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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That helmet is a miner's, climber's or other kind of non-metallic, protective helmet used in caving.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for elements (Keyword) returned 194 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 194
Le systme souterrain du Sornin (Berger-Fromagre, Vercors, Isre), 1983, Delannoy, J. J.
THE UNDERGROUND SYSTEM OF PLATEAU DU SORNIN (VERCORS, FRANCE): THE GOUFFRE BERGER AND THE SCIALET DE LA FROMAGERE - Gouffre Berger (-1198m) and Scialet de La Fromagre (-902m) are the two main drains of an important underground complex, which develops 26 km inside Sornin table-land, massif du Vercors, Isre. The glaciers have left deep prints in the surface morphology (Schichttreppenkarst) and have played an important role in the genesis of the underground complex of Sornin. Most of morphological elements and dated witnesses (speleothems) testify to the primacy of this morphoclimatic term. Under present bioclimatic conditions (discontinuous forest - Raw weather climate, T? = 4?C, P = 1700mm), the specific dissolution is estimated to 120mm/ky. This dissolution is important in winter (2,5 times more than in summer). Sornin plateau belongs to an intermediary case between forests mountainous karsts and high karsts regarding the spatial distribution of the dissolution.

Elments d'une approche nergtique du karst, application quelques exemples rels de karsts, 1983, Quinif, Y.
DATA FOR AN ENERGIZING APPROACH OF THE KARST. APPLICATIONS TO A FEW EXAMPLES OF KARST AREAS - One considers the karst like an open thermodynamic system where the located dissipation of hydrodynamical, chemical and mechanical energies gives to the karst a structurated heterogeneity. One discusses about the modalities of the energy dissipation into the karst. The study of some real examples of karstic networks allows understanding how these theoretical concepts explain their characteristics. One ends by a prospect of research: to consider the karstic system like a dissipative system in the meaning of Prigogine.

On the Wad-Minerals from the Cavern Environment., 1983, Kashima Naruhiko
The wad-minerals from limestone caves of Yugoslavia, China and Japan were studied. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed five minerals; birnessite, 10A-manganite, pyrolusite, todorokite and goethite. The heavy metal elements, Mn, Zn, Fe and Cr have been detected by X-ray fluorescence analysis and their contents were roughly determined. The condensation water introduced directly from the covering soils formed by the continental weathering and the deriving corrosive water interaction with limestone could be the input sources of manganese and other metal elements into the system.

Palaeoenvironment of lateritic bauxites with vertical and lateral differentiation, 1983, Valeton Ida,
Formation of lateritic bauxites of the type described in this paper occurs world-wide in Cretaceous and Tertiary coastal plains. The bauxites form elongate belts, sometimes hundreds of kilometres long, parallel to Lower Tertiary shorelines in India and South America and their distribution is not related to a particular mineralogical composition of the parent rock. The lateral movement of the major elements Al, Si, Fe, Ti is dependent on a high level and flow of groundwater. Varying efficiency of subsurface drainage produces lateral facies variations. Interfingering of marine and continental facies indicate a sea-land transition zone where the type of sediments also varies with minor tectonic movements or sea-level changes. A typical sediment association is found in India, Africa, South and North America. It consists of (i) red beds rich in detrital and dissolved material of reworked laterites, (ii) lacustrine sediments and hypersaline precipitates, (iii) lignites intercalated with marine clays, layers of siderite, pyrite, marcasite and jarosite, and (iv) marine chemical sediments rich in oolitic iron ores or glauconite. A model is developed to account for element distributions in lateritic bauxites in terms of groundwater levels and flow. Finally it is shown that many high-level bauxites are formed in coastal plains and that they are subsequently uplifted to their present altitude

Trace-element partition coefficients in the calcite-water system and their paleoclimatic significance in cave studies, 1983, Gascoyne M,
Speleothems (stalactites, stalagmites) formed in limestone caves have been found to contain much information on the timing and intensity of past climates, from analysis of their U, Th, 13C and 18O contents. Because the incorporation of certain trace elements (e.g., Mg, Mn and Zn) in calcite is known to be temperature-dependent, it may be possible to use variations in trace-metal content of fossil speleothems as an alternative paleotem-perature indicator. Using specially developed ion-exchange sampling techniques, analysis of trace-metal content of seepage water and associated fresh calcite deposits in caves in Vancouver Island and Jamaica shows that Mg is distributed between phases in a consistent manner within the temperature regimes of the caves (7[deg] and 23[deg]C, respectively). Average values of the distribution coefficient for Mg are respectively 0.017 and 0.045 at these temperatures. These results indicate that the Mg content of calcite varies directly with temperature and in a sufficiently pronounced manner that a 1[deg]C rise in depositional temperature of a speleothem containing 500 ppm Mg, at ~10[deg]C, would be seen as an increase of ~35ppm Mg -- a readily determinable shift. Other factors affecting Mg content of a speleothem are considered

The Hydrology of a Glacierised Alpine Karst Castlegaurd Mountain, Alberta, PhD Thesis, 1983, Smart, Charles Christopher

