Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That rock pillar is a residual isolated mass of bedrock linking the roof or overhanging wall and floor of a cave, in contrast with a column, which to composed of dripstone or flowstone [10]. see column; pillar.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?

Search KARSTBASE:

keyword
author

Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for western china (Keyword) returned 16 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 16
Thesis Abstract: Palaeosecular variation observed in speleothems from Western China and Northern Spain, 1996, Openshaw S. J.

Palaeosecular variation observed in speleothems from western China and northern Spain, PhD thesis, 1996, Openshaw, S. J.

This study has produced records of the palaeosecular variation (PSV) of the earth's magnetic field from Speleothems from China and Spain. The ultimate aim of this project was to produce contemporaneous PSV records which would show that Speleothems accurately record ambient geomagnetic field behaviour. From Sichuan Province, China, five Speleothems were collected of which four were studied for their records of PSV. Eight Spanish Speleothems from the Cantabrian coast were collected but their weak magnetisation allowed only one record of PSV to be produced.
All speleothem sub-samples were weakly magnetised and had, on average, initial intensities of <100 x 10-8 Am2kg-1. Despite this, the majority of sub-samples were stable during stepwise alternating-field and thermal demagnetisation and each displayed a single component of magnetisation after removal of any secondary overprints. Rock magnetic experiments were hampered by low mineral concentrations but suggested that the remanences of each speleothem were carried by a mixture of multi and single-domain (titano-) magnetite and also by haematite present in significant quantities. The primary method of remanence acquisition appeared to be a depositional remanence sourced from flooding. This was corroborated by a linear relationship between sub-sample intensities and weight % acid insoluble detritus.
A selection of sub-samples from each speleothem were dated using uranium-thorium disequilibrium and alpha spectrometry. For the majority of sub-samples the low concentrations of uranium, high levels of detrital contamination and initially low chemical yields raised the associated dating inaccuracies above the quoted level for alpha spectrometry of 5-10%. Two Spanish Speleothems had high uranium concentrations and little, or no, detrital contamination. Percent age errors of these Speleothems ranged from 1 to 6%. Comprehensive experiments on the efficiencies of three electrodeposition methods were also undertaken. The most efficient method was found to be a modified version of the Hallstadius method (Hallstadius, 1984), which consistently achieved chemical yields between 40 and 90% for uranium and thorium.
In order to correct more analytically for the presence of detrital contamination, the leachate/leachate method of Schwarcz and Latham (1989) was tested. The maximum likelihood estimation data treatment technique (Ludwig and Titterington, 1994) was used to calculate dates from these analyses. Tests on Mexican speleothem SSJ2 gave excellent results allowing a revised dating scheme to be adopted. Tests on some sub-samples from Chinese Speleothems were generally unsuccessful due to analytical errors.
The isotope 210Pb was used to date the top surface of one speleothem. A constant growth rate was inferred which was significantly less than that calculated from the 230Th - 234U dating method. This was thought to be due to the former techniques inability to resolve growth rates of periods of less than 200 years.
Despite the dating errors associated with each speleothem the records of PSV compare well with each other and with contemporaneous records from China, Japan and also the UK (for the Spanish record). In addition. agreement with PSV data modelled from observatory records suggested that westward drift of the non-dipole geomagnetic field was predominant during the past 10ka.


Geostatistical and geochemical analysis of surface water leakage into groundwater on a regional scale: a case study in the Liulin karst system, northwestern China., 2001, Wang Y. , Ma T. , Luo Z.

