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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That shake; shakehole is (england; sometimes spelled shackhole.) 1. term used mainly by cavers to indicate a doline, especially one formed by subsidence. 2. hole formed by solution, subsidence, and compaction in loose drift or alluvium overlying beds of limestone [10]. 3. small subsidence or suffosion doline formed in the glacial till overlying limestones in the northern pennies. see jama.?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for water types (Keyword) returned 11 results for the whole karstbase:
Karst Geomorphology of the Bruce Peninsula, Ontario, PhD Thesis, 1976, Cowell, Daryl William

This is the first detailed examination of the karst geomorphology of the Bruce Peninsula. It attempts to review all aspects including pavement phenomena and formation (microkarst features), surface and subsurface karst hydrology (meso to macro scale) and water chemistry. The latter is based on over 250 samples collected in 1973 and 1974.
The dolomite pavement is the best example of its kind that has been described in the literature. It covers much of the northern and eastern parts of the peninsula and can be differentiated into three types based on karren assemblages. Two of these are a product of lithology and the third reflects local environmental controls. The Amabel Formation produces characteristic karren such as rundkarren, hohlkarren, meanderkarren, clint and grike, kamentizas and rillenkarren on glacially abraded biohermal structures. The Guelph Formation develops into a very irregular, often cavernous surface with clint and grike and pitkarren as the only common recognizable karren. The third assemblage is characterized by pitkarren and is found only in the Lake Huron littoral zone. Biological factors are believed to have played a major role in the formation of the pavement. Vegetation supplies humic acids which help boost the solution process and helps to maintain a wet surface. This tends to prolong solution and permit the development of karren with rounded lips and bottoms.
Three types of drainage other than normal surface runoff are found on the Bruce. These are partial underground capture of surface streams, complete underground capture (fluvio-karst), and wholly vertical drainage without stream action (holokarst). Holokarst covers most of the northern and eastern edge of the peninsula along the top of the escarpment. Inland it is replaced by fluvial drainage, some of which has been, or is in the process of being captured. Four perennial streams and one lake disappear into sinkholes. These range from very simple channel capture and resurgence, as shown by a creek east of Wiarton, to more mature and complex cave development of the St. Edmunds cave near Tobermory. Partial underground capture represents the first stage of karst drainage. This was found to occur in one major river well inland of the fluvio-karst and probably occurs in other streams as well. This chapter also examines the possible future karst development of the Bruce and other karst feature such as isolated sinks and sea caves.
The water chemistry presented in Chapter 5 represents the most complete data set from southern Ontario. It is examined on a seasonal basis as well as grouped into classes representing water types (streams, Lake Huron and Georgian Bay, inland lakes, swamps, diffuse springs and conduit springs). The spring analyses are also fitted into climatic models of limestone solution based on data from other regions of North America. It was found that solution rates in southern Ontario are very substantial. Total hardness ranges from 150 to 250 ppm (expressed as CaCO3) in most lakes and streams and up to 326 ppm in springs. These rates compare with more southerly latitudes. The theoretical equilibrium partial pressure of CO2 was found to be the most significant chemical variable for comparing solution on different kinds of carbonates and between glaciated and non-glaciated regions. Expect for diffuse flow springs and Lake Huron, the Bruce data do not separate easily into water types using either graphical or statistical (i.e. Linear Discriminant Analysis) analyses. This is partly because of the seasonality of the data and because of the intimate contact all waters have with bedrock.


STABLE ISOTOPIC STUDY OF THE GROUNDWATER OF THE MARTHA BRAE RIVER BASIN, JAMAICA, 1992, Ellins Kk,
The hydrology of a small karst drainage basin in Jamaica, the Martha Brae River basin, was examined using stable isotopes. Variations in the isotopic composition of the groundwaters sampled and their positions relative to the local meteoric water line on a delta-D/delta-O-18 diagram permitted the identification of two distinct groundwater types. The isotopic data also provided evidence that the most productive portion of the aquifer is divided by a major fault, which impedes groundwater flow. Information regarding the mechanisms and elevation of recharge was inferred from the delta-D versus delta-O-18 relationships and differences in isotopic composition, respectively

