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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That residual drawdown is the rise in water level in a well in response to cessation of pumping.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for western mediterranean (Keyword) returned 26 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 26
Upper Miocene karst collapse structures of the east coast, Mallorca, Spain, 2000, Ardila Pedro Robledo, Pomar Luis

In the sea cliffs on the Mallorca Island, Western Mediterranean there are extensive outcrops of Upper Miocene carbonate rocks. On the Eastern coast of Mallorca, the reefal complex is overlain by a Messinian shallow-water carbonate complex. There are abundant Paleokarst collapse structures. The Santanyí Limestone beds are affected by V-incasion structures produced by roof collapse of caverns developed in the underlying reefal complex. According to the model, the origin of some of these karst-collapse structures may be related to early diagenetic processes controlled by high-frequency sea-level fluctuations. During lowstands of sea level, fresh-water flow might have create a cave system near the water table by dissolution of aragonite in the reef front facies and coral patches existing in the lagoonal beds. This cave system developed near the subaerial erosion surface. During subsequent rise of sea level inner-shelf beds overlaid the previously karstified reef-core and outer-lagoonal beds. Increase of loading by subsequent accretion of the shallow-water carbonates might have produced V-incasion structures by gravitational collapse of cave roofs when these beds were still not completely consolidated.


Mn-Fe deposits in shallow cryptic marine environment: examples in northwestern Mediterranean submarine caves, 2001, Allouc J, Harmelin Jg,
Black coating of hard substrates by Mn and Fe oxides has long been reported from shallow, dark, submarine caves. However, these littoral metallic deposits have never been studied in detail, despite expected analogies with deep-sea polymetallic crusts. Submarine caves are characterized by darkness and low rates of exchanges with the open sea. Lack of primary production and confinement of inner water bodies result in marked oligotrophy and extremely reduced biomass, i.e. conditions close to those prevailing in deep-sea habitats. Field evidences suggested that the formation of Mn-Fe coatings was closely tied to these particular environmental conditions. The goal of this study was to examine the detailed features of Mn-Fe coatings from dark caves with different local conditions, and to try to identify the processes responsible for their deposition. Study sites and methods Three sublittoral, single-entrance, caves were sampled by scuba diving along the coasts of Provence (France, Mediterranean Sea) (fig. 1). The first site is a large karstic cave (Tremies Cave, 16 m depth at entrance floor, 60 m long; Marseille-Cassis area) with an ascending profile which results in a buffered thermal regime and markedly oligotrophic conditions due to warm water trapping in its upper part (fig. 1 and 2). Wall fragments were sampled at 30 m (medium confinement : zone B) and 60 in (strong confinement : zone C) from the cave entrance. The second site is a large tubular cavity open in conglomerate formations (3PP Cave, 15 m depth at entrance floor, 120 m long; La Ciotat) with a descending profile which results in relative permanence of winter temperatures within the inner parts, complex water circulation and presumed greater input of sedimented particles than in the preceding cave (fig.1 and 2). Wall samples were taken at 25 m, 70 in and 100 m from entrance. The third site is a small, horizontal, cave open in quartzite formations (Bagaud Cave, 7 in depth at entrance floor, about 10 m long; WNW of Port-Cros Island, bay of Hyeres). Sampling was performed on walls of a narrow corridor between an anterior room and a smaller inner room. A sporadic outflow of continental waters is located in the inner room. The samples were preserved in 50% ethylic alcohol or studied soon after their sampling. Before carbon coating and SEM examination, or microanalyses with SEM-associated spectrometers, they were treated in a 33% Chlorox solution and thereafter washed in demineralized water and dried. Micromorphology At low-medium magnification (<20,000), the aspect of coatings varies between caves and, especially, between inner-cave locations. All the described structures are made up of Mn and Fe oxides. In Tremies Cave, coatings of walls from zone B are composed of irregular erected constructions (height : 10s to 100s μm) formed by the aggregation of roughly ovoid primary concretions of about 10 μm (fig. 3). The surface of those primary concretions displays numerous lacunose to reticulate films (pores, about 0.5 μm in diameter, are often subrounded). Remnants of these films and organomorphic corpuscles occur also within the primary concretions (fig. 4). On younger substrates (broken wall exposed since 1970), primary concretions are poorly developed and no prominent construction is visible (fig. 5). In more confined conditions (zone C), the erected constructions of ancient coatings are smaller and less numerous than in zone B but are well individualized (fig. 6). In this zone: C, besides some remnants of lacunose to reticulate films (fig. 7), there is an appearance of filaments and ovoid corpuscles (height/width : 10-30/5-15 μm), which seem to be linked to filaments by a short stalk (fig. 8). In 3 PP Cave, at 25-70 m from entrance, wall coatings present porous heaps of primary concretions (fig. 9). The surface and the inside of the latter comprise remnants of lacunose to reticulate films that evoke those observed in Tremies Cave (fig. 10 and 11). On younger substrates (hard parts of sessile invertebrates), coatings are restricted to micrometric organomorphic corpuscles with some remnants of lacunose or fibrous films (fig. 12). At 100 in from the entrance, coatings are shaped by numerous erected constructions, more or less coalescing (fig. 13). Besides remnants of lacunose films, the primary concretions contain interlacing filaments (diameter : 0.2-0.3 μm) forming cords or veils (fig. 14). In Bagaud Cave, the primary concretions are aggregated in irregular heaps (fig. 15). Lacunose films are particularly frequent and tend to form three-dimensional mamillated structures that were not observed in the other caves (fig. 16). In particular, there is an appearance of tubular structures (fig. 17) and of numerous hemispheroidal structures (diameter : 4-5 μm) with an upper orifice (fig. 18 and 19). At higher magnification (20,000), whatever the cave and inner-cave location, the aspect of oxide deposits is rather smooth or, especially, microgranular (fig. 20). Mineral composition The composition of coatings is different between caves and according to their inner-cave location. In both large caves (Tremies and 3 PP), the Mn/Fe ratio increases with the distance from the cave entrance, i.e. when exchanges with the open sea diminish (fig. 21a). This trend is particularly clear in Tremies Cave, where the confinement gradient is strongly marked. Besides, the Mn/Fe ratio also seems to increase when films are present in the analysed volume (some cubic micrometers) (fig. 21b). In Bagaud Cave, the Mn/Fe ratio reaches high values despite the small size of this cave and its low confinement level. Discussion and conclusions SEM observations suggest that in each studied cave, the Mn-Fe coatings are biosedimentary deposits. Genesis of these deposits is assumed to result mainly from the replacement of biofilms (composed of cells and slime, i.e, of extracellular polymeric substance produced by microorganisms) generated by microbial populations colonizing the cave walls. Considering the darkness of the cave-locations, microbes consist mainly in bacteria, but fungi are probably responsible for the filaments and ovoids corpuscules (evoking sporocysts) occurring in innermost parts. Observations at different scales of the morphological features of oxide deposits reveal a structured organisation which varies along the strong environmental gradients (particularly the confinement level) that occur from the entrance to the innermost parts : erected constructions made up of primary concretions become more and more defined and acquire a pseudo-columnar shape. The aspect of biofilms appears to be controlled by the same environmental parameters. In open or relatively open environments, they frequently show a three-dimensional development (with frequent skullcape-like shapes), while in more confined conditions they exhibit a planar layout. These changes reflect either the adaptation of the slime-producing bacteria to the local trophic resources (correlated to the rate of exchange with the open sea) and water movements, or spatial replacement of taxa. It is assumed that slime (mainly composed of water and exopolysaccharides) induces a local increase of the concentration in dissolved Mn and acts as an ion exchange resin that allows the retention of Mn on the functional groups of EPS. These conditions promote the nucleation of Mn oxide crystallites in the slime. Then. the anionic character of Mn oxides in seawater, and their capacity to catalyse the oxydation of Mn2 to Mn4, allow the process to go on without any other biological intervention; thus, the process of crystal growth becomes possible. In caves where Mn is only supplied by seawater (Tremies and 3 PP), the average value of the Mn/Fe ratio of coatings is negatively correlated to the local availability of nutrients. This trend is probably linked to changes in the selectivity of slimes towards the processes of retention of cations, because this ratio is clearly influenced by the occurrence of biofilms. However, independently from trophic resources, the Mn/Fe ratio can be notably increased when additional Mn is provided by the seeping or flowing of continental waters (Bagaud Cave)

Phreatic overgrowths on speleothems: a useful tool in structural geology in littoral karstic landscapes. The example of eastern Mallorca (Balearic Islands), 2002, Fornos Jj, Gelabert B, Gines A, Gines J, Tuccimei P, Vesica P,
Along the eastern coast of Mallorca, many littoral caves partly filled with brackish waters occur. The most peculiar aspect of these caves is the presence of abundant phreatic overgrowths formed on pre-existing supports located at the underground pools' water table, which corresponds to the present sea level. Besides a specific geomorphological interest, these subaqueous speleothems provide an excellent record of Quaternary sea level stands. The clear relation between phreatic speleothem growth and the contemporary sea level allows the control of the tectonic evolution of an area, by comparing speleothems’ ages and heights with the regionally established eustatic curves. In the studied region different altimetric positions of coeval phreatic speleothems suggest the existence of a recent tectonic activity. The characteristics and chronology of this tectonic event are the objectives of this paper, pointing out at the same time the potential of phreatic speleothems in structural geology investigations. Along the coastline of the studied area, alignments of phreatic speleothems attributed to high sea stands 5a, 5c and 5e are recorded at increasing elevations northwards. This is an evidence of a significant tectonic tilting that took place, at least partially, after substage 5a because phreatic speleothems of this substage are now located at different altitudes. Considering that tectonic tilting has been continuous from post-substage 5a (approximately 85 ka) until now, and that normal displacement is approximately of 1.5 m, the average minimum velocity of the tilting can be estimated about 0.02 mm/year in the southern part with respect to the north end. Data obtained from phreatic speleothems have been compared with other regional, stratigraphical, geomorphological and tectonic evidence that all together point to the same existence of the postulated tectonic tilting. Consequently, phreatic speleothem investigation results in a new method that allows the quantification of average velocities of tilting as well as other tectonic movements with high precision. This methodology can be extended to any littoral karstic landscape where phreatic speleothems are present