Geostatistical and geochemical analysis of surface water leakage into groundwater on a regional scale: a case study in the Liulin karst system, northwestern China, 2001, Wang Y. , Ma T. , Luo Z. ,
The Liulin karst system is typical of hydrogeological systems in northern China, with a group of springs as the dominant way of regional groundwater discharge. Surface water leakage into groundwater has been observed in six sections of the rivers in the study area. To extract hydrogeological information from hydrochemical data, 29 water samples were collected from the system. On a trilinear diagram, most of the groundwater samples are clustered around the surface waters, indicating the effect of leakage on their chemistry. R-mode factor analysis was made on seven variables (Na, Ca, Mg, SO4, Cl, HCO3, and NO3) of the samples and three principal factors were obtained: the F-1 factor is composed of Ca, Mg and SO4, the F-2 of HCO3 and NO3, and the F-3 of Na and Cl. These factors are then used as regionalized variables in ordinary Kriging for unbiased estimates of the spatial variations of their scores. Considering regional hydrogeological conditions, the hydrogeological implications of the spatial distribution of the factor scores as related to the effects of the surface leakage are discussed. To evaluate the geochemical processes, the geochemical modeling code NETPATH was employed. The modeling results: show that mixing commonly occurs in the system and dolomite dissolution is more important than calcite dissolution. Dedolomitization (calcite precipitation and dolomite dissolution driven by anhydrite dissolution) is locally important, in the western flank of the system where the surface water leakage has the least effect.

Sedimentary evidence for a rapid, kilometer-scale crustal doming prior to the eruption of the Emeishan flood basalts, 2003, He B. , Xu Y. G. , Chung S. L. , Xiao L. , Wang Y. ,
Biostratigraphic and sedimentologic investigations in 67 sections have been carried out for the Middle Permian Maokou Formation that immediately underlies the Emeishan flood basalts in southwest China. The results suggest a domal crustal thinning before the emplacement of the Emeishan large igneous province. Variably thinned carbonates in the Maokou Formation are capped by a subaerial unconformity, which is generally manifested by karst paleotopography, paleoweathering zone, or locally by relict gravels and basal conglomerates. Provenance analysis indicates that these gravels and conglomerates were mainly derived from the uppermost Maokou Formation. Therefore, the stratigraphic thinning likely resulted from differential erosion due to regional uplift. Iso-thickness contours of the Maokou Formation delineate a subcircular uplifted area, in accordance with the crustal doming caused by a starting mantle plume as predicted by experimental and numerical modeling. The duration of this uplift is estimated to be less than 3 Myr and the magnitude of uplift is greater than 1000 m. The sedimentary records therefore provide independent supporting evidence for the mantle plume initiation model for the generation of the Emeishan flood basalts. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Analysis of the exchange of groundwater and river water by using Radon-222 in the middle Heihe Basin of northwestern China, 2004, Wu Y. , Wen X. , Zhang Y. ,

How types of carbonate rock assemblages constrain the distribution of karst rocky desertified land in Guizhou Province, PR China: Phenomena and mechanisms, 2004, Wang S. J. , Li R. L. , Sun C. X. , Zhang D. F. , Li F. Q. , Zhou D. Q. , Xiong K. N. , Zhou Z. F. ,
In Southwestern China karst rocky desertification (a process of land degradation involving serious soil erosion, extensive exposure of basement rocks, drastic decrease of soil productivity and the appearance of a desert-like landscape) results from irrational land use on the fragile, thin karst soil. Soil particles in the Guizhou karst plateau were accumulated predominantly from residues left behind after the dissolution of carbonate rocks, and the thickness of the soil layer is related to the amount of argillaceous substances in the lost carbonate rock. This paper examines the spatial distribution of karst rocky desertified (KRD) land in Guizhou Province, and relates it to the different assemblages of basement carbonate rocks. Types of carbonate rock assemblages are discussed using a 1 : 500000 scale digital-distribution map. Their distribution and sensitivity to erosion are analysed, demonstrating that the occurrence of KRD land is positively correlated to homogeneous carbonate rocks. Differences in physical and chemical properties of limestone and dolomite rocks lead to differences in dissolution, accumulation rate of soil particles and relief on the surface, and these factors influence land-use potential.

