Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That karst polje is see polje.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?

Search KARSTBASE:

keyword
author

Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for weichselian (Keyword) returned 13 results for the whole karstbase:
Quaternary Paleoclimatology of the Black Sea basin, 1979, Schrader Hans Joachim,
The occurrence of polyhaline, mesohaline and oligohaline diatom, silicoflagellate, ebridian and chrysomonad populations in late Quaternary Black Sea sediments (DSDP Leg 42B) forms the basis for reconstruction of surface water paleosalinities in the Black Sea basin over the last 3 million years. Four major periods with increased salinites are separated by extended freshwater periods. Based on paleosalinites, indicators of trophic freshwater conditions and changes in diatom species diversity, a correlation is made to the northern Europian glacial--interglacial stratigraphy and this correlation is used to place paleoenvironmental events into a chronostratigraphy. The `synchronous' late Quaternary occurrence of sediments rich in organic carbon in both the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea supports this interpretation.Three different stages in the interaction between the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean Sea are defined: Stage A (exchange of freshwater and marine water similar to the present day flux) during the Holocene, Eemian, Holsteinian and Pliocene; Stage B (freshwater conditions with only occasional marine spills) during the Saalian, the Waalian, the Tiglian and the Praetiglian; and Stage C (freshwater conditions with no inflow of marine waters) during the Weichselian, the Elsterian and Eburonian

Weichselian palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironment in Europe: background for palaeogroundwater formation, 2001, Vaikmae R. , Edmunds W. M. , Manzano M. ,
A review is given of palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental evidence across Europe for the Weichselian period relevant to interpreting the emplacement and circulation of groundwaters. In addition, this provides the background against which the evidence of past climates and environments contained in groundwaters in coastal areas of Europe, from the Baltic to the Atlantic Ocean may be compared. For much of the Weichselian, although significantly colder than at present, conditions were favourable for the recharge of groundwater, as shown, for example, by periods of speleothem growth. During the last glacial maximum (LGM) recharge is likely to have ceased over much of permafrost-covered Europe, although shallow groundwater recharge from meltwater (generated by the geothermal gradients) could have taken place beneath the ice where pressure relief through tunnel valleys may have occurred. Modern recharge could have started as early as 13 14C ka BP, but probably interrupted by the Younger Dryas between 11 and 10 14C ka BP. In the Baltic areas, ice-dammed lakes inhibited the start of the modern hydrogeological regimes until c. 10.3 14C ka BP. Tundra conditions prevailed over most of ice-free southern Europe at the time of the LGM. At this time the area south of the Portuguese-Spanish border retained a generally warm and relatively humid climate due to the maintenance of warmer sea-surface temperatures derived from Atlantic Ocean circulation. For most of coastal Europe, however, the most significant impact on groundwater circulation is likely to have been the lowering of sea levels that drained large areas of the shelf, such as the North Sea and the English Channel, and also had a significant impact on the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula where the maximum lowering of up to 130 m would have been experienced. This, together with the general changes in climate, would also have reorganized the atmospheric chemistry over sites in Europe that is likely to be recorded in the groundwater's chemical and isotopic signatures

Cryogenic cave calcite from several Central European caves: age, carbon and oxygen isotopes and a genetic model, 2004, Zak Karel, Urban Jan, Cilek Vaclav, Hercman Helena,
Cryogenic cave calcite (CCC), formed by segregation of solutes during water freezing, was found in three Central European caves. This calcite type forms accumulations of loose calcite grains on cave floor. The calcite grains are of highly variable crystal morphology, and of sizes ranging from less than 1 mm to over 1 cm. The most typical feature is their accumulation as loose (uncemented) crystals. U-series dating indicates the formation of CCC in the studied caves during several climatic oscillations of the Weichselian (between 61 and 36 ka BP in the Chelsiowa Jama-Jaskinia Jaworznicka cave system in Poland, between 34 and 26 ka BP in the BUML Cave in the Czech Republic, and between 26 and 21 ka BP in the Stratenska Jaskyna cave system, Slovakia). At the time of CCC formation, the studied caves were lying in a periglacial zone.Detailed C and O stable isotope study of CCC samples revealed that slow water freezing under isotope equilibrium was the dominant formational process in the studied Polish and Czech caves. Significantly higher [delta]13C values of CCC in the Stratenska Jaskyna Cave indicate either water freezing in a more opened system with continuous CO2 escape (Rayleigh fractional separation), or participation of another CO2 source. The model of slow water freezing under isotope equilibrium is supported by isolated character of the caves having limited ventilation.In contrast, modern cryogenic cave calcite powders sampled directly on the ice surface of two recently iced caves in Slovakia with high ventilation showed much higher [delta]18O and [delta]13C data, similar to cryogenic calcites obtained in experimental rapid water freezing

THE ONE-EIGHTH RELATIONSHIP THAT CONSTRAINS DEGLACIAL SEISMICITY AND CAVE DEVELOPMENT IN CALEDONIDE MARBLES, 2007, Faulkner, T.

The formation of karst caves in Caledonide metamorphic limestones in a repeatedly-glaciated 40000km2 region in cen­tral Scandinavia was initiated by tectonic inception, a process in which open fracture routes, primarily created by deglacial seismicity, provided the opportunity for subsequent dissolution and enlargement into cave passages in both deglacial and inter­glacial environments. The tectonic inception model built on re­ports of a ‘partially detached’ thin upper crustal layer in similar settings in Scotland and this paper shows that the present maxi­mum subsurface cave distance (i.e. the distance of a passage to the nearest land surface) is commonly less than one-eighth of the depth of the local glaciated valley. This suggests that frac­ture generation was related to the scale of isostatic uplift and was partly determined by the magnitude of seismicity caused by the differential pressure change and differential uplift that occurred along valley walls as the ice margin of each of the ma­jor Pleistocene icesheets receded from west to east. The maxi­mum one-eighth relationship is also commonly maintained in other Caledonide marble terranes in Scandinavia, Scotland and New England (USA), suggesting that many of the caves in these areas were formed by similar processes.


Late Pleistocene cryogenic calcite spherolites from the Malachitdom Cave (NE Rhenish Slate Mountains, Germany): origin, unusual internal structure and stable C-O isotope composition, 2008, Richter D. K. , Riechelmann D. F. Ch.
Cryogenic calcites yielded U-series ages in the range from 15.610.20 ka to 14.480.12 ka, which is the youngest age obtained so far for this type of cryogenic cave carbonates in Europe. Most of these particles of the Malachitdom Cave (NE Brilon, Sauerland, North Rhine-Westphalia) are complex spherolites usually smaller than 1 cm. They show ?13C-values between 1 and 5 VPDB and ?18O-values ranging from 7 to 16 VPDB, the ?13C-values increase and the ?18O-values decrease from centre to border. The complex spherolites are interpreted to be formed in slowly freezing pools of residual water on ice, a situation that repeatedly occurred during the change of glacial to interglacial periods in the periglacial areas of Central Europe. After the melting of the caveice, the complex pherolites make up one type of cryogenic calcite particles in the arenitic to ruditic sediment.

Late Pleistocene cryogenic calcite spherolites from the Malachitdom Cave (NE Rhenish Slate Mountains, Germany): origin, unusual internal structure and stable C-O isotope composition, 2008, Richter D. K. , Riechelmann D. F. Ch.

Cryogenic calcites yielded U-series ages in the range from 15.61±0.20 ka to 14.48±0.12 ka, which is the youngest age obtained so far for this type of cryogenic cave carbonates in Europe. Most of these particles of the Malachitdom Cave (NE Brilon, Sauerland, North Rhine-Westphalia) are complex spherolites usually smaller than 1 cm. They show δ13C-values between –1 and –5 ‰ VPDB and δ18O-values ranging from –7 to –16 ‰ VPDB, the δ13C-values increase and the δ18O-values decrease from centre to border. The complex spherolites are interpreted to be formed in slowly freezing pools of residual water on ice, a situation that repeatedly occurred during the change of glacial to interglacial periods in the periglacial areas of Central Europe. After the melting of the caveice, the complex spherolites make up one type of cryogenic calcite particles in the arenitic to ruditic sediment.


Cryogenic cave carbonates from the Cold Wind Cave, Nzke Tatry Mountains, Slovakia: Extending the age range of cryogenic cave carbonate formation to the Saalian, 2009, k K. , Hercman H. , Orvoov M. , Ja?kov I.
Cold Wind Cave, located at elevations ranging between 1,600 and 1,700 m a. s. l. in the main range of the Nzke Tatry Mountains (Slovakia), is linked in origin with the adjacent Dead Bats Cave. Together, these caves form a major cave system located within a narrow tectonic slice of Triassic sediments. Both caves have undergone complex multiphase development. A system of sub-horizontal cave levels characterized by large, tunnel-like corridors was formed during the Tertiary, when elevation differences surrounding the cave were less pronounced than today. The central part of the Nzke Tatry Mountains, together with the cave systems, was uplifted during the Neogene and Lower Pleistocene, which changed the drainage pattern of the area completely. The formation of numerous steep-sloped vadose channels and widespread cave roof frost shattering characterized cave development throughout the Quaternary. In the Cold Wind Cave, extensive accumulations of loose, morphologically variable crystal aggregates of secondary cave carbonate ranging in size between less than 1 mm to about 35 mm was found on the surface of fallen limestone blocks. Based on the C and O stable isotope compositions of the carbonate (?13C: 0.72 to 6.34 , ?18O: 22.61 to 13.68 V-PDB) and the negative relation between ?13C and ?18O, the carbonate crystal aggregates are interpreted as being cryogenic cave carbonate (CCC). Published models suggest the formation of CCC in slowly freezing water pools, probably on the surface of cave ice, most probably during transitions from stadials to interstadials. Though the formation of these carbonates is likely one of the youngest events in the sequence of formation of cave sediments of the studied caves, the 230Th/234U ages of three samples (79.72.3, 104.02.9, and 180.06.3 ka) are the oldest so far obtained for CCC in Central Europe. This is the first description of CCC formation in one cave during two glacial periods (Saalian and Weichselian).

Cryogenic cave carbonates from the Cold Wind Cave, Nzke Tatry Mountains, Slovakia: Extending the age range of cryogenic cave carbonate formation to the Saalian, 2009, k K. , Hercman H. , Orvoov M. , Jač, Kov I.

Cold Wind Cave, located at elevations ranging between 1,600 and 1,700 m a. s. l. in the main range of the NÃzke Tatry Mountains (Slovakia), is linked in origin with the adjacent Dead Bats Cave. Together, these caves form a major cave system located within a narrow tectonic slice of Triassic sediments. Both caves have undergone complex multiphase development. A system of sub-horizontal cave levels characterized by large, tunnel-like corridors was formed during the Tertiary, when elevation differences surrounding the cave were less pronounced than today. The central part of the NÃzke Tatry Mountains, together with the cave systems, was uplifted during the Neogene and Lower Pleistocene, which changed the drainage pattern of the area completely. The formation of numerous steep-sloped vadose channels and widespread cave roof frost shattering characterized cave development throughout the Quaternary. In the Cold Wind Cave, extensive accumulations of loose, morphologically variable crystal aggregates of secondary cave carbonate ranging in size between less than 1 mm to about 35 mm was found on the surface of fallen limestone blocks. Based on the C and O stable isotope compositions of the carbonate (δ13C: 0.72 to 6.34 ‰, δ18O: –22.61 to –13.68 ‰ V-PDB) and the negative relation between δ13C and δ18O, the carbonate crystal aggregates are interpreted as being cryogenic cave carbonate (CCC). Published models suggest the formation of CCC in slowly freezing water pools, probably on the surface of cave ice, most probably during transitions from stadials to interstadials. Though the formation of these carbonates is likely one of the youngest events in the sequence of formation of cave sediments of the studied caves, the 230Th/234U ages of three samples (79.7±2.3, 104.0±2.9, and 180.0±6.3 ka) are the oldest so far obtained for CCC in Central Europe. This is the first description of CCC formation in one cave during two glacial periods (Saalian and Weichselian).


The endokarstic erosion of marble in cold climates: Corbel revisited. , 2009, Faulkner, Trevor

After the work of Jean Corbel, who compared karstification in the Scandinavian Caledonide marbles with that in sedimentary limestones in temperate and tropical regions, the understanding of underground limestone dissolution has developed considerably. Corbel concluded that “karstification proceeds much faster in a cold than in a warm climate”, based on the knowledge that the solubilities of both CO2 and CaCO3 increase with lower temperature, without realising that because cave streams in Scandinavia rarely reach saturation, this fact is not directly relevant. We now know that the dissolutional enlargement of inception channels in limestones proceeds commonly via a slow initial ‘pre-breakthrough’ laminar flow stage before conduits can enlarge chemically at maximum rates under turbulent flow conditions. Recent research has shown that the pre-breakthrough stage is speeded up at low temperatures, as occurs in cold climates now, and as occurred during the deglaciation of the Weichselian ice sheet in Scandinavia, especially under steep hydraulic gradients and, in many cases, despite the lower partial pressure of CO2. Additionally, this whole stage might be bypassed if fractures created by deglacial seismicity were wide enough and short enough. After breakthrough, although limestone dissolution is slower in cold rather than warm climates, conduit enlargement still proceeds as a significant rate, provided the water remains unsaturated, and especially if high flow rates promote mechanical erosion. The exploration of large numbers of (short) caves in central Scandinavia shows that Corbel’s conclusion is partly true for the more recent geological past, because of the special conditions that apply during the Quaternary glacial cycles.

 

 


Holocene deposits from Neptunes Cave, Nordland, Norway , 2009, Faulkner Trevor, Hunt Chris

Neptune’s Cave in the Velfjord–Tosenfjord area of Nordland, Norway is described, together with its various organic deposits. Samples of attached barnacles, loose marine molluscs, animal bones and organic sediments were dated, with radiocarbon ages of 9840±90 and 9570±80 yr BP being derived for the barnacles and molluscs, based on the superseded but locally-used marine reservoir age of 440 years. A growth temperature of c. 7.5°C in undiluted seawater is deduced from the δ13C and δ18O values of both types of marine shell, which is consistent with their early Holocene age. From the dates, and an assessment of local Holocene uplift and Weichselian deglaciation, a scenario is constructed that could explain the situation and condition of the various deposits. The analysis uses assumed local isobases and sea-level curve to give results that are consistent with previous data, that equate the demise of the barnacles to the collapse of a tidewater glacier in Tosenfjord, and that constrain the minimum extent of local Holocene uplift. An elk fell into the cave in the mid-Holocene at 5100±70 yr BP, after which a much later single ‘bog-burst’ event at 1780±70 yr BP could explain the transport of the various loose deposits farther into the cave.

 


An external model of speleogenesis during Quaternary glacial cycles in the marbles of central Scandinavia, 2010, Faulkner, T.

The marble caves of the Central Scandinavian Caledonides were formed from open fractures that were created primarily by deglacial seismicity at the culmination of each of the many complex Quaternary glaciations that the region has experienced. Subsequent inundation by deglacial ice-dammed lakes enabled phreatic enlargement by dissolution, with passages either becoming relict during the following interglacial or else being entrenched by (mainly) vadose processes if recharged by allogenic streams. Because the distance of the contemporary fractures and therefore the cave passages from the nearest land surface is commonly constrained to be less than one-eighth of the depth of the local glaciated valley, the caves are rather epigean in nature. This subsurface cave distance is of the same order of magnitude as the thickness of rock removed from valley walls and floors at each major glaciation, suggesting that, when viewed over several glacial cycles, caves are involved in a race to develop deeper during deglaciation and the following interglacial before their upper levels are removed by erosion at the next glaciation. Indeed, relatively few cave passages in the study area can have survived from the previous, Eemian, interglacial.
This paper examines evidence for the interglacial and erosional processes and utilises a 'black box' approach to provide an external model for cave development and removal. It proposes that Caledonide marble caves in stripe karst outcrops should especially be considered as four-dimensional objects throughout their commonly intermittent existence. Mainly vadose caves are regarded as 'half-cycle' caves that developed primarily in the Holocene. Relict caves (primarily phreatic) and combination caves (with both phreatic and vadose elements) are commonly 'single-cycle' caves that developed their relict phreatic passages during Weichselian deglaciation, and only a few are 'multi-cycle' caves that have experienced several Pleistocene glacial cycles. The existing caves are more numerous and commonly larger than those that were present during previous interglacials.


Zerbrochene Hhlensinter und Kryocalcite als Indikatoren fr eiszeitlichen Permafrost im Herbstlabyrinth-Adventhhle-System bei Breitscheid-Erdbach (N-Hessen) , 2011, Richter D. K. , Mischel S. , Dorsten I. , Mangini A. , Neuser R. D. , Immenhauser A.
Speleothem fragments and calcite crystal sands are indicative of the spectacular fragmentation pattern of the central stalagmite of the Weihnachtsbaum-Halle in the Herbstlabyrinth-Advent cave system near Breitscheid-Erdbach (northern Hesse). The fractures are oriented perpendicular and parallel to subparallel to the speleothem layering and were caused by freeze-thaw weathering. According to the trace-element and stable isotope composition the calcite crystal sands formed under cold conditions. The youngest generation of cryogenic calcites, dated to 2324 ka by U/Th, is indicative of slow freezing of cave waters after the Weichselian Interstadial no. 3 and shows ?13C values from 1.0 to 3.1 and ?18O values from 13.7 to 17.3 . Based on the dominant occurrence of the rhombohedral crystal type in the crystal sands we introduce a genetic model of a deepening permafrost soil. The multiphase speleothem fracturing and occurrence of cryogenic calcite suggest an extended period of formation during the Weichselian of the studied stalagmite (the age of the top of stalagmite below the oldest cryogenic calcites is 75.8 ka). The repeated combination of freeze-thawweathering of speleothems and the for - mation of cryogenic calcites represents a new indicator for the decoding of the interstadial/stadial transitions during the Weichselian ice age in the periglacial area of central Europe.

Clay cortex in epikarst forms as an indicator of age and morphogenesis—case studies from Lublin–Volhynia chalkland (East Poland,West Ukraine), 2014,

Clay cortex from the contact zone between the host rock (chalk) and infilling deposits were examined in

paleokarst forms (pockets, pipes, and dolines of different age) from the Lublin–Volhynia chalk karst region. In light of the sedimentological and micromorphological analyses, it seems possible to work out a model as the basis for genetic and stratigraphic discussions. (1) Dolineswith the Paleogene orNeogene mineral infills are characterized by (a) homogeneous, residual type of massive clay gradually passing into the chalkmonolith, and at the sametime(b) relatively thickweathered zone. (2) Pipeswith glacigenic mineral infill fromthe Saalian Glacial are characterized by (a) sharp contact between host rock and clay, (b) narrow weathering zone of chalk, (c) diffuse nature of the contact zone between residual clay and mineral infill, and (d) contamination of clay by clastic material. (3) Pocketswith glacigenic mineral infill and traces of theWeichselian periglacial transformation are characterized by (a) strong contamination of chalk by quartz grains, (b) diffuse transition between clay and infill: fromclayey matrixwith single quartz grains (at the contactwith chalk) to clayey coatings and intergranular bridges (in the infill), (c) intensive weathering (cracking) of mineral grains in the infill.


Results 1 to 13 of 13
You probably didn't submit anything to search for