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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That pellicular water is 1. the film of water left around each grain or fracture surface of water-bearing material after gravity drainage [22]. 2. water of-adhesion [22]. 3.water that can be extracted by root absorption and evaporation but cannot be moved by gravity or by the unbalanced film forces resulting from localized evaporation and transpiration [22].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for yunnan (Keyword) returned 23 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 23
Karst ore in Yunnan, 1952, Searls Fred,
Discusses factors in the accumulation of detrital lead-silver ores in limestone sinkholes of southwest Yunnan, China

The pinnacle karst of the Stone Forest on Lunan, Yunnan, China: an example of a subjacent karst, 1986, Chen Z. , Song L. , Sweeting M. M.

Les Forts de Pierre ou Stone forests de Lunan (Yunnan, Chine), 1996, Ford D. , Salomon J. N. , Williams P.
"Stone forests " are well known in Southern China. We describe the type site in Lunan County on the Yunnan Plateau at about 1800 m. "Stone forests " are a spectacular form of karren, similar to the "tsingy" of Madagascar or pinnacles of Mulu. In Yunnan they are developed in massive Permian limestones and dolomites. The "Stone forests" are high fluted towers, typically more ruiniform in dolostones, that attain 20-30m in height, exceptionally 40m. They occur in patches of several square kilometres in extent in a rolling polygonal karst landscape with about 150 m local relief Three phases of evoluti6n are recognized spanning 250 Ma from the Permian until the present: 1) Mid Permian karstification and burial by Upper Permian continental basalts, 2) Mesozoic erosion and re-karstification, then burial in the Eocene by thick continental deposits, 3) Late Tertiary and Quaternary exhumation and re-karstification. No other "Stone forests" in the world show this complexity of evolution.

Book Review: ''South China Karst; Parts I (Yunnan) & II (Guizhou)'' by Chen Xiaoping et al., 1998, 1999, Waltham A. C.

Water tracing test in the Tianshengan region, China at low water level in November 1998, 1999, Kogovš, Ek Janja, Hong Liu

In 1998 a water tracing test at low water level was carried out within the international scientific co-operation between Slovenia and China in the Tianshengan region, Yunnan. This water tracing completed the knowledge achieved by water tracing during middle and high water level that was reached by water tracing tests in 1996 and 1997. From the injection point d towards the final Dalongtan spring the water drainage at low water level was three times slower than at middle water level. The water tracing also showed that water does not flow towards the spring 11 south-west from the injection point near the Shibanshou fault which remained an open question from previous water tracing tests.


South China Karst 1999, Preliminary research in Yunnan, 1999, Kogovš, Ek Janja, Kranjc Andrej, Slabe Tadej, Š, Ebela Stanka

From 1995 researchers from Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU are working on slovene-chinese karstological projects. In 1998 their studies were published in the book "South China Karst". Also in the year 1999 researches took place in Yunnan, that's in central Lunan shilin (stone forest) as well as in less touristically known shilins. Beside this they have been recognising characteristics of cone and tower karst in the regions of Babao and Puzhehei.


Water tracing test in the Tianshengan region, China at high water level, 2000, Kogovš, Ek Janja, Liu Hong

The results of water tracing in the Tianshengan region, Lunan, Yunnan province, China are given. This water tracing presents a continuation of water flow studies in this part of the karst based on Slovene-Chinese scientific co-operation. In September 1997 a water tracing test at high water level was carried out and showed greater velocities double compared to water flow in this area at medium water level in July 1996.


Baiyun cave in Naigu Shilin, Yunnan karst, China, 2001, Sebela S. , Slabe T. , Kogovsek J. , Liu H. , Pruner P. ,
The Baiyun cave is a 380 m long karst cave in the Naigu Shilin, situated 70 km southeast of Kunming, Yunnan Province, China. The prevailing orientations of the cave passages are N110 degrees -120 degreesE and NO degrees -IO degreesW and those of the fissures in the cave are N30 degrees -40 degreesW and N20 degrees -30 degreesW. The cave is developed in the thick-bedded Lower Permian Qixia Formation. The cave has an active water flow and is currently at the near water-table stage. There are large amounts of different infills of cave sediments. The cave shows different stages of paragenesis. The palaeomagnetic analysis of cave sediments shows that their ages are younger than 780 ka B.P. (the Brunhes Chron). The upper part of the sampled profile belongs to the reverse Blake event (112.3-117.9 ka B.P.). The formation of the Baiyun cave is directly connected with the development of the Naigu Shilin. The formation of karst underground and surface features depends on the regional tectonic deformation and the Cenozoic extension of the study area

Shape and rock relief of pillars in Naigu Stone Forest (SW China), 2001, Knez Martin, Slabe Tadej

Stone forests have evolved from underground karren. The shape of rock pillars and their rock relief are controlled by different rock beds where they developed at various levels and by underground factors and rainwater.


Lunan "Shilin" (Stone Forest), human impact and protection of (eventual) World Heritage Site (Yunnan, China), 2001, Kranjc Andrej, Liu Hong

The Chinese expression "shilin" (stone forest) is becoming an international term meaning megakarren, that is a Čforest« of intensively corroded limestone pinnacles. The best known is Shilin near the town of Lunan. The first known description of Shilin is from 1382. Shilin is very important tourist site. Modern tourism began to develop in 1980, in 1999 the number of visitors reached over 2 million. In 1981 the whole area (350 sq. km) was protected. Under the auspices of the National Ministry of Construction material is being collected for an application to inscribe Shilin into the list of World's Natural Heritage at UNESCO. Related to human impact the most important threats are: exploitation (destruction) of limestone pinnacles as a source of rock material; the pressure of population towards the protection zone due to their increase (need for new building plots); agriculture (farming and stockbreeding) connected to soil erosion and underground water pollution (use of fertilisers); fast growth of visitor numbers. The Shilin administration introduced different protection measures: ban on rock (limestone pinnacles) exploitation in the protection zone (orientation towards afforestation); construction of new tourist facilities out of the core zone (and demolition of some of them in that zone); establishment of a special protection department within Shilin management (18 person); education of "special voluntary rangers" - recruited among highly respected persons of villages and towns in the region.


The covered karst, weathering crust and karst (double-level) planation surface, 2002, Cui Zj, Li Dw, Feng Jl, Liu Gn, Li Hj,
The thick-bedded and continuous karst crust only formed in the old stage of geomorphic development. The corresponding landscape is the karst planation surface. The karst planation surface consists of the loose weathering crust and the base weathering front below the crust. Its profile structure is similar to 'double surface of leveling' model built by Budel. In the limestone area, the base weathering front is the covered karst. From the Tibet Plateau to Yun-Gui (Yunnan-Guizhou) plateau and Xiang-Gul (Hunan-Guangxi) hills, the covered karst is concomitant with the red weathering crust; all of them are the component of the double-level surfaces of karst planation. But, they belong to the different disintegration stages of planation surface. The different subtypes of the covered karst and the red weathering crust indicate the existence of karst planation surface. Thus, they can be made as a reference system when the rising degree and the rising rate of the Tibet Plateau are discussed

The case study on soil fauna diversity in different ecological system in Shilin national park, Yunnan, China, 2003, Xiang C. , Song L. , Zhang P. , Pan G.

A preliminary study of the distribution and diversity of soil fauna in a sequence of ecosystem degradation in the Shilin National Park, Yunnan, China has been made. The degraded ecologic system includes 5 types of vegetation cover: (1) natural bush; (2) human planted cypress forest; (3)natural grass; (4)secondary grass and (5) bared red earth. A quadrate of 1m_1m in each eco-tessera was sampled for soil fauna collection. The animals were obtained either by picking up or by heat-removing. The soil fauna were dominated by Acarina, Collembola, Nematode, Coleoptera,and Opistopora in these soils. However, Erchytraeidae, Araneida, Lepidoptera and Diptera were also common groups. The diversity index H turned to be less than 1.5, drastically decreasing with the vegetation degradation trend. In the karst soils, Parholaspidae was one of the most populous among the mites. The biomass of Trhypochthoniidae and Ologamasidae was very concentrated in the natural bush ecosystem, showing high sensitivity of mites to vegetation degradation. The biomass ratio of Acarina to Collembola in the studied soils ranged from 0.70 to 1.50, which was in great discrepancy to the results reported of the natural soils at similar latitude. The small soil fauna biomass and less diversity indicated that the studied soil was in a state of deterioration of soil fauna habitats and, in turn, the soil ecosystem health. The results also evidenced that the soil fauna in the karst soil was definitely vulnerable as regarded to the sustainable development of the Shilin Park.


Speleogenesis of selected caves beneath the Lunan Shilin and caves of fenglin Karst in Qiubei, Yunnan, 2004, Sebela S. , Slabe T. , Liu H. , Pruner P. ,
Yunnan is famous for its attractive karst landscapes especially shilins, fengcong and fenglin. The development of caves beneath the shilins in the vicinity of Liman is closely connected with the formation of shilins. Most of the waters percolating through shilins run through the caves beneath them and are responsible for their formation. The study of cave speleogenesis deepens knowledge about both the development of shilins and karst structure. ln the vicinity of the Lunan Shilin, speleological, morphological and structural geological studies of four karst caves have been accomplished. At Puzhehei, Qiubei, which is characterised by numerous fenglin, fengcong and caves, speleological and morphological studies have been performed. Cave sediments for paleomagnetic analyses have been taken from all studied areas (samples CH 1-9). Karst caves in SE Yunnan are probably much older than the age of the cave sediments (<780,000 years B.P.). The studied areas are located in the vicinity of the Xiaojiang fault (N-S direction) and the Red River fault (NW-SE direction). The general directions of both active faults are assumed to influence the direction of the most frequent fissures as well as the cave passages near the Liman Shilin. The Maojiang fault more strongly influences cave passage orientation, while the more distant Red River fault most strongly influences fissure orientation

Geochemistry of red residua underlying dolomites in karst terrains of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau II. The mobility of rare earth elements during weathering, 2004, Ji H. B. , Wang S. J. , Ouyang Z. Y. , Zhang S. , Sun C. X. , Liu X. M. , Zhou D. Q. ,
The aim of this study is to characterize the evolution of the rare earth elements (REE) in the Pingba red residua on karst terrain of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. The in-situ weathering and the two-stage development of the profile had been inferred from REE criterions. The REE were significantly fractionated, and Ce was less mobilized and separated from the other REEs at the highly enriched top of the profile. This is consistent with the increase of oxidation degree in the regolith. And it is also suggested that the wet/dry climate change during chemical weathering caused Ce alternative change between enrichment and invariance in the upper regolith. Chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns for samples from dolomites and the lower regolith are characteristic of MREE enrichment and remarkable negative Ce-anomalies patterns (similar to the convex-up REE patterns). The following processes are interpreted for the patterns in this study: (1) the accumulation of MRRE-rich minerals in dolomite dissolution, (2) water-rock interaction in the weathering front, and (3) more leaching MREE from the upper part of the profile. The latter two explanations are considered as the dominant process for the formation of the REE patterns. Samples from the soil horizon exhibit typical REE distribution patterns of the upper crust, i.e., La-N/Yb-N = 10 and Eu/Eu* = 0.65. All data indicate that the leaching process is very important for pedogenesis in this region. The experiments demonstrating that abnormal enrichment of REE at the upper regolith-bedrock interface is caused by a combination of volume change, accumulation of REE-bearing minerals, leaching of REE from the upper regolith, and water-rock interaction during rock-soil alteration processes. Our results support the conclusion that the weathering profile represents a large, continental elemental storage reservoir, whereas REE enrichment occurs under favorable conditions in terms of stable tectonics, low erosion and rapid weathering over sufficiently long time. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Geomorphic constraints on surface uplift, exhumation, and plateau growth in the Red River region, Yunnan Province, China, 2004, Schoenbohm L. M. , Whipple K. X. , Burchfiel B. C. , Chen L. ,
Field observations, digital elevation model (DEM) data, and longitudinal profile analysis reveal a perched low-relief upland landscape in the Red River region, Yunnan Province, China, which correlates to an uplifted, regional low-relief landscape preserved over the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. As with other major rivers of the plateau margin, the Red River has deeply incised the low-relief upland landscape, which we interpret to be the remnants of a pre-uplift or relict landscape. We examine longitudinal river profiles for 97 tributaries of the Red River. Most profiles consist of three segments separated by sharp knickpoints: an upper, low-gradient channel segment, a steeper middle channel segment, and a very steep lower channel segment. Upper channel segments correspond to the relict landscape and have not yet experienced river incision. Steeper middle and lower segments indicate onset of rapid, two-phase river incision, on the basis of which changes in external forcings, such as climate or uplift, can be inferred. In terms of two end-member scenarios, two-phase incision could be the result of pulsed plateau growth, in which relatively slow uplift during the first phase is followed by rapid uplift during the second phase, or it could reflect adjustments of the main channel to changing climate conditions against the backdrop of steady plateau growth. Reconstruction of the paleo-Red River indicates [~]1400 m river incision, 1400-1500 m surface uplift, and a maximum of 750 m vertical displacement across the northern Red River fault, elevating the northern Ailao Shan range above the surrounding relict landscape. On the basis of stratigraphic constraints, incision along the Red River likely began in Pliocene time

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