Karst rocky desertification in southwestern China: Geomorphology, landuse, impact and rehabilitation, 2004, Wang S. J. , Liu Q. M. , Zhang D. F. ,
Karst rocky desertification is a process of land degradation involving serious soil erosion, extensive exposure of basement rocks, drastic decrease in soil productivity, and the appearance of a desert-like landscape. It is caused by irrational, intensive land use on a fragile karst geo-ecological environment. The process is expanding rapidly, and it is daily reducing the living space of residents and is the root of disasters and poverty in the karst areas of southwestern China. The tectonic, geomorphic and environmental background to karst rocky desertification is analysed. Population pressure and the intensive land use that have led to this serious land degradation are described. Although the problem concerns the Chinese Government and some profitable experience in the partial restoration or reconstruction of the ecological environment has been gained, effective remedial action has not been achieved on a large scale.

Environmental Reconstruction of Karst using a Honeysuckle species widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2006, Xie Yunqiu, Zhang Cheng, L Yong, Deng Zhenping
As in the deserts of Northwestern China, there is a need to reconstruct the fragile karst of Southwestern China using sustainable techniques that protect the environment and develop the economy. One means of achieving this is to plant species used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. The characteristics of Honeysuckle used in traditional Chinese medicine, when produced on the Donggangling Formation at Nongla Village in Mashan County, in Guangxi Province of Southwestern China, match those of Honeysuckle grown in traditional production areas of China, and comply with the specification set for the Honeysuckle by the P.R. China Codex. Added properties of the Honeysuckle are the accumulation of phosphorus and potassium, in addition to the accumulation of elements such as calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc and so on. Further discussion considers extending the areas in which this Honeysuckle is currently grown, and its limitations in the karst region of Southwestern China where 60% - 70% of calcareous soil may be suitable for its cultivation.

High-resolution absolute-dated Indian Monsoon record between 53 and 36 ka from Xiaobailong Cave, southwestern China, 2006, Cai Y, An Z, Cheng H, Edwards Rl, Kelly Mj, Liu W, Wang X, Shen Cc,
The oxygen isotopic record of stalagmite XBL-1 from southwestern China reveals millennial-scale variability of the Indian Monsoon between 53 and 36 ka, synchronous with changes in the East Asian Monsoon recorded at Hulu Cave and similar to Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles recorded in Greenland ice. Our record, in general, confirms the chronology of Hulu Cave. If our correlations between Greenland and the Xiaobailong Cave record are correct, both the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 and Greenland Ice Core Project (ss09sea) chronologies are accurate within quoted errors. A dry interval that we correlate with Heinrich Event 5 (H5) and the Greenland stadial preceding Greenland Interstadial 12 (GIS 12) is centered ca. 48.0 ka and a shift to drier conditions, correlated to the end of GIS 12, is ca. 43.5 ka. Overall, the variability of the Indian Monsoon, from XBL-1 data, on millennial scales is similar to and correlated with high-latitude ice core rec ords from the Northern Hemisphere. However, some Indian Monsoon characteristics more closely resemble, but are anticorrelated with, features in the Antarctic record, suggesting some link to climate of the high southern latitudes, in addition to the clear link to the climate of the high northern latitudes

Environmental Reconstruction of Karst using a Honeysuckle species widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2006, Yunqiu Xie, Cheng Zhang, Yong L. , Zhenping Deng

As in the deserts of Northwestern China, there is a need to reconstruct the fragile karst of Southwestern China using sustainable techniques that protect the environment and develop the economy. One means of achieving this is to plant species used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. The characteristics of Honeysuckle used in traditional Chinese medicine, when produced on the Donggangling Formation at Nongla Village in Mashan County, in Guangxi Province of Southwestern China, match those of Honeysuckle grown in traditional production areas of China, and comply with the specification set for the Honeysuckle by the P.R. China Codex. Added properties of the Honeysuckle are the accumulation of phosphorus and potassium, in addition to the accumulation of elements such as calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc and so on. Further discussion considers extending the areas in which this Honeysuckle is currently grown, and its limitations in the karst region of Southwestern China where 60% - 70% of calcareous soil may be suitable for its cultivation.


