by variable catchment boundaries: the case of the Podstenjšek spring, Slovenia, , Ravbar, N. , Engelhardt, I. , Goldscheider, N.

Anomalous behaviour of specific electrical conductivity (SEC) was observed at a karst spring in Slovenia during 26 high-flow events in an 18-month monitoring period. A conceptual model explaining this anomalous SEC variability is presented and reproduced by numerical modelling, and the practical relevance for source protection zoning is discussed. After storm rainfall, discharge increases rapidly, which is typical for karst springs. SEC displays a first maximum during the rising limb of the spring hydrograph, followed by a minimum indicating the arrival of freshly infiltrated water, often confirmed by increased levels of total organic carbon (TOC). The anomalous behaviour starts after this SEC minimum, when SEC rises again and remains elevated during the entire high-flow period, typically 20–40 µS/cm above the baseflow value. This is explained by variable catchment boundaries: When the water level in the aquifer rises, the catchment expands, incorporating zones of groundwater with higher SEC, caused by higher unsaturated zone thickness and subtle lithologic changes. This conceptual model has been checked by numerical investigations. A generalized finite-difference model including high-conductivity cells representing the conduit network (“discrete-continuum approach”) was set up to simulate the observed behaviour of the karst system. The model reproduces the shifting groundwater divide and the nearly simultaneous increase of discharge and SEC during high-flow periods. The observed behaviour is relevant for groundwater source protection zoning, which requires reliable delineation of catchment areas. Anomalous behaviour of SEC can point to variable catchment boundaries that can be checked by tracer tests during different hydrologic conditions.


Contributory area definition for groundwater source protection and hazard mitigation in carbonate aquifers, 2007, Gunn J. ,
Carbonate aquifers provide important sources of potable water but are known to be particularly prone to pollution owing to rapid transfer of pollutants from the surface to springs or boreholes. Source protection zones and groundwater vulnerability maps are commonly used to mitigate against the pollution hazard but cannot be applied simplistically to carbonate aquifers, which are usually highly heterogeneous with overlapping groundwater divides that may vary with water levels. Divergent flow and disjunct contributory areas provide further complexity. Under these conditions, water-tracing experiments, repeated under different flow conditions, are the only tool capable of identifying those areas that contribute recharge to a particular source. Examples of water pollution affecting disjunct and overlapping source contributory areas are presented from the Waitomo area (New Zealand), Cuilcagh Mountain (Ireland) and the Peak District (UK). Source protection zones (SPZ), that have been defined by the Environment Agency in the Buxton area of the Peak District using equivalent porous medium models, are shown to be deficient. Further water-tracing experiments are essential if carbonate aquifers are to be adequately protected from pollution

The protection of karst waters. A comprehensive Slovene Approach to vulnerability and contamination risk mapping, 2007, Nataš, A Ravbar
A general approach for karst water vulnerability and contamination risk assessment has been proposed, taking into account the special characteristics of Slovene karst landscapes, suiting Slovene environmental legislation and enabling comparison across European countries. The so-called Slovene Approach has been developed on the basis of work accomplished by the European COST Action 620. It incorporates the strongly modified COP method for intrinsic vulnerability assessment by integrating temporal hydrological variability, offering a new possibility to combine surface and groundwater protection, as well as by adapting it to source vulnerability mapping. The methodology provides also comprehensive risk analyses based on the intrinsic vulnerability, hazard and (re)source importance assessments. The proposed Slovene Approach has been first applied to the Podstenjšek water source catchment. Different other methods have been applied (EPIK, PI, COP, Simplified method) and compared. For the catchment area delineation, application of different vulnerability and risk methods a holistic research of the test site has been done by means of tracer tests, detail structural-lithological and geomorphological mapping, electrical resistivity imaging, as well as detail hazard mapping. Continuous monitoring of the springs? physico-chemical characteristics has been performed for the hydrograph analyses, water balance calculation and aquifer behaviour comprehension. The resulting Slovene Approach intrinsic vulnerability, hazard and risk maps are justified and validation with tracer tests has proved the method to give plausible results. The resulting maps provide improved source protection zones determination and identification of land mismanagement, as well as reorganisation and better practices for future planning.

PROPOSED METHODOLOGY OF VULNERABILITY AND CONTAMINATION RISK MAPPING FOR THE PROTECTION OF KARST AQUIFERS IN SLOVENIA, 2007, Ravbar N. , Goldscheider N.

On the basis of work accomplished by the European COST Action 620, a comprehensive approach to groundwater vulnerability and contamination risk assessment is proposed, taking into account the special characteristics of Slovene karst aquifer systems. The Slovene Approach is consistent with national environmental legislation and enables comparison across European countries. The method integrates temporal hydrological variability in the concept of groundwater vulnerability and offers a new possibility to combine surface and groundwater source and resource protection, which required the development of a new K factor (karst groundwater flow within the saturated zone). The risk analysis considers intrinsic vulnerability, contamination hazards and the importance of the source or resource. It has been first applied to the Podstenjšek springs catchment in southwestern Slovenia and validated by means of two multi-tracer tests with a total of six injection points. The resulting vulnerability, hazard and risk maps are plausible, and the validation confirmed the vulnerability assessment at the representative sites that were selected for tracer injection. The maps provide improved source protection zones and make it possible to identify land mismanagement and to propose better practices for future planning.


Variability of groundwater flow and transport processes in karst under different hydrologic conditions, 2013, Ravbar, Nataša

Significance of hydrological variability in karst is presented, which also discusses factors inducing such variability and consequences it may cause. Groundwater flow in karst aquifers is often characterized by strong variability of flow dynamics in response to different hydrologic conditions within a short time period. Consequently, water table fluctuations are often in the order of tens of meters, differences in flow velocities between low- and high-flow conditions can reach ten or even more times. In dependence to respective hydrologic conditions groundwater flow also results in variations of flow directions, and thus in contribution of different parts of the aquifer to a particular spring. The described hydrological variability has many implications for contaminant transport, groundwater availability and vulnerability. Groundwater level rising reduces thickness of the unsaturated zone and decreases protectiveness of the overlying layers. Higher water flow velocities reduce underground retention. Due to more turbulent flow, transport and remobilization of solute and insoluble matter is more effective. During high-flow conditions there is usually more surface flow and hence more concentrated infiltration underground. Particularly in karst systems that show very high hydrologic variability, this should be considered to correctly characterize, understand or predict the aquifers’ hydrological behaviour and to prepare proper protection strategies.


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