Chemistry measurements of dripping water in Postojna Cave, 1999, Vokal Barbara, Obelić, Bogomil, Genty Dominique, Kobal Ivan

Environmental factors influencing speleothem formation such as air and water temperature as well as water properties at the surface and in the cave (pH, electrical conductivity, Ca2+, HCO3- and Mg2+ ion concentrations and drip rates) were measured during an entire year in order to follow seasonal variations. The influence of the thickness of cave roof on the water properties was also taken into consideration, and the difference between various cave water types (pool, stalactite drip waters and fast-drip waters) was followed. Monthly water samples were collected at three locations in the cave and also from the river Pivka and spring of MoËilnik. Rainwater samples were also collected and analyzed. From the results it was found that the temperature of cave waters is more or less constant during the year. Mean values of pH for all karst waters are 7.8 ± 0.2. There is a good correlation between the chemical parameters (Ca2+ and HCO3- ion concentrations and electric conductivity) and the different types of cave waters. The ratio Mg/Ca concentrations and the saturation index were determined, too.


Microbiology and geochemistry in a hydrogen-sulphide-rich karst environment, 2000, Hose Louise D. , Palmer Arthur N. , Palmer Margaret V. , Northup Diana E. , Boston Penelope J. , Duchene Harvey R. ,
Cueva de Villa Luz, a hypogenic cave in Tabasco, Mexico, offers a remarkable opportunity to observe chemotrophic microbial interactions within a karst environment. The cave water and atmosphere are both rich in hydrogen sulphide. Measured H2S levels in the cave atmosphere reach 210 ppm, and SO2 commonly exceeds 35 ppm. These gases, plus oxygen from the cave air, are absorbed by freshwater that accumulates on cave walls from infiltration and condensation. Oxidation of sulphur and hydrogen sulphide forms concentrated sulphuric acid. Drip waters contain mean pH values of 1.4, with minimum values as low as 0.1.The cave is fed by at least 26 groundwater inlets with a combined flow of 200-300 l/s. Inlet waters fall into two categories: those with high H2S content (300-500 mg/l), mean PCO2=0.03-0.1 atm, and no measurable O2; and those with less than 0.1 mg/l H2S, mean PCO2=0.02 atm, and modest O2 content (up to 4.3 mg/l). Both water types have a similar source, as shown by their dissolved solid content. However, the oxygenated water has been exposed to aerated conditions upstream from the inlets so that original H2S has been largely lost due to outgassing and oxidation to sulphate, increasing the sulphate concentration by about 4%. Chemical modelling of the water shows that it can be produced by the dissolution of common sulphate, carbonate, and chloride minerals.Redox reactions in the cave appear to be microbially mediated. Sequence analysis of small subunit (16S) ribosomal RNA genes of 19 bacterial clones from microbial colonies associated with water drips revealed that 18 were most similar to three Thiobacilli spp., a genus that often obtains its energy from the oxidation of sulphur compounds. The other clone was most similar to Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans, a moderately thermophilic, mineral-sulphide-oxidizing bacterium. Oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to sulphuric acid, and hence the cave enlargement, is probably enhanced by these bacteria.Two cave-enlarging processes were identified. (1) Sulphuric acid derived from oxidation of the hydrogen sulphide converts subaerial limestone surfaces to gypsum. The gypsum falls into the cave stream and is dissolved. (2) Strongly acidic droplets form on the gypsum and on microbial filaments, dissolving limestone where they drip onto the cave floors.The source of the H2S in the spring waters has not been positively identified. The Villahermosa petroleum basin within 50 km to the northwest, or the El Chichon volcano [small tilde]50 km to the west, may serve as source areas for the rising water. Depletion of 34S values (-11.7[per mille sign] for sulphur stabilized from H2S in the cave atmosphere), along with the hydrochemistry of the spring waters, favour a basinal source

Using stable isotope analysis (delta D-delta O-18) to characterise the regional hydrology of the Sierra de Gador, south east Spain, 2002, Vandenschrick G. , Van Wesemael B. , Frot E. , Pulidobosch A. , Molina L. , Stievenard M. , Souchez R. ,
Water stress is rapidly increasing in many Mediterranean coastal zones mainly due to expansion in agriculture and tourism. In this paper, we focus on the Sierra de Gador-Campo de Dalias aquifer system (southeastern Spain) in order to assess the capability of water stable isotope analysis (deltaD-delta(18)O) to refine the understanding on recharge of this karstic aquifer system. Different types of surface and groundwater were sampled along an altitudinal gradient from the recharge zone in the mountains to the coastal plain. Surface water is restricted to local runoff, collected in closed reservoirs. Runoff amounts, collected in three of these reservoirs were monitored together with the precipitation in their catchments. Meteorological maps were used to detect the origin of the precipitation generating the majority of the runoff. The results were compared to literature data on local and regional precipitation. The use of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition has proved to be a useful tool to explain the origin of groundwater in a Mediterranean karstic system. Such studies are, however, not numerous and are often limited to local scale recharge for fast-reacting systems. This paper focuses on the delta(18)O-deltaD relationships of local precipitation to explain the isotopic variability of a large karstic aquifer system. The isotopic compositions of groundwater sampled along an altitudinal gradient from the recharge zone to the coastal plain are well displayed, in a deltaD-delta(18)O diagram, on a mixing line connecting a pole of Mediterranean waters to a pole of Atlantic waters. The Atlantic signature predominates in the shallow groundwater of natural springs, reflecting the rainfall which produced the local runoff sampled. The Mediterranean signature is mainly restricted to deep groundwater from boreholes in the coastal plain. The existence of a degree of spatial separation of groundwater types demonstrates that groundwater flow in a complex karstic system is not always continuous. The Mediterranean signature of deep groundwater could be due to past extreme rainfall events during which connectivity between recharge and reservoir exists, while at the same time the Atlantic signature of recent winter rains dominates in shallow groundwater. The assumption that an equilibrium in isotopic composition is established within a continuous aquifer and that therefore a slope lower than 8 in a deltaD-delta(18)O diagram indicates evaporation is not necessarily valid.

Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and magnesium (Mg2): two complementary tracers of residence time in karstic systems, 2003, Batiot C, Emblanch C, Blavoux B,
The Total Organic Carbon (TOC) is an interesting tracer of fast infiltration within karstic systems [3,7]. Regular sampling on several aquifers. from the experimental site of Vaucluse, made it possible to demonstrate the high sensitivity of this tracer compared with other commonly used chemical and isotopic tracers in karstic hydrogeology. The complementarity of magnesium, indicator of the residence time of water within the system, and TOC appears as a relevant tool in order to characterize the behaviour of the aquifer, to differentiate the water types which participate to the karstic flow (fast infiltration, unsaturated zone, saturated zone) and then, to evaluate their vulnerability. (C) 2003 Academie des sciences/Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved

Groundwater chemical composition changes in the Dubravsky Massif hydrogeological structure, induced by magnesite exploitation, 2004, Bajtos P,
Exploited magnesite bodies of the Dubravsky Massif create parts of karst-fissure aquifer confined by Carboniferous metamorphic rocks of low fissure permeability. Extensive mining progress caused considerable changes in both groundwater circulation and groundwater chemical composition of the aquifer. A model of groundwater chemical composition genesis in such complicated conditions is presented in this paper. Saturation indices (SI) for chosen minerals were computed based on speciation modelling, which indicate oversaturation of groundwater with magnesite, dolomite, calcite, and undersaturation with gypsum in all saturated zone of karst-fissure aquifer. Statistical interpretations of hydrochemical data suppose that anthropogenically unaffected groundwater, where mineralisation is slightly altered by pyrite oxidation in dolomitic environment, represents hydrogeochemical background within the aquifer. It is supposed, that azonic acid, generated by condensation of nitrogen-rich gases freeing by blast-firings in mine, accelerate magnesite and dolomite dissolution. Produced groundwater types are of higher content of NO3, Mg and TIC in comparison with background values. Estimated acceleration of karstification processes due to underground mining is about 1.5 times. In spite of detected contamination, threshold values of drinking water standard, given by the Edict of the Slovak Ministry of Health Care No. 29 / 2002 Z. z. are not markedly exceeded for tested parameters. Future possible exploitation of studied aquifer after mining termination is not excluded

Geological, structural and geochemical aspects of the main aquifer systems in Kuwait, 2004, Alsulaimi Js, Alruwaih Fm,
The paper summarizes the lithology, structure and the geometry of the main aquifer systems in Kuwait (the Dammam Formation and the Kuwait Group) along with the hydrochemical characteristics of the aquifers. Kuwait lies between the Arabian Shield and Zagros fold belt at the periphery of the Arabian platform. Structures associated with the Kuwait Arch noticeably control the subsurface configuration of the Dammam Formations and, hence regulate the distribution of the overlying Kuwait Group sediments. For the broad setting, the paleogeography of the Eocene has been constructed. The main lithologies of concern, both in the surface and subsurface, are the recent and subrecent sediments. The Kuwait Group includes the Dibdibba Formation, and the undifferentiated Ghar and Fars Formations, as well as the Hasa Group comprising the Dammam, Rus and Umm Er-Radhuma Formations. Subsurface geological cross-sections were constructed for the Dammam Formation, showing its structures, configuration, unconformity, and zones of uplift. Potential sites of karst formation in the Dammam limestone have been identified in the cross-sections. The structural study enables the reconstruction of the paleomorphostructural sections of the Dammam Formation. The chemical investigation indicates that the Kuwait Group aquifer is occupied by Na2SO4 and NaCl water types. In addition, the Kuwait Group aquifer is supersaturated with respect to calcite and is undersaturated with respect to halite, gypsum, anhydrite and dolomite. The Dammam Formation aquifer has Na2SO4, CaSO4 and NaCl water types. Moreover, the Dammam Formation is supersaturated with calcite and dolomite and is undersaturated with respect to halite, gypsum, and anhydrite. The calculated mean values of the PCO2 of the Kuwait Group and the Dammam Formation aquifers are 3.8 x 10(-3) atm. and 2.99 x 10(-3) atm. respectively, which are significantly above the PCO2 of the Earth's atmosphere. This may suggest a deep closed environment

The geochemistry of fluids from an active shallow submarine hydrothermal system: Milos island, Hellenic Volcanic Arc, 2005, Valsamijones E. , Baltatzis E. , Bailey E. H. , Boyce A. J. , Alexander J. L. , Magganas A. , Anderson L. , Waldron S. , Ragnarsdottir K. V. ,
Geothermal activity in the Aegean island of Milos (Greece), associated with island-arc volcanism, is abundant both on-and off-shore. Hydrothermal fluids venting from several sites, mainly shallow submarine (up to 10 m), but also just above seawater level in one locality, were sampled over four summer field seasons. Some of the discharging fluids are associated with the formation of hydrothermal edifices. Overall, the main characteristics of the hydrothermal fluids are low pH and variable chlorinity. The lowest recorded pH was 1.7, and chlorinity ranged from 0.1 to 2.5 times that of seawater. The highest fluid temperatures recorded on site were 115 degrees C. Two main types of fluids were identified: low-chlorinity fluids containing low concentrations of alkalis (potassium, lithium, sodium) and calcium, and high concentrations of silica and sulphate; and high-chlorinity fluids containing high concentrations of alkalis and calcium, and lower concentrations of silica and sulphate. The type locality of the high-chlorinity fluids is shallow submarine in Palaeochori, near the cast end of the south coast of the island, whereas the type locality of the low-chlorinity fluids is a cave to the west of Palaeochori. The two fluid types are therefore often referred to as 'submarine' and 'cave' fluids respectively. Both fluid types had low magnesium and high metal concentrations but were otherwise consistently different from each other. The low-chlorinity fluids had the highest cobalt, nickel, aluminium, iron and chromium (up to 1.6 mu M, 3.6 mu M, 1586 mu M, 936 mu M and 3.0 mu M, respectively) and the high-chlorinity fluids had the highest zinc, cadmium, manganese and lead (up to 4.1 mu M, 1.0 mu M, 230 mu M and 32 mu M, respectively). Geochemical modelling suggests that metals in the former are likely to have been transported as sulphate species or free ions and in the latter as chloride species or free ions. Isotopic values for both water types range between delta D -12 to 33 parts per thousand and delta(18)O 1.2 to 4.6 parts per thousand. The range of fluid compositions and isotopic contents indicates a complex history of evolution for the system. Both types of fluids appear to be derived from seawater and thus are likely to represent end members of a single fluid phase that underwent phase separation at depth. Crown Copyright (c) 2005 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Mixing of shallow and deep groundwater as indicated by the chemistry and age of karstic springs, 2006, Toth D. J. , Katz B. G.

Large karstic springs in east-central Florida, USA were studied using multi-tracer and geochemical modeling techniques to better understand groundwater flow paths and mixing of shallow and deep groundwater. Spring water types included Ca–HCO3 (six), Na–Cl (four), and mixed (one). The evolution of water chemistry for Ca– HCO3 spring waters was modeled by reactions of rainwater with soil organic matter, calcite, and dolomite under oxic conditions. The Na–Cl and mixed-type springs were modeled by reactions of either rainwater or Upper Floridan aquiferwater with soil organic matter, calcite, and dolomite under oxic conditions and mixed with varying proportions of saline Lower Floridan aquifer water, which represented 4–53% of the total spring discharge. Multiple-tracer data—chlorofluorocarbon CFC-113, tritium (3H), helium- 3 (3Hetrit), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)—for four Ca–HCO3 spring waters were consistent with binary mixing curves representing water recharged during 1980 or 1990 mixing with an older (recharged before 1940) tracer-free component. Young-water mixing fractions ranged from 0.3 to 0.7. Tracer concentration data for two Na–Cl spring waters appear to be consistent with binary mixtures of 1990 water with older water recharged in 1965 or 1975. Nitrate-N concentrations are inversely related to apparent ages of spring waters, which indicated that elevated nitrate-N concentrations were likely contributed from recent recharge.


MANAGING AQUIFER RECHARGE (MAR): ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER RESOURCES IN THE SAND, 2007, Kim Thoa Nguyen Thi, Giuseppe Arduino, Paolo Bono, Nguyen Van Giang, Phan Thi Kim Van, Bui Tran Vuong, Dinh Thi Bich Lieu, Brun Clarissa, Chiara Fiori, Fabrizio Gherardi, Francesca Zucco
Extensive geophysical, hydrological and isotopic investigations, including drilling campaigns, long term pumping tests and continuous monitoring of ground water levels in 4 monitoring wells, show that the sand dunes formation is characterized by the occurrence of an unconfined porous aquifer, of variable thickness (40 to 60 m), emerging at ground level in depressed morphological areas (20 to 30 m a.s.l.) where it forms intradune wetlands or natural reservoirs (lakes), and discharging directly to the sea through single springs (up to 200 l/s), linear springs and mostly by diffuse seepage along the shoreline (approximate discharge equal to 30 l/s per km). Hydrochemical and isotopic characterization of surface and groundwater in different periods, shows that the sand dunes aquifers, with electrical conductivity ranging from 50 to 500 μS/cm, are composed of different water types, characterized by complex mixing processes. The site chosen for the artificial recharge, where a 162 days pumping test has been carried out, proved that the use of the bank filtration technique has considerably improved the quality of water, originally highly contaminated by colibacteria. The well field developed within the present project is now capable of supplying 220 m3/day of good water quality to the Hong Phong community, recurrently affected by severe droughts. This project is part of UNESCO-IHP (International Hydrological Programme) and IMET (Italian Ministry for the Environment and Territory) Water Programme for Africa, Arid and Water Scarce zone - Viet Nam component funded by IMET. Funds for the Viet Nam project were also made available from the Vietnamese Government, and from ICSU, the International Council for Science and UNESCO Office Jakarta.

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