Symposium Abstract: Caves, Chemistry and Climate; Evidence of drought in the Western Mediterranean 1200 years ago, 2004, Mcmillan Emily

Paleocollapse structures as geological record for reconstruction of past karst processes during the upper miocene of Mallorca Island, 2004, Robledo Ardila P. A. , Durn J. J. , Pomar L.
Paleocollapse structures and collapse breccias are one of the major features for paleokarst analysis and paleoclimate record. These are affecting the Llucmajor and Santany carbonate platforms. These platforms, of southern and eastern Mallorca respectively, are a good example of progradation reef platform in the western Mediterranean. The Santany platform is constituted of two sedimentary units, both affected by paleocollapse structures: (1) The Reef Complex attributed to the upper Tortonian-lower Messinian; (2) Santany Limestone attributed to the Messinian. There are abundant paleocollapse outcropping in the Reef Complex and Santany Limestone units. These structures have been produced by roof collapse of caverns developed in the underlying reefal complex. According to the genetic model, the origin of same paleocollapse structures may be related to early diagenetic processes controlled by high-frequency sea-level fluctuations. During the lowstands of sea level, fresh water flow or mixing zone might have created a cave system near the water table by dissolution of aragonite in the reef front facies and coral patches existing in the lagoonal beds. During subsequent rise and highstands of sea level, inner-shelf beds overlaid the previously karstified reef-core and outer-lagoonal beds. Increase of loading by subsequent accretion of the shallow-water carbonate might have produced paleocollapse structures by gravitational collapse of cave roof. Morphometric and structural classification of paleocollapse is based on geometric and structural criteria according to the type of deformed strata and strata dip. Paleocollapse structures can be classified according to geometric section, size of the paleocave and lithification degree of the host rock when collapsed. Breccias are classified as crackle, mosaic and chaotic types. In same paleocollapse the type of breccias present a vertical and lateral gradation, from crackle in the upper part, to chaotic in the lower part of the paleocollapse. Chaotic breccias grade from matrix-free, clasts-supported breccias to matrix-supported breccias. Relationship with high frequency of sea-level fluctuation, facies architecture, classification features and products permit to enhance a general paleoclimatic framework.

How much did climate force the Messinian salinity crisis? Quantified climatic conditions from pollen records in the Mediterranean region, 2006, Fauquette S, Suc Jp, Bertini A, Popescu Sm, Warny S, Bachiri Taoufiq N, Perez Villa Mj, Chikhi H, Feddi N, Subally D,
The latest Miocene (5.96 to 5.33[no-break space]Ma) is characterised by an outstanding event: the desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea (Messinian salinity crisis). It has been suggested that this was caused by a tectonic event, with no climatic change playing a role in desiccation. Quantifying the climate of the region during this period will help support or refute this hypothesis. An effective method for reconstructing the climate from Neogene pollen data is the 'Climatic Amplitude Method' based on the modern climatic requirements of plants to interpret fossil data. It has been conceived especially for periods devoid of modern vegetation analogue.Twenty Messinian to Lower Zanclean pollen sequences are now available in the peri-Mediterranean region. Most of them do not cover the whole Messinian interval, particularly those along the Mediterranean shorelines where sedimentation was interrupted during the sea's desiccation. In contrast, sedimentation was almost continuous in such areas as the Atlantic side of Morocco, along the Adriatic coast (including the Po Valley), and to a lesser extent the Black Sea. The Mediterranean sites nonetheless provide a reliable if not a discontinuous record of vegetation variability in time and space.A first examination of the pollen diagrams reveals a high regional variability controlled by local conditions, and throughout the interval a southward increase in herb pollen frequency in contrast to the tree pollen frequency. This indicates that open and probably dry environments existed in the southern Mediterranean region prior to, during and after the salinity crisis. Trees developed in areas close to mountains such as in the Po Valley, in Cerdanya and in the Black Sea region. Most variations observed in the pollen diagrams are constrained by fluctuations of Pinus pollen amounts, indicating eustatic variations. Climatic quantification from pollen data does not show obvious climatic changes due to the desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea, especially in the dry and warm southwestern Mediterranean area (Sicily, southern Spain and North Africa). At Maccarone, along the Adriatic Sea, a decrease in temperatures of the coldest month and, less importantly, a decrease in mean annual temperatures, corresponding to a drastic vegetation change, are reconstructed. These temperature variations are assumed to be controlled by regional environmental changes (massive arrival of waters in this basin) rather than to reflect cooling, because some authors link the second phase of evaporite deposition to a period of global warming. Some migrations of plants probably occurred as a response to Mediterranean desiccation. But the climatic contrast which has probably existed at that time between the central Mediterranean and the peripheral areas might be amplified.Climatic reconstruction from pollen data in the western Mediterranean area shows that climate is not the direct cause of the Mediterranean desiccation, as the Mediterranean region had experienced continuously high evaporation long before the crisis. Therefore the main factor leading to this event seems to be the successive closures of the Betic and Rifian corridors, isolating the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean

Paratethyan-Mediterranean connectivity in the Sea of Marmara region (NW Turkey) during the Messinian, 2006, Cagatay Mn, Gorur N, Flecker R, Sakinc M, Tunoglu C, Ellam R, Krijgsman W, Vincent S, Dikbas A,
The Sea of Marmara region is thought to have been a gateway between Paratethys and the Mediterranean since the Middle Miocene, and is therefore an important control on water mass exchange between the two realms. The Miocene successions in the northeastern Aegean and northwestern Marmara regions indicate that the first Mediterranean marine transgression to affect these areas occurred during the late Serravallian.In the northeastern Aegean region, frequent marine incursions occurred during the Tortonian and Messinian stages. The Messinian stage in this area is represented by a package of brackish- to fresh-water carbonates with some marine sandstone-siltstone interbeds (Alcitepe Formation), which conformably overlies the Tortonian Kirazli Formation. The Messinian sequence is overlain with an erosional contact by a shallow marine siliciclastic sequence (Goztepe Formation) of Zanclean age. With its brackish- to fresh-water carbonates and broadly constrained age, the Messinian sequence is interpreted as being coeval with the Upper Evaporite-Lago Mare sequence observed in western Mediterranean basins.In the western Marmara region, the Pontian (Messinian) Alcitepe Formation consists of bioclastic and oolitic limestones with basal clastic rocks. It conformably overlies the fluvio-lacustrine siliciclastic sediments of the Middle to Upper Miocene Kirazli Formation and is overlain by fluvio-lacustrine sediments of the Kimmerian (5.5-3.2[no-break space]Ma) Truva and Tevfikiye formations with an erosional contact.The bioclastic limestones of the Alcitepe Formation in the western Marmara region contain a molluscan and ostracod fauna that are endemic to Paratethys. These fauna indicate deposition in a shallow, brackish- to fresh-water environment. Faunal and paleomagnetic analyses of a section of the Alcitepe Formation at Yenimahalle (Canakkale) confirm that the formation is of Pontian age and represents chron C3r (6.04-5.24[no-break space]Ma). The ostracod analysis indicates that during deposition of the Alcitepe Formation, salinity increased from brackish in the lower part to more saline conditions in the upper part. Ostracod valves have low 87Sr / 86Sr values relative to coeval Late Miocene ocean water. This indicates that exchange between the Sea of Marmara region and the global ocean was restricted throughout this period. Fossil and Sr-isotope evidence suggests, however, that there was a Paratethyan-Marmara connection during the deposition of the lower part of the Alcitepe Formation, with Paratethyan influence reaching the north Aegean. Connection via Marmara between Paratethys and the Mediterranean was not re-established until the late Aktchagylian (Late Pliocene). The re-connection was caused by both increased activity on the North Anatolian Fault and global sea level rise

Present-day sedimentary facies in the coastal karst caves of Mallorca island (western Mediterranean), 2009, Forns J. J. , Gins J. , And Grcia F.
In spite of the increasing number of papers on cave sediments published during the last few decades, no one has focused from a sedimentological point of view on the processes that take place specifically within the coastal karst areas of carbonate islands. The objective of the present investigations is to deal with the sedimentary processes that take place inside two littoral caves of Mallorca (western Mediterranean), characterizing the different facies existing in the particular geological, geochemical, and hydrological setting that represents this very specific cave sedimentary environment. The recent exploration of extensive underwater galleries and chambers into some outstanding coastal caves of the island, has permitted the recognition of important accumulations of present-day sedimentary infillings in their drowned passages. Both the Pirata-Pont- Piqueta cave system and the Cova de sa Gleda have floors covered by muddy and/or sandy sediments which, in a wide sense, fit into two well-differentiated categories. On one hand we have allochthonous reddish mud sediments (mainly siliciclastic) and on the other hand autochthonous yellowish carbonate mud or sands. The mixing of both materials is also frequent as well as the accumulation of large blocks and debris due to the breakdown of roof and cave walls. A series of 21 manual cores was obtainedby scuba-divers in both caves, in order to collect the full thickness of sedimentary fill. Soil samples at the entrance of the two caves, as well as rock samples of the walls of both sites, were also obtained for a later comparison. Several sedimentary facies can be distinguished, which include coarse-grained deposits (entrance facies and breakdown blocks), fine-grained siliceous sediments (silts and muddy deposits with very variable organic matter content), carbonate deposits composed of calcite raft accumulations and/ or weathering-released limestone grains, and mixed facies including diverse proportions of the other sediment types. There are also some relict deposits composed of siliceous red silts, which are affected by polygonal desiccation cracks. In all the cases, the siliciclastic elements (quartz and feldspars, mainly) are related to rain events supplying dust of Saharan origin. The deposits and facies described herein correspond to different sedimentary environments that can be individualized inside the caves (collapse entrances, breakdown chambers, fully drowned passages and chambers, pools with free water surface), and reflect very specific hydrological, geochemical, and mechanical processes related to the coastal nature of the studied karst caves.

Hypogene Speleogenesis and Karst Hydrogeology of Artesian Basins, 2009,

The volume contains papers presented during the International Conference held May 13 through 17, 2009 in Chernivtsi, Ukraine.

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CONTENTS

PRINCIPAL FEATURES OF HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS
Alexander Klimchouk

HYPOGENE CAVE PATTERNS
Philippe Audra, Ludovic Mocochain, Jean-Yves Bigot, and Jean-Claude Nobécourt

MORPHOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF SPELEOGENESIS: HYPOGENIC SPELEOGENS
Philippe Audra, Ludovic Mocochain, Jean-Yves Bigot, and Jean-Claude Nobécourt

HYPOGENE CAVES IN DEFORMED (FOLD BELT) STRATA: OBSERVATIONS FROM EASTERN AUSTRALIA AND CENTRAL EUROPE
R.A.L. Osborne

IDENTIFYING PALEO WATER-ROCK INTERACTION DURING HYDROTHERMAL KARSTIFICATION: A STABLE ISOTOPE APPROACH
Yuri Dublyansky and Christoph Spötl

MICROORGANISMS AS SPELEOGENETIC AGENTS: GEOCHEMICAL DIVERSITY BUT GEOMICROBIAL UNITY
P.J.Boston, M.N. Spilde, D.E. Northup, M.D. Curry, L.A. Melim, and L. Rosales-Lagarde

SIDERITE WEATHERING AS A REACTION CAUSING HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS: THE EXAMPLE OF THE IBERG/HARZ/GERMANY Stephan Kempe

SIMULATING THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOLUTION CONDUITS IN HYPOGENE SETTINGS
C. Rehrl, S. Birk, and A.B. Klimchouk

EVOLUTION OF CAVES IN POROUS LIMESTONE BY MIXING CORROSION: A MODEL APPROACH
Wolfgang Dreybrodt, Douchko Romanov, and Georg Kaufmann

SPELEOGENESIS OF MEDITERRANEAN KARSTS: A MODELLING APPROACH BASED ON REALISTIC FRACTURE NETWORKS
Antoine Lafare, Hervé Jourde, Véronique Leonardi, Séverin Pistre, and Nathalie Dörfliger

GIANT COLLAPSE STRUCTURES FORMED BY HYPOGENIC KARSTIFICATION: THE OBRUKS OF THE CENTRAL ANATOLIA, TURKEY
C. Serdar Bayari, N. Nur Ozyurt, and Emrah Pekkans

ON THE ROLE OF HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS IN SHAPING THE COASTAL ENDOKARST OF SOUTHERN MALLORCA (WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN)
Joaquín Ginés, Angel Ginés, Joan J. Fornós, Antoni Merino and Francesc Gràcia

HYPOGENE CAVES IN THE APENNINES (ITALY)
Sandro Galdenzi

STEGBACHGRABEN, A MINERALIZED HYPOGENE CAVE IN THE GROSSARL VALLEY, AUSTRIA
Yuri Dublyansky, Christoph Spötl, and Christoph Steinbauer

HYPOGENE CAVES IN AUSTRIA
Lukas Plan, Christoph Spötl, Rudolf Pavuza, Yuri Dublyansky

KRAUSHÖHLE: THE FIRST SULPHURIC ACID CAVE IN THE EASTERN ALPS (STYRIA, AUSTRIA) (Abstract only)
Lukas Plan, Jo De Waele, Philippe Audra, Antonio Rossi, and Christoph Spötl

HYDROTHERMAL ORIGIN OF ZADLAŠKA JAMA, AN ANCIENT ALPINE CAVE IN THE JULIAN ALPS, SLOVENIA
Martin Knez and Tadej Slabe

ACTIVE HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS AND THE GROUNDWATER SYSTEMS AROUND THE EDGES OF ANTICLINAL RIDGES
Amos Frumkin

SEISMIC-SAG STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS IN TERTIARY CARBONATE ROCKS BENEATH SOUTHEASTERN FLORIDA, USA: EVIDENCE FOR HYPOGENIC SPELEOGENESIS?
Kevin J. Cunningham and Cameron Walker

HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS IN THE PIEDMONT CRIMEA RANGE
A.B. Klimchouk, E.I. Tymokhina and G.N. Amelichev

STYLES OF HYPOGENE CAVE DEVELOPMENT IN ANCIENT CARBONATE AREAS OVERLYING NON-PERMEABLE ROCKS IN BRAZIL AND THE INFLUENCE OF COMPETING MECHANISMS AND LATER MODIFYING PROCESSES
Augusto S. Auler

MORPHOLOGY AND GENESIS OF THE MAIN ORE BODY AT NANISIVIK ZINC/LEAD MINE, BAFFIN ISLAND, CANADA: AN OUTSTANDING EXAMPLE OF PARAGENETIC DISSOLUTION OF CARBONATE BEDROCKS WITH PENE-CONTEMPORANEOUS PRECIPITATION OF SULFIDES AND GANGUE MINERALS IN A HYPOGENE SETTING
Derek Ford

THE INFLUENCE OF HYPOGENE AND EPIGENE SPELEOGENESIS IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE VAZANTE KARST MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL
Cristian Bittencourt, Augusto Sarreiro Auler, José Manoel dos Reis Neto, Vanio de Bessa and Marcus Vinícios Andrade Silva

HYPOGENIC ASCENDING SPELEOGENESIS IN THE KRAKÓW-CZĘSTOCHOWA UPLAND (POLAND) ? EVIDENCE IN CAVE MORPHOLOGY AND SURFACE RELIEF
Andrzej Tyc

EVIDENCE FROM CERNA VALLEY CAVES (SW ROMANIA) FOR SULFURIC ACID SPELEOGENESIS: A MINERALOGICAL AND STABLE ISOTOPE STUDY
Bogdan P. Onac, Jonathan Sumrall, Jonathan Wynn, Tudor Tamas, Veronica Dărmiceanu and Cristina Cizmaş

THE POSSIBILITY OF REVERSE FLOW PIRACY IN CAVES OF THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAIN BELT (Abstract only)
Ira D. Sasowsky

KARSTOGENESIS AT THE PRUT RIVER VALLEY (WESTERN UKRAINE, PRUT AREA)
Viacheslav Andreychouk and Bogdan Ridush

ZOLOUSHKA CAVE: HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS OR REVERSE WATER THROUGHFLOW?
V. Eirzhyk (Abstract only)

EPIGENE AND HYPOGENE CAVES IN THE NEOGENE GYPSUM OF THE PONIDZIE AREA (NIECKA NIDZIAŃSKA REGION), POLAND
Jan Urban, Viacheslav Andreychouk, and Andrzej Kasza

PETRALONA CAVE: MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND A NEW PERSPECTIVE ON ITS SPELEOGENESIS
Georgios Lazaridis

HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS IN MAINLAND NORWAY AND SVALBARD?
Stein-Erik Lauritzen

VILLA LUZ PARK CAVES: SPELEOGENESIS BASED ON CURRENT STRATIGRAPHIC AND MORPHOLOGIC EVIDENCE (Abstract only)
Laura Rosales-Lagarde, Penelope J. Boston, Andrew Campbell, and Mike Pullin

HYPOGENE KARSTIFICATION IN SAUDI ARABIA (LAYLA LAKE SINKHOLES, AIN HEETH CAVE)
Stephan Kempe, Heiko Dirks, and Ingo Bauer

HYPOGENE KARSTIFICATION IN JORDAN (BERGISH/AL-DAHER CAVE, UWAIYED CAVE, BEER AL-MALABEH SINKHOLE)
Stephan Kempe, Ahmad Al-Malabeh, and Horst-Volker Henschel

ASSESSING THE RELIABILITY OF 2D RESISTIVITY IMAGING TO MAP A DEEP AQUIFER IN CARBONATE ROCKS IN THE IRAQI KURDISTAN REGION
Bakhtiar K. Aziz and Ezzaden N. Baban

FEATURES OF GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF THE ORDINSKAYA UNDERWATER CAVE, FORE-URALS, RUSSIA
Pavel Sivinskih

INIAAIIINOE AEIIAAIIIAI NIAEAIAAIACA AI?II-NEEAA?AOIE IAEANOE CAIAAIIAI EAAEACA
A.A.Aao?ooaa

AEOAEIIIA NO?IAIEA AEA?IAAINOA?U: IIAAEU AA?OEEAEUIIE CIIAEUIINOE
A.I. Eaoaaa

?IEU EA?NOA A OI?IE?IAAIEE NIEAIUO AIA E ?ANNIEIA IEAI?ENEIAI AANNAEIA
Aeaenaia? Eiiiiia, Na?aae Aeaenaaa, e Na?aae Nooia


ON THE ROLE OF HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS IN SHAPING THE COASTAL ENDOKARST OF SOUTHERN MALLORCA (WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN), 2009, Gines J. , Gines A. , Fornos J. , Merino A. , Gracia F.

The Migjorn region is one of the main karst areas in the island of Mallorca (Balearic Archipelago, Western Mediterranean) and has abundant coastal caves developed in Upper Miocene reefal carbonate rocks. In general terms it is an eogenetic karst platform in which littoral mixing dissolution processes usually represent the most important speleogenetic mechanism to be considered. Nevertheless, recent explorations in Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (Llucmajor Municipality), that nowadays has development exceeding 59 km of passages, raise interesting questions about the genesis of this outstanding littoral cave. An artificial entrance located at about 500 m from the coast line gives access to a complex assemblage of chambers and galleries, partially drowned by brackish waters, whose spatial disposition and morphological characteristics are strongly conditioned by the internal architecture of the Upper Miocene reef. The inner part of the cave consists of an extensive network of galleries that contain morpho-sedimentary features pointing to the possible participation of hypogene speleogenesis in the excavation of the system. Solutional features related to rising flow are abundant, together with Mn- and Fe-rich deposits and some minerals not known up to the l present in other caves of the region. The hypogene speleogenesis mechanisms that may have acted in Cova des Pas de Vallgornera could be associated with the feeble geothermal anomalies existing currently in the Llucmajor platform, related to important SW-NE faults which delimit the Campos subsidence basin in the southern end of Mallorca Island. The genesis of the cave system seems to be a complex matter including, besides coastal mixing processes and epigenic meteoric recharge, the participation of hypogene speleogenesis in an eogenetic unconfined setting.


Solutional features and cave deposits related to hypogene speleogenetic processes in a littoral cave of Mallorca Island (western Mediterranean) , 2010, Fornó, S J. J. , Merino A. , Giné, S J. , Giné, S A. , Grà, Cia F.

The Cova des Pas de Vallgornera, located in the southern part of Mallorca Island (western Mediterranean) and developed in Upper Miocene reefal carbonate limestones, is an exceptional coastal cave because of its particular morphological features and the presence of deposits with uncommon mineralogies. Littoral mixing dissolution processes represent the most important speleogenetic mechanism to be considered in the eogenetic karst platform, where it develops; nevertheless, part of the cave consists of an extensive network of galleries that show morpho-sedimentary features pointing up to a possible participation of hypogene speleogenesis. The morphological assemblage of the cave illustrates besides the typical coastal karstification, a noticeable meteoric water recharge along with a possible deep recharge of hypogenic character. Features consisting in upwards solutional channels are abundant, including a complete morphologic suite of rising flow supporting the involvement of hypogene speleogenetic processes. Furthermore, the presence of vents and some related speleothems, such as crusts and cave rims, together with Mn and Fe-rich deposits hosting several minerals not observed until present in other caves of the region must be highlighted. Given the monotonous surface geology around the cave, it is suspected that ascending Sr, Ba, Mn, and Al-rich hypogene solutions may have reacted with the host rock to form this unique mineral assemblage. These deep-seated speleogenetic and mineralogical phenomena could be associated with the feeble geothermal anomalies existing currently in the Llucmajor platform, related to SW–NE faults which delimitate the subsidence basin existing in the southern end of Mallorca Island.


Submarine and coastal karstic groundwater discharges along the southwestern Mediterranean coast of Turkey, 2010, Bayari Serdar C. , Ozyurt Nur N. , Oztan Mehmet, Bastanlar Yalin, Varinlioglu Guzden, Koyuncu Hayati, Ulkenli Haldun, Hamarat Serdar

A 120 km-long part of the southwestern coast of Turkey, with well-developed karst terrain in contact with the sea, has been investigated by systematic diving surveys to determine the submarine groundwater discharges (SGDs). The physical, chemical and isotopic data have been used to determine the rate of the fresh groundwater end member (FEM) and its temporal dynamics. About 150 SGDs have been detected by diving
surveys employed mostly up to a depth of 30 m below sea level (bsl). Among those, 15 SGDs are in the form of coastal or submarine caves with entrances ranging between sea surface and 40 m bsl. The FEM contribution in SGDs ranges from a few percent to more than 80%. Stable isotope data suggest a range of mean recharge area elevations extending from the coast to more than 1,000 m inland. In many of the SGDs, the FEMs are characterized by tritium-based residence times ranging from recent to several decades. Hypothetical geochemical calculations of mixing between freshwater and seawater end members reveal that more than 45% of freshwater contribution is required for karst development in the SGDs. Models suggest a threshold pH of 7.6 or lower for the carbonate
rock dissolution.


Comparison of 14C and U-Th ages of two Holocene phreatic overgrowths on speleothems from Mallorca (Western Mediterranean): Environmental implications, 2011, Tuccimei P. , Strydonck M. V. , Giné, S A, Giné, S J. , Soligo M. , Villa I. M. , Fornó, S J. J.

This investigation reports on the comparison between ICP-MS U-Th and AMS 14C ages of Phreatic Overgrowths on Speleothems (POS) from two different caves on the island of Mallorca (Spain). These speleothem encrustations form at the water table of coastal caves in a low-amplitude tide-controlled microenvironment and are used to reconstruct past sea level changes. The aim of this study is to evaluate if this particular type of speleothem is datable using 14C method and to investigate possible problems connected with the incorporation of dead carbon inherited from the dissolution of 14C-free limestone. The results show that 14C ages are strongly site dependent and appear related to local residence time of water infiltration through the soil and epikarst. When short transit time and limited interaction with soil and bedrock, as in Cova de Cala Varques A, the so-called “reservoir” effect is negligible and 14C and U-Th ages corresponds within the error range. When the residence time is longer, as in Cova des Pas de Vallgornera, 14C ages are steadily 2,300-2,400 years older than the U-Th data, as shown by the mean value (25%) of estimated percent dead carbon proportions and by higher and better correlated contents of major and trace elements in the vadose support of this speleothem encrustation. The potential use of this multi-method approach to paleoenvironmental studies is also suggested.


Comparison of 14C and U-Th ages of two Holocene phreatic overgrowths on speleothems from Mallorca (Western Mediterranean): Environmental implications, 2011, Tuccimei Paola, Strydonck Mark Van, Gins Angel , Gins Joaqun , Soligo Michele, Villa Igor M. , Forns Joan J.

This investigation reports on the comparison between ICP-MS U-Th and AMS 14C ages of Phreatic Overgrowths on Speleothems (POS) from two different caves on the island of Mallorca (Spain). These speleothem encrustations form at the water table of coastal caves in a low-amplitude tide-controlled microenvironment and are used to reconstruct past sea level changes. The aim of this study is to evaluate if this particular type of speleothem is datable using 14C method and to investigate possible problems connected with the incorporation of dead carbon inherited from the dissolution of 14C-free limestone. The results show that 14C ages are strongly site dependent and appear related to local residence time of water infiltration through the soil and epikarst. When short transit time and limited interaction with soil and bedrock, as in Cova de Cala Varques A, the so-called “reservoir” effect is negligible and 14C and U-Th ages corresponds within the error range. When the residence time is longer, as in Cova des Pas de Vallgornera, 14C ages are steadily 2,300-2,400 years older than the U-Th data, as shown by the mean value (25%) of estimated percent dead carbon proportions and by higher and better correlated contents of major and trace elements in the vadose support of this speleothem encrustation. The potential use of this multi-method approach to paleoenvironmental studies is also suggested.


Solutional features and cave deposits related to hypogene speleogenetic processes in a littoral cave of Mallorca Island (western Mediterranean), 2011, Fornos J. J. , Merino . , Gines A. , Gracia F.

The Cova des Pas de Vallgornera, located in the southern part of Mallorca Island (western Mediterranean) and developed in Upper Miocene reefal carbonate limestones, is an exceptional coastal cave because of its particular morphological features and the presence of
deposits with uncommon mineralogies. Littoral mixing dissolution processes represent the most important speleogenetic mechanism to be considered in the eogenetic karst platform, where it develops; nevertheless, part of the cave consists of an extensive network of galleries that show morpho-sedimentary features pointing up to a possible participation of hypogene speleogenesis. The morphological
assemblage of the cave illustrates besides the typical coastal karstification, a noticeable meteoric water recharge along with a possible deep recharge of hypogenic character. Features consisting in upwards solutional channels are abundant, including a complete morphologic suite of rising flow supporting the involvement of hypogene speleogenetic
processes. Furthermore, the presence of vents and some related speleothems, such as crusts and cave rims, together with Mn and Fe-rich deposits hosting several minerals not observed until present in other caves of the region must be highlighted. Given the monotonous surface
geology around the cave, it is suspected that ascending Sr, Ba, Mn, and Al-rich hypogene solutions may have reacted with the host rock to form this unique mineral assemblage.  These deep-seated speleogenetic and mineralogical phenomena could be associated with the feeble geothermal anomalies existing currently in the Llucmajor platform,
related to SW–NE faults which delimitate the subsidence basin existing in the southern end of Mallorca Island.


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