A DARCIAN MODEL FOR THE FLOW OF BIG SPRING AND THE HYDRAULIC HEAD IN THE OZARK AQUIFER, MISSOURI, USA, 2010, Criss R. E.
The complex discharge hydrograph for Big Spring, Missouri, can be described as the sum of two terms governed by Darcys Law. The dominant, long-term component is proportional to the regional hydraulic gradient, and constitutes about 80% of the average flow of 12.6 m3/s. Superimposed on this is a transient component with a time-constant of about 1.5 days that represents the Darcian response to sharp, rainfall-driven pulses on the head of the shallow groundwater system. This transient component delivers about 20% of the average total flow, but over short intervals can exceed the long-term component. However, the long-term component is so large that the ratio of record high flows to the average flow is only about 4x for Big Spring, and 1.5 to 4.5x for most other large Ozark springs; for comparison, this ratio is 10 to 3000x for most surface streams in Missouri. The strong correlation between the discharge of the large springs and the head in the Ozark aquifer permits the extension of the Darcian rainfall-runoff model to predict groundwater levels in wells.

GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION IN KARST AREAS OF SOUTHWESTERN CHINA AND RECOMMENDED COUNTER MEASURES, 2010, Guo F. , Yuan D. , Qin Z.
Approximately 33% of China is karstic. The most extensive karst areas are in southwestern China and cover approximately 540,000 km2. Southwestern China hosts some of the most typical karst landforms in the world and has important high-quality karst water resources. Due to the rapid development of China, karst waters are threatened by various types of contamination. Detail field and laboratory investigations in five provinces including several cities in southwestern China were conducted in 2008 and 2009. Eightythree springs and underground rivers were surveyed and water samples collected from each for laboratory analyses for major ions. Four main types of karst aquifer contamination were identified based on contaminant sources: rural and agricultural pollution, pollution from urban development and industry, pollution from mining, and accidental groundwater pollution. Several representative instances for each type of contamination and their impacts on the environment are discussed in more detail. Contamination countermeasures of karst waters and a framework for overall management of karst water resources in southwestern China are provided.

Forest Soil Heterogeneity and Soil Sampling Protocols on limestone outcrops : Example from SW China, 2010, Yunchao Zhou, Shi Jie Wang, Hon Gmei Lu, Lipin G Xie & Dean Xiao
Forest soil heterogeneity of outcrop karst was studied by testing soil organic carbon at a selected 20 m 30 m plot set up in Maolan primitive karst forest area, southern Guizhou Province, China. 90 microhabitats in the plot are roughly classified into 7 distinct microhabitat There was great heterogeneity in the plot not only for soil distribution but for great difference of soil organic carbon content. Soil organic carbon (SOC) contents were much higher, ranging from 40.1 g/kg to 203.5 g/kg. The CV (coefficient of variation) value of SOC from 38 soil sampling points, 22 sampling microhabitats, each microhabitat type, and individual microhabitat was 43%, 41%, 2.2% to 42%, 14% to 57.3% respectively. This showed high soil heterogeneity in terms of soil distributing pattern, size and soil organic carbon SOC content in outcropped karst. Different methods were applied to calculate SOC content in the plot. Small discrepancies suggested that the mixed soil samples collected from the major microhabitat types covering 95% soil distributing area were capable of representing soil nutrient status of the whole plot.

Large caves in China., 2010, Zhang, Yuanhai

Current data indicate that the recorded caves within China include 78 that are more than 5km long and 60 that are deeper than 250m. There are 15 cave chambers with individual floor areas greater than 25,000m2 and 23 separate underground river systems whose lengths total more than 50km. Most of these caves and cave river systems are in southwestern China, where massive, thick and continuous sequences of carbonate rock are at outcrop across terrain that experiences a warm and humid climate.


Results 1 to 15 of 16
You probably didn't submit anything to search for