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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That brake bar is a round bar approximately 2.5x0.75 inches that is placed on rappel racks or carabiners so that rope can be threaded through the rack or carabiners for rappelling [13].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for future (Keyword) returned 185 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 185
Present and future directions in karst hydrogeology, 1985, Atkinson T. C.

Use of cave-maps for tectonic surveys., 1986, Jaskolla Franz, Volk Peter
Results of the author's investigations show the useful application of cave-map-data for tectonic assessment. Considering speleological features, cave genesis, and structural differences, it is possible to select of the cave map's pattern various jointing and stress systems. By 7 selected cave maps, representing areas of different tectonic history (W-Germany, Austria and Switzerland) it will be demonstrated that three types of kinematic joint-systems can be identified (fundamental, orthogonal- fold- and shear-system). Therefore, tectonic models are expected to become more valuable. It must be stated that future tectonic investigations in karst-areas should include the additional use of cave maps.

Spelean History in Australia; A Preliminary Review, 1986, Hamiltonsmith, Elery

The first ever seminar on spelean history in this country constitutes something of a milestone, and so this paper is written as a state-of-the-art review of what has happened and is happening in Australian speleo-history. Hopefully, others will be able to add important data which are at present unknown to me. I would also hope that the near future will see enough further study to make this paper out of date anyway.


Early History of Yarrangobilly Caves, 1986, Bilton, Gary

To present my first ever paper to the first-ever seminar of spelean history in Australia is indeed a daunting, but challenging task. Present knowledge is scattered, to say the least, however it is my aim to present what is known from present resources with regard to the early history, and to reproduce some of the earliest photographs and maps of the area, some of which have never before been published. Hopefully this will provide impetus for a more systematic and detailed approach to future historical research on Yarrangobilly Caves. The history of the human occupation of Yarrangobilly Caves probably goes back thousands of years with increasing evidence of Aboriginal use becoming apparent. The Caves have been known to Europeans for around 150 years but the history of the early years is far from clear.


Sport and Scout Caving - The Present Dilemma, 1987, Crabb, Evalt

This paper traces the evolution of organised caving as a post World War 2 phenomenon, and the changes in practice and attitude that have occurred. These practices are contrasted against stated behavioural codes. Parallel to this, the development of caving as a scouting activity is discussed, with reference to the general principles and practices of scouting. The author has been working toward evolving policies and practices within scouting which are consistent with the needs of conservation and the underlying philosophies of scouting. Implementation of these attitudes in one area is fully detailed, with some comment on the success and acceptability of the program. This training program is contrasted against the foreshadowed N.S.W. Branch Policy on Rock-Related Activities. The sequential discussion highlights some weaknesses within clubs and A.S.F., particularly in our methods of communication. There are no firm proposals, but possible directions for future discussions are indicated. It is the intention of this paper to give a historical perspective to some of the present perceived conflicts; in reality, the only conflict is between our oft-expressed aim of conservation of caves (i.e. safeguard the karst heritage of Australia), and our visible activity - use of caves for recreational activity. Both the intensity of expression of our concern, and lessening of self-constraint on recreational activity have greatly magnified with time; we are fast approaching a 'crossroads' scenario where our credibility is at great risk.


The Australian Speleological Expeditions to Thailand 1985-1986, 1987, Dunkley John , Kiernan Kevin

Two expeditions of 6 and 10 persons plus local logistical support visited Thailand in May 1985 and April-May 1986. A total of about 12km of new cave was discovered and over 20km of surveying carried out. The two longest caves on the mainland of South-East Asia, Tham Nam Mae Lena and Tham Nam Lang each reached 8.4km. These two caves aggregate 14km of superb stream passage, exploration of which was undertaken and some significant archaeological sites requiring further investigation were located. During the period 1983-1986 six expeditions visited the previously unreported karst and caves of Nam Khong basin in north-west Thailand. Two of these were moderately large endeavours: in 1985 six cavers spent 9 days in the field, in 1986 10 members were 18 days in the north-west and a further 10 in central and South Thailand. Exploration and surveying has been the main theme of the expeditions. About 100 caves have been explored, and a total of nearly 26km of caves surveyed. A scientific research program commenced in 1986, covering geology, geomorphology and archaeology and we expect this to continue in future years. One paper has been published, three more are in press or preparation, and we have completed a 62-page report on the expedition.


Peak and Speedwell Caverns - Potential for Future Exploration, 1991, Cordingley J. N.

Artificial Anchors for the Present and Future, 1991, Ganter J. , Storage W.

Palaeoclimate determination from cave calcite deposits, 1992, Gascoyne M,
Calcite deposits formed in limestone caves have been found to be an excellent repository of palaeoclimatic data for terrestrial environments. The very presence of a relict deposit indicates non-glacial conditions at the time of formation, and both 14C and uranium-series methods can be used to date the deposit and, hence, the age of these climatic conditions. Variations in 13C and 18O content of the calcite, in 2H and 18O content of fluid inclusions, in trace element concentrations and, more recently, in pollen assemblages trapped in the calcite, are all potentially available as synchronous palaeoclimatic indicators. Previous work has tended to concentrate mainly on abundance of deposits as a palaeoclimatic indicator for the last 300,000 years. This literature is briefly reviewed here, together with the theory and methods of analysis of the U-series and stable isotopic techniques. The combined use of U-series ages and 13C and 18O variations in cave calcites illustrates the potential for palaeoclimate determination. Previously unpublished results of stable isotopic variations in dated calcites from caves in northern England indicate the level of detail of stable isotopic variations and time resolution that can be obtained, and the complexity of interpretation that may arise. Tentative palaeoclimatic signals for the periods 90-125 ka and 170-300 ka are presented. More comprehensive studies are needed in future work, especially in view of the difficulty in obtaining suitable deposits and the ethics of cave deposits conservation

Multidisciplinary conferences on sinkholes and karst: Past, present, and is there a future, 1993, Beck Bf,

The cave of Nerja (Malaga, Spain), 1994, Fras Jos Ramn Andrica
The history and the development of the cave of Nerja are here summarized. A short description of the cave with the main goals for the future are also reported.

