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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That speleogenetics is the totality of all processes which effect the creation and development of natural underground cavities. these comprise corrosion, erosion, and incasion, but are also influenced by lithology, tectonics, and climate.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for speleology (Keyword) returned 1282 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 1282
The Speleology of the Massif de Ger, France, 1964, Knight J. C. (tr. )

Corrosion by mixing of waters., 1964, Bogli Alfred
Karst caves are prior to all due to corrosion. According to the well-known formula a CO2 supply is always needed. This type of dissolution explains only the corrosion in free circulation and, under reserve, the one in pressure conducts in the vadose zone. All corrosion in the phreatic domain is excluded, except for some rare cases in the upper levels. The corrosion by mixing of waters of different content in bicarbonates is effective in the entire karst, from the lowermost to the uppermost parts. Also the corrosion due to the lowering of temperature and by mixing of waters at different temperature has to be take into account. Excpet for some exceptional cases (e.g. thermal waters), this effect is very reduced.

On mosses that, under influence of electrical lights inside the Hungarian and Czechoslovakian caves, penetrate underground., 1964, Boros A.
The introduction of electrical illumination into different caves makes the intrusion of some mosses and ferns into such depths of the caves possible which at previous occasions (i. e. before the installation of electrical light) were found sterile of these plants. Investigations of two caves in Czechoslovakia and 4 caves in Hungary revealed the presence of mosses thriving deep inside of these caves making use of the artificial illumination.

Antrolana lira, a new genus and species of troglobitic cirolanid isopod from Madison cave, Virginia., 1964, Bowman Thomas E.
Antrolana lira, a new genus and species of troglobitic cirolanid isopod, is descnibed from Madison Cave, in the Appalachian Valley of Virginia. The problem of its origin from a marine ancestor is discussed. A supplementary description is given of Cirolanides texensis, and records of its occurrence are given. A key is given to the troglobitic Cirolanidae of the Western Hemisphere, and their known distribution is shown on a map. The subgenus Speocirolana Bolivar y Pieltain is raised to genus.

A preliminary study, using an electron microscope, on the microflora of cave clay sediments., 1964, Caumartin V.
Researches on the microflora of cave clay sediments were carried out. The study of these micro-organisms necessitates the use of an enlargement of the order of 5,000. For this purpose the organisms were separated from the clay sediments by the foam flotation technique, followed by cultivation. Morphologically they can be divided into 5 types but together they form a group sufficiently homogeneous to justify their provisional grouping as the "Microfusiformetum." Experiments with enriched cultures from several sediments have shown that certain of the micro-organisms were indigenous, others were accidental inhabitants.

New cavernicolous Millipeds of the Family Cambalidae (Cambalidae: Spirostreptida) from Texas (U.S.A.) and Mexico., 1964, Causey Nell B.
The cavernicoles include: (1) Cambala speobia (Chamberlin), troglobitic in central and southwest Texas; (2) C. reddelli reddelli n. sp. and subsp., troglophilic in west Texas and epigean in New Mexico; (3) C. reddelli inornatus n. subsp., troglobitic in northwest Texas; and (4) Mexicambala russelli n. gen. and sp., troglobitic in southern San Luis Potosi. They are described and figured, and a key is given.

Observations on the evolution of caves., 1964, Cavaille Albert
In this note, which results from a paper published in France, the author defines the "karst system" formed by several successive levels, at the heart of a limestone mass: joints of surface feeding, vertical chimneys, galleries which are alternatively dry and full of water according to the season, a network of continually drowned clefts. He then studies modifications in this system resulting from internal causes, corrosion, filling and sedimentation, concretion. Then he shows how this evolution of the karst system may be modified by general conditions: geology, tectonics, geography with the losses, resurgences and the role of surface formations. The deepening of the river level may create a structure of differing levels in the various karst system, but their positioning is always slower than the streams erosion and it comes about later. In any case, the caves in a dried karst system undergo an evolution on their own. Finally, the author gives the definition of the terms used to explain the evolution in the karst system: "embryonic galleries" in the network of clefts, "young galleries" in the zone which is alternately wet and dry, "mature galleries" where the concretion and the erosion are balanced, "old galleries" where the concretion is becoming more and more important, "dead galleries" where the cave is completely filled by the deposits and concretions. This classification will easily replace the inexact terms of "active galleries" and "fossilized galleries" which are too vague and lead to confusion.

Detection of caves by gravimetry., 1964, Chico Raymundo J.
For gravimetric investigations, a naturally occurring limestone cave may be compared with a buried empty sphere or cylinder, depending on its shape. The practical limit of detection for a subsurface void, utilizing available equipment (Worden gravity meter) and standard field procedure, is 0.1 milligal. Most corrections normally required by the gravimetric method may be neglected in cave detection, but the altitude control for the field traverse must have an accuracy of 0.1 foot. The detectability of a limestone cave, based on field work done at Luray Caverns, Virginia, and at other localities, is related to its shape, Radius (R), and distance from surface to the cave center (Z). It follows a non-linear relationship. Detectability is possible only when R3/Z2 = 4.3 feet and R3/Z = 2.89 feet. For a cave room and a cave passage respectively.

Algae and their mode of life in the Baradla cave at Aggletek II., 1964, Claus George
The author provides additional data to his publication of 1955. In a table he shows his results concerning 81 algal species which were returned to the cave of Aggtelek on June 22, 1954. When carrying out his control tests he found the decrease in the number of species to be 9 after 6 months and 18 after a further 8 months. In December 1957, after culturing on sun light however he was able to show again the presence of 17 species, but in his cultures Synechoccus elongatus, Phormidium dimorphum, Gloecoccus schrterii, Chlorococcum infusionum, Chlorella miniata and Protococcus anulatus, appeared with the largest individual numbers and not the Cyanophyta as could have been expected.

The meaning of Pleistocene birdfauna of Hungarian Middle Mountain caves., 1964, Farkas Tibor
In the present study, the fossil bird fauna of the caves of the Hungarian Middle Mountains is examined for evidence in support of the hypothesis that the Carpathian Basin may have served as a faunal refugee during the last Quaternary glacial period. As an introduction, the reasons for the refugee hypothesis, including paleobotanical and glacial theoretical aspects, are discussed. Since the first bird fossils of the cave fauna considered in this paper belong to the Wrm I-II, the faunistic conditions of the Riss glacial period are not discussed in detail, The known faunas up to the Wrm II are interstadial, which seems to serve only as indirect support for the refugee hypothesis. Paleobotanical evidence, both for and against the hypothesis, is also considered. In conclusion, the abundant cave faunas of all phases of the Wrm III are cited as being; at least at the present time; the most convincing argument for the refugee hypothesis. The heterogeneous composition of these faunas permits certain tentative conclusions regarding the faunas of Wurm I and II.

Progress in the biological exploration of caves and subterranean waters in Israel., 1964, Friedmann I.
The article gives an account of the biological works carried out in the caves and other subterranean habitats of Israe1. The botanical and zoological investigations are summarized separately and a list of literature dealing with biospeleological research in Israel is supplied.

Ecology of Fonticola notadena de Beauchamp (Turbellaria, Triclade) in the La Balme cave (Isre, France); suvival in a dry period., 1964, Ginet Rene, Puglisi Rodolphe
During many months a year the acquatic Planaria (F. notadena) living in a small pool in the La Balme cave are subjected to a drought with the complete drying out of their biotope; they support in situ this lack of water and, living in a latent way inside the clayey matrix. Thanks to the great hygroscopy of the clay, enough humidity stays around the Planarians to enable them to survive. During this period the Planaria may undergo spontaneous divisions resulting in their asexual multiplication.

Processes of limestone cave development., 1964, Howard Alan D.
Three processes successively predominate in enlarging original fractures within limestone into cavern passages: (I) early dissolving by acid produced by oxidizing reactions within the groundwater as it flows through the limestone; (2) dissolving caused by the initial undersaturation with respect to calcite of the groundwater when it enters the limestone; and (3) increased dissolving which occurs at the transition from laminar to turbulent groundwater flow. Only those original fractures in limestone which are widest and which have a high hydraulic gradient acting across them will be enlarged into cavern passages. Until all available surface drainage has been diverted underground, cavern development takes place under a constant hydraulic head, and the rate of limestone solution increases with time. After all available surface drainage has been diverted underground, the discharge through the cave, rather than the hydraulic head, remains constant, and the rate of limestone solution decreases toward a constant value. These principles apply to caverns formed both by water-table flow and by artesian flow.

The microvegetation of a small Ice-cave in Hungary., 1964, Kol Erzsebet
The algal flora of a small, artificial, ice-cave located in Northern Hungary is described. In this cave 23 species of algae (see in Table 3) were found of which the Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta occurred with approximately equal number. (9 vers. 11) It was found that the primary limiting factor influencing the penetration of the algae into the cave is the low temperature and not the lack of light.

The birth of Biospeleology., 1964, Motas Constantin
Modern biospeleology dates from May 15, 1907, with the publication of Racovitza's "Essai sur les problmes biospologiques." In this paper he posed; if he did not answer; every question raised by life in the subterranean world. He outlined a program of biospeological research, made an analysis of the conditions of existence in the subterranean domain and their influence upon cavernicoles, discussed the evolution of subterranean biota, their geographical distribution, etc. Racovitza modified Schiner's (1854) classification, dividing cavernicoles into troglobites, troglophiles and trogloxenes, terms later adopted by a great number of biospeologists. The "Essai", called "Racovitza's famous manifest" by Vandel, was considered the birth certificate of biospeology by Antipa (1927) and by Jeannel (1948), its fundamental statute. Jeannel also made major contributions to the young science through his extensive and detailed studies. The names of Racovitza and Jeannel will always be linked as the uncontested masters of biospeology, the founders of Biospeologica, and the authors of Enumration des grottes visites. Apart from Schiner, whose ecological classification of cavernicoles was utilized and modified by Racovitza, they had another forerunner in Vir, a passionate speleologist who often accompanied Martel in his subterranean explorations, once meeting with a serious accident in which he was on the brink of death. Vir (1897, 1899) studied subterranean faunas, establishing the world's first underground laboratory, where he carried on unsuccessful or ill-interpreted experiments. We consider Racovitza and Jeannel's criticism of him too severe. Let us be more lenient with our forerunners, since their mistakes have also contributed to the progress of science, as well as exempting us from repeating them.

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