Alpine karst throughout the world has been affected by past glaciation, and yet little is known of the interactions between glacier ice and karst. This dissertation attempts to gain some understanding of the problem through the study of the Castleguard Area, Alberta, where a karst aquifer is presently overlain by temperate glacier ice.
Quantitative fluorometric tracing and hydrometric measurements generated a broad data base on aquifer behaviour. Tracer breakthrough curves were interpreted using a new systematic approach which considers an explicit set of processes likely to affect the particular tracer under the given experimental conditions. Non-linearity in aquifer behaviour and rapid groundwater velocities demonstrated the aquifer to be an extreme conduit type Conduit springs are elements in a vertical hierarchy in which the topmost springs are "overflows" and exhibit greater flow variability than their associated "underflows". A numerical model was developed to simulate a conduit aquifer. It demonstrated that pulse train and recession analysis widely accepted methods of karst aquifer investigation, could be rather misleading when applied to conduit aquifers.
Interactions between ice and groundwater were observed at two scales: regulation water appeared to feed a diffuse percolation system and supraglacial melt passed into subglacial conduits which entered open vadose shafts. Karst is unlikely to be entirely subglacial in origin because of the limited aggressiveness of subglacial waters.
The Castlegaurd karst appeared to have originated preglacially in response to the breaching of impermeable caprock. Glaciation re-ordered the landscape and produced abundant clastic debris which subsequently blocked or obstructed karst conduits. Much of the resulting karst is paragenetic and comparatively immature due to glacial disruption and slow growth rates. Geomorphic and hydrologic interactions between ice and karst depend intimately upon the relationship between the geographic zones of the glacier and the aquifer.


Les exutoires de l'aquifre karstique de la Fontaine de Vaucluse, 1985, Michelot Cl. , Mudry J.
REMARKS ABOUT THE OUTLETS OF THE LIMESTONE AQUIFER OF THE FONTAINE DE VAUCLUSE (SOUTHEASTERN FRANCE) - The Fontaine de Vaucluse is apparently the single outlet of the Vaucluse table-lands, a calcareous aquifer of more than 1000 square kilometres. The hydro-geochemical study (major ionic elements and isotopes) of the different water spots of the western boundaries of this area (springs and wells) enables one to identify the different families of water (coming from the Vaucluse table-lands or from the Comtat plain) that emerge out of the Fontaine de Vaucluse or out of other places covered with the tertiary and quaternary deposits.

Nouvelles donnes morphologiques et caryologie du Triclade hypog pyrnen Dendrocoelum lescherae., 1985, Gourbault Nicole
The study of a new strain of the hypogeous Tricladida Dendrocoelum lescherae has demonstrated the very low anatomical variability of this species. The chromosome complement was found to be 2n = 32; measurements of somatic mitoses have shown that these elements are metacentric; the gametocytes possess 16 bivalents. Number and morphology of the chromosomes are similar within the subgenus Dendrocoelides.

L'accident de Tchernobyl : une retombe positive en hydrogologie, 1986, Sesiano J. , Bueche M.
THE TCHERNOBYL ACCIDENT: A POSITIVE HYDROGEOLOGICAL ASPECT - As a continuation of dye-tracing studies of underground waters in Haute-Savoie, France, over the last few years, we have used the radioactive elements released by the Chernobyl nuclear accident as artificial tracers. The event happened simultaneously with the onset of the spring high waters. The response of the system was thus delayed by more than two weeks, the time for the water to percolate and for the aquifer to recharge. On the third week, a very faint signal was detected by gammametry and by liquid scintillation counters at the two surveyed springs.

Aspects of the Musical History of Jenolan Caves, 1986, Targett, Warren

The acoustic quality of caves has always led people to use them for the performance of sacred or secular music. The earliest record of music at Jenolan is that of J. C. Millard, who wrote that his party "camped in the largest cave, sang a few hymns... and early next morning arose and sang the doxology" (Millard, 1858). However music must have been performed there prior to that since the Bathurst Free Press reported in 1856 that a dancing platform had been erected in the Grand Arch. Trickett (1905) however gave the date of installation of the dance floor as 1869. This was in regular use until the end of the century (Harvard, 1936) when the improved amenities of the guest house rendered it redundant. A poster of 1898 gives evidence of 'Smoke Concerts' held in the Grand Arch, with local employees providing the entertainment. The Cathedral Cave was reputedly consecrated as a place of worship in the 1880s by Bishop Barry, Anglican Primate of the colony. Since then it has been used by various denominations for divine services. This cave was also sometimes used for live broadcasts of 'Radio Sunday School' on radio station 2GB in the 1930s and 1940s. Performers included Albert Boyd, a popular light baritone, and the Lithgow Brass Band. From about 1910 until the end of the 1940s musical performances were common at Caves House, with resident musicians employed on a permanent basis to play light music during meals and after dinner to provide dance music in the Ballroom. Many entertainments were organised which were attended by both staff and guests. This came to an end in the 1950s, and for 20 years live music became a rarity at Jenolan. Inspection parties visiting the Cathedral Cave had commonly been invited to sing, but in the 1950s this tradition was dropped, and instead a remote controlled record player was installed in the cavern. The recordings played were generally of a religious character. This equipment, in a state of disrepair, was finally removed in 1979. In the late 1960s the Smoke Concerts in the Grand Arch were revived, but were abandoned in 1974 after disruption by hooligan elements. However social concerts and dances continued in Caves House. In 1983 the regular engagement of musicians began again, and live music shows are now a regular feature on Saturday nights. Occasional concerts are once more taking place in the Grand Arch. Religious services and Masonic ceremonies have taken place in the caverns. Music is once again part of the Jenolan experience.


Le peuplement animal des karsts de France (lments de biogographie souterraine pour les invertbrs, premire partie : la faune aquatique), 1987, Ginet R. , Juberthie C.
THE BIOGEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS IN FRENCH KARSTS (FIRST PART: THE AQUATIC FAUNA) - This text analyses the bