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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That flint is a concretionary form of silica, similar to chert, that occurs in chalk as tabular sheets and layers of irregularly shaped nodules. being very hard and relatively insoluble, flint tends to stand out from chalk cliffs. flint-rich horizons may also influencer the inception of beddingrelated dissoluational conduits in chalk [9].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for wetlands (Keyword) returned 21 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 21
Regional groundwater flow model construction and wellfield site selection in a karst area, Lake City, Florida, 1999, Dufresne Dp, Drake Cw,
The city of Lake City is in the process of expanding their water supply facilities by 45 420 m(3) day(-1) (12 MGD) to meet future demands. One portion of wellfield site selection addressed here includes analysis of ambient groundwater quality and its potential for contamination. This study also addresses the potential impacts of groundwater withdrawals to existing legal users, wetlands, surface waters and spring flows. A regional groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) was constructed using existing hydrogeologic data from state and federal agencies in order to simulate the existing hydrologic conditions of this karst area and to predict withdrawal impacts. The model was calibrated by matching potentiometric surface maps and spring flows to within reasonable ranges. Drawdowns in the Floridan and surficial aquifers predicted by the model show minimal impacts to existing legal users and only a 5% reduction in the flow at Ichetucknee Springs ca 21 km (13 miles) away. Due to the karstic nature of the Floridan aquifer here, the equivalent-porous-medium flow model constructed would not be appropriate for contaminant transport modeling. The groundwater flow model is, however, appropriate to represent hydraulic heads and recharge/discharge relationships on a regional scale. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Hydrogeologic and geochemical factors required for the development of Carolina Bays along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, USA, 1999, May J. H. , Warne A. G. ,
More than 60 years of intense study and debate have yet to resolve the origin of the Carolina Bays. Carolina Bays are circular to elliptical depressions located along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Coastal Plains; Proposed processes of initiation and development of these karst-like features include meteorite impacts, substrate dissolution, wind, ice, marine waves and currents. Based on field studies throughout the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains and on review of coastal plain literature, we propose that Carolina Bays initially developed as silica-karst features. During Pleistocene sea-level lowstands, water tables in the Atlantic Coastal Plain were up to 30 m lower than today. Large volumes of surface water collected in local topographic lows and/or areas of enhanced permeability and infiltrated through sandy substrates of the low-relief coastal plain, Localized infiltration of phreatic water induced extensive desilicification of the sandy and clayey substrates, resulting in volume loss and development of karst-like depressions. Particularly relevant to initial bay development was alteration of kaolinite to gibbsite, which can produce a 34-percent loss in clay material volume, and concurrent dissolution of iron oxide. The initial silica-karst depressions along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts were later modified by eolian and, perhaps, ice-push processes, which enhanced their elliptical form. The subsequent Holocene rise in sea level caused ground-water levels in the coastal plain to equilibrate near the present-day land surface. This curtailed geochemical weathering, as well as eolian and ice-related processes. Ground-water saturation partially reversed chemical reactions associated with intensive weathering of clays beneath the bays, masking evidence of the severe leaching that occurred during their initial formation. Silica-karst features, similar to Carolina Bays in their initial stages of development, are common geologic features, Moreover, silica-karst processes are active today in warm temperate, subtropical, and tropical areas in sandy substrates where groundwater levels are well below the ground surface and can cause subsidence or disrupt developing wetlands

Hydrogeologic and geochemical factors required for the development of Carolina Bays along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, coastal plain, USA, 1999, May James H. , Warne Andrew G. ,
More than 60 years of intense study and debate have yet to resolve the origin of the Carolina Bays. Carolina Bays are circular to elliptical depressions located along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Proposed processes of initiation and development of these karst-like features include meteorite impacts, substrate dissolution, wind, ice, marine waves and currents. Based on field studies throughout the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains and on review of coastal plain literature, we propose that Carolina Bays initially developed as silica-karst features. During Pleistocene sea-level lowstands, water tables in the Atlantic Coastal Plain were up to 30 m lower than today. Large volumes of surface water collected in local topographic lows and/or areas of enhanced permeability and infiltrated through sandy substrates of the low-relief coastal plain. Localized infiltration of phreatic water induced extensive desilicification of the sandy and clayey substrates, resulting in volume loss and development of karst-like depressions. Particularly relevant to initial bay development was alteration of kaolinite to gibbsite, which can produce a 34-percent loss in clay material volume, and concurrent dissolution of iron oxide. The initial silica-karst depressions along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts were later modified by eolian and, perhaps, ice-push processes, which enhanced their elliptical form. The subsequent Holocene rise in sea level caused ground-water levels in the coastal plain to equilibrate near the present-day land surface. This curtailed geochemical weathering, as well as eolian and ice-related processes. Ground-water saturation partially reversed chemical reactions associated with intensive weathering of clays beneath the bays, masking evidence of the severe leaching that occurred during their initial formation. Silica-karst features, similar to Carolina Bays in their initial stages of development, are common geologic features. Moreover, silica-karst processes are active today in warm temperate, subtropical, and tropical areas in sandy substrates where ground-water levels are well below the ground surface and can cause subsidence or disrupt developing wetlands

Relation of streams, lakes, and wetlands to groundwater flow systems, 1999, Winter Thomas C. ,

Drainage-basin-scale geomorphic analysis to determine reference conditions for ecologic restoration--Kissimmee River, Florida, 2000, Warne Andrew G. , Toth Louis A. , White William A. ,
Major controls on the retention, distribution, and discharge of surface water in the historic (precanal) Kissimmee drainage basin and river were investigated to determine reference conditions for ecosystem restoration. Precanal Kissimmee drainage-basin hydrology was largely controlled by landforms derived from relict, coastal ridge, lagoon, and shallow-shelf features; widespread carbonate solution depressions; and a poorly developed fluvial drainage network. Prior to channelization for flood control, the Kissimmee River was a very low gradient, moderately meandering river that flowed from Lake Kissimmee to Lake Okeechobee through the lower drainage basin. We infer that during normal wet seasons, river discharge rapidly exceeded Lake Okeechobee outflow capacity, and excess surface water backed up into the low-gradient Kissimmee River. This backwater effect induced bankfull and peak discharge early in the flood cycle and transformed the flood plain into a shallow aquatic system with both lacustrine and riverine characteristics. The large volumes of surface water retained in the lakes and wetlands of the upper basin maintained overbank flow conditions for several months after peak discharge. Analysis indicates that most of the geomorphic work on the channel and flood plain occurred during the frequently recurring extended periods of overbank discharge and that discharge volume may have been significant in determining channel dimensions. Comparison of hydrogeomorphic relationships with other river systems identified links between geomorphology and hydrology of the precanal Kissimmee River. However, drainage-basin and hydraulic geometry models derived solely from general populations of river systems may produce spurious reference conditions for restoration design criteria

Spaceborne imaging radar-C (SIR-C) observations of groundwater discharge and wetlands associated with the Chicxulub impact crater, northwestern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, 2001, Pope Kevin O. , Rejmankova Eliska, Paris Jack F. ,
Analyses of spaceborne imaging radar-C (SIR-C) data and field data from the northwestern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, demonstrate that spaceborne multifrequency polarimetric radars are excellent tools for characterizing patterns of wetland flooding. Seasonal flooding can be detected in most types of forest and marsh in the radar backscatter magnitude and phase data of both L and C band. Field observations made in the wet and dry seasons concurrent with the space missions and chemical analyses of floodwaters confirm that flooding is the product of discharge from the Yucatan aquifer, which consists of a fresh-water lens floating on seawater. This discharge controls the distribution of wetlands. Therefore, vegetation and flooding patterns, mapped with SIR-C imagery, provide valuable information on the hydrogeology of the region. Radar-image maps of wetlands and flooding indicate that there are three major zones of groundwater discharge that correlate with structures of the buried Chicxulub crater--zone 1 with the peak ring, zone 2 with the crater rim, and zone 3 with the exterior ring. Zone 1 has sulfate-poor discharge, unlike the sulfate-rich discharge in zones 2 and 3. The highest discharge is in zone 3, where the buried crater is closest to the surface. This groundwater-discharge pattern can be explained by tidal pumping of fresh water to the surface through high permeability zones developed in the Tertiary carbonates overlying crater faults and escarpments

The Ecological Role of the Karst Wetlands of Southern Florida in Relation to System Restoration, 2001, Loftus W. F. , Bruno M. C. , Cunningham K. J. , Perry S. , Trexler J. C.


The hydrologic catchment area of a chain of karst wetlands in central Pennsylvania, USA, 2003, O'driscoll M. A. , Parizek R. R. ,
Shallow depressions found in karst terrains may contain wetlands (karst pans) that fluctuate seasonally in response to climatic conditions. This study examined the ground-water hydrology of a chain of 17 wetlands, ranging in size from 0.06 to 0.4 hectares, located in an Appalachian karst valley in central Pennsylvania, USA. The study objective was to determine the contributing area of wetland source waters. A variety of hydraulic head, soil stratigraphy, and water chemistry-data indicate that the combined contributing areas of these wetland ponds extend to a maximum distance of approximately 150 in from the ponds. The hydrologic catchment area of the ponds during January and February, 1999 (approximately 2-8 hectares) was significantly smaller than catchment area based on topography (69 hectares). The water source of the wetlands consists of direct precipitation inputs and shallow (0.5-6 m) perched ground water. The hydrologic catchment area of the ponds expands during wet periods and contracts during dry periods. The ponds have been shown to be perched above the regional water table

Karst types in Bulgaria, 2003, Angelova, Dora

The karst in Bulgaria occupies an area of 26 170 km2 or 22.7 % of the territory of the country. The karst water resources are estimated to be 2.3 billion m3 or 11.6 % of the total water resources of the country. The interest in karst in Bulgaria has become higher during the last years because there are a number of practical problems that have to be solved. Karst in Bulgaria is characterized by great diversity due to the complex combination of factors (geological, tectonic, geomorphologic, hydrological and hydrogeological, climatic, etc.) and to the geodynamic development of this part of Europe. This work presents a new zoning of karst in Bulgaria. The following types have been distinguished: plain karst (the Danubian Plain); marine and transformed marine karst into plain and plain-marine karst (Black Sea subaqual and subareal plain); plateau-like karst (the Fore Balkan) and mountainous karst. The karst wetlands and karst phenomena provoked by paleoearthquakes are separately outlined and sample models for the different karst types, genesis, dynamics, lithostructural control, relations, etc. are presented.


Paleoseismic phenomena in karst terrains in Bulgaria and Morocco, 2003, Angelova Dora, Belfoul M'hamed Alaeddin, Bouzid Sophia, Filahi Mustapha, Faik Farid

During the recent years there has been a growing interest in recording and investigating the effects of paleoseismic events in surface and underground karst in almost all countries. Karst represents a reliable reference marker for understanding the potential seismicity in regions with instrumentally established low to moderate seismicity. The karst errains in Bulgaria and Morocco occupy considerable areas. The disturbances in surface and underground karst had usually been provoked by catastrophic one-act events or by repeatedly activated movements by earthquakes. The catastrophic seismic events had disturbed the naturally interrelated karst ecosystems and were the reason for rejuvenation, reactivation or attenuation of karst processes. The natural surface and underground relief had been partially or entirely destroyed; a new type of relief had been formed; the geological environment had been disturbed; changes occurred in the flowrate and direction of surface and underground karst water; wetlands of the gravitation type had been formed; natural caves, local grabens, rock-falls and landslides collapsed partially or entirely and terrains were subjected to subsidence and destruction; the ecological balance in urbanized territories had been disturbed. The present work considers the different types of paleoseismic phenomena in the karst terrains in Bulgaria and Morocco. Recommendations are given for the protection of these areas.


Ramsar Sites?Wetlands of International Importance, 2004, Beltram G.

GROUNDWATER AGE: A VITAL INFORMATION IN PROTECTING THE GROUNDWATER DEPENDENT ECOSYSTEM, 2005, Serdar Bayari, N. Nur Ozyurt, Zubeyde Hatipoglu
Economic gains of use have led to a global explosion of groundwater development in the last several decades. Consequently, groundwater reserves have been depleted extensively. Continuing use of groundwater, which is initially supplied from the storage, causes increasing derivation of additional water from groundwater dependent ecosystems such as, streams, lakes and wetlands. A systematic groundwater age dating in the vicinity of a surface water body may help to quantify the spatio-temporal dynamics of interaction between these resources. Though, numerical flow and transport models may be used to infer the age distribution of groundwater feeding a surface water body, their efficient use requires extensive data that properly characterize the flow domain. In cases, such data is not available or requires to be supplemented by an independent approach, spatio-temporal age dating of groundwater by various tracers can be helpful in understanding the dynamics of flow in the aquifer. This paper provides brief information on how the groundwater age data can be used in surface water ecological problems. Examples from several field sites in Turkey are also presented.

MANAGING AQUIFER RECHARGE (MAR): ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER RESOURCES IN THE SAND, 2007, Kim Thoa Nguyen Thi, Giuseppe Arduino, Paolo Bono, Nguyen Van Giang, Phan Thi Kim Van, Bui Tran Vuong, Dinh Thi Bich Lieu, Brun Clarissa, Chiara Fiori, Fabrizio Gherardi, Francesca Zucco
Extensive geophysical, hydrological and isotopic investigations, including drilling campaigns, long term pumping tests and continuous monitoring of ground water levels in 4 monitoring wells, show that the sand dunes formation is characterized by the occurrence of an unconfined porous aquifer, of variable thickness (40 to 60 m), emerging at ground level in depressed morphological areas (20 to 30 m a.s.l.) where it forms intradune wetlands or natural reservoirs (lakes), and discharging directly to the sea through single springs (up to 200 l/s), linear springs and mostly by diffuse seepage along the shoreline (approximate discharge equal to 30 l/s per km). Hydrochemical and isotopic characterization of surface and groundwater in different periods, shows that the sand dunes aquifers, with electrical conductivity ranging from 50 to 500 μS/cm, are composed of different water types, characterized by complex mixing processes. The site chosen for the artificial recharge, where a 162 days pumping test has been carried out, proved that the use of the bank filtration technique has considerably improved the quality of water, originally highly contaminated by colibacteria. The well field developed within the present project is now capable of supplying 220 m3/day of good water quality to the Hong Phong community, recurrently affected by severe droughts. This project is part of UNESCO-IHP (International Hydrological Programme) and IMET (Italian Ministry for the Environment and Territory) Water Programme for Africa, Arid and Water Scarce zone - Viet Nam component funded by IMET. Funds for the Viet Nam project were also made available from the Vietnamese Government, and from ICSU, the International Council for Science and UNESCO Office Jakarta.

TURLOUGHS: A MOSAIC OF BIODIVERSITY AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS UNIQUE TO IRELAND, 2007, Skeffington M. S. , Gormally M.

Turloughs are seasonally flooded karst wetlands in Ireland and as priority habitats under the EU Habitats Directive, many have been designated as Special Areas of Conservation. They flood usually in winter, mostly through swallow holes, or estavelles, that open to the underlying limestone, but they may fill at any time of year if rainfall is excessive. Almost all of them occur on well-bedded pure Carboniferous limestone. Since the shallow basins of turloughs are usually covered in veg­etation, unlike more permanent water bodies, they are excellent feeding areas for over-wintering wildfowl, such as ducks, geese and swans, hosting numbers of international importance. Tur­loughs are almost all grazed by domestic livestock in the sum­mer months and they support relatively low-intensity farming due to their marginal nature and inaccessibility for much of the year. The vegetation depends to a large extent on the flooding regime and on soil type, usually comprising small-sedge com­munities or grass-dominated swards. The type of management varies considerably, not only between, but within turloughs. This gives rise to a diversity of sward composition and structure that increases both plant and invertebrate diversity. Whereas drainage was a large threat to turlough conservation in the past, eutrophication of flood waters is gaining in importance. However, the single greatest threat to turlough biodiversity in the future may be the cessation of farming within their basins. Turloughs are an integral part of the Irish cultural landscape and so it is important to develop a strategy for turlough con­servation that involves the land-owners and takes into account local socio-economic factors as well as the conservation of their biodiversity.


DO TURLOUGHS OCCUR IN SLOVENIA?, 2008, Sheehy Skeffington Micheline, Scott Nick. E.
Micheline Shehy Skeffington & Nick. E. Scott: Do turloughs occur in Slovenia? Turloughs are karst basins that fill seasonally with mostly groundwater and drain, usually in summer, to reveal a sedge or grassland community. They are often described as being virtually unique to Ireland. The much larger seasonal poljes of the Slovenian karst are considered different to turloughs. However, a series of small temporary karst lakes in the Slovenian Pivka valley seem remarkably similar to Irish turloughs. Like turloughs, they fill and empty largely through estavelles connecting to underground water systems, which rise and fall with high seasonal rainfall. The Slovenian sites, however, support less wetland communities than Irish turloughs, probably due to drier summer conditions. The plant communities of both systems occur in zones around the basin, related to flood duration. Relevs taken at five Slovenian sites revealed that Petelinjsko jezero, which floods longest each year, is the most similar to turloughs, with, in the lower basin, Eleocharis palustris, potentilla reptans and the unusual form of Ranuculus repens commonly found in Irish turloughs. The difference in climate and terrain means that the Slovenian sites are managed for hay or silage, while the Irish turloughs are under pasture. However, for both, regular flooding precludes much agricultural improvement, so that they are now refuges for flora and fauna. A revised definition for turloughs is proposed and a case made for these Slovenian wetland systems to be recognised as turloughs and for the EU Habitats Directive to be amended to include poljes and other similar temporary karst wetland systems as well as turloughs.

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