USING GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR TO INVESTIGATE A SUBSURFACE KARST LANDSCAPE IN NORTH-CENTRAL FLORIDA, 1994, Collins Me, Cum M, Hanninen P,
Doline formation in karst areas has been a major concern in Florida. Recently, there has been increased interest in investigating the subsurface conditions that influences preferential flow in these karst landscapes. This information is necessary to improve transport and fate models of contaminants. In addition, there is interest in knowing if the formation and expansion of dolines can be predicted by studying subsurface conditions and flow patterns. The soils on the Newberry Limestone Plain are typically sandy above a thin or absent phosphatic, clayey Hawthorne Formation. Underlying this formation is the Crystal River Limestone. A field survey with ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was conducted on the Newberry Limestone Plain at a site with recently formed dolines. The objectives were (i) to investigate the subsurface materials, (ii) to ascertain subsurface landscape variability, (iii) to relate the subsurface landscapes to subsurface flow patterns, and (iv) to predict doline growth and formation in the study area. The results of this study indicated that the subsurface features; presence of clay over limestone, location of solution pipes and paleo-dolines are variable. In general, the subsurface landscape does not follow the surface topography. Subsurface solute movement can be estimated in these landscapes assuming the clay layer that drapes the limestone acts as an aquatarde. Thus, subsurface modeling of flow at the study site is improved. Locations of paleo-dolines and solution pipes were obvious in the radar data. Predictions, though, of future doline formation and growth at the study site were difficult with GPR. Fracture patterns, e.g. dips in the limestone, can be evaluated and weak zones where paleo-dolines have formed can be identified. This study would not have been possible without the use of the GPR. The radar was able to obtain continuous information on 16% of the site to a depth of 3 m. A highly detailed soil survey using conventional methods would have provided only 0.8% coverage of the site

Using ground-penetrating radar to investigate a subsurface karst landscape in north-central Florida, 1994, Collins M. E. , Cure M. , Hanninen P.

Doline formation in karst areas has been a major concern in Florida. Recently, there has been increased interest in investigating the subsurface conditions that influences preferential flow in these karst landscapes. This information is necessary to improve transport and fate models of contaminants. In addition, there is interest in knowing if the formation and expansion of dolines can be predicted by studying subsurface conditions and flow patterns. The soils on the Newberry Limestone Plain are typically sandy above a thin or absent phosphatic, clayey Hawthorne Formation. Underlying this formation is the Crystal River Limestone. A field survey with ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was conducted on the Newberry Limestone Plain at a site with recently formed dolines. The objectives were (i) to investigate the subsurface materials, (ii) to ascertain subsurface landscape variability, (iii) to relate the subsurface landscapes to subsurface flow patterns, and (iv) to predict doline growth and formation in the study area. The results of this study indicated that the subsurface features; presence of clay over limestone, location of solution pipes and paleo-dolines are variable. In general, the subsurface landscape does not follow the surface topography. Subsurface solute movement can be estimated in these landscapes assuming the clay layer that drapes the limestone acts as an aquatarde. Thus, subsurface modeling of flow at the study site is improved. Locations of paleo-dolines and solution pipes were obvious in the radar data. Predictions, though, of future doline formation and growth at the study site were difficult with GPR. Fracture patterns, e.g. dips in the limestone, can be evaluated and weak zones where paleo-dolines have formed can be identified. This study would not have been possible without the use of the GPR. The radar was able to obtain continuous information on 16% of the site to a depth of 3 m. A highly detailed soil survey using conventional methods would have provided only 0.8% coverage of the site


An Introduction to Cave Exploration in Belize, 1996, Williams, N.
During a five week period, 19 caves were explored by a team of four cavers comprising the 1994 Mendip Caving Group (MCG) expedition to Belize. Six sizable caves were identified in the Cretaceous limestone, west of the Maya Mountains, and surveyed a total length of 2.5 km. Time spent in the field is broken down so as to show both the advantages and disadvantages of a small-scale expedition. Suggestions are made as to how future groups could benefit from the experiences of the expedition with regard to conducting significant research with a small team. The MCG expedition is compared to other larger expeditions, with the results showing that lightweight expeditions are more easily financed and organized than larger expeditions; however, they may not be suitable if detailed scientific studies are intended.

Comment of Extremely Low Frequency Emissions in Bat Caves, 1996, Withrow, S.
Systematic speleological exploration has been taking place in Belize since about 1960. Such exploration tends to be characterized by long term involvement by a small number of individuals, principally from the USA, but with significant contributions from other countries, especially the UK. An estimated total of 250 km of passage have now been mapped, ranging from low dry grovels to large, active river passage, and two of the largest underground chambers in the world. The author assigns caves to eight geographical areas and describes the history of recent exploration in each. Future exploration problems and priorities are also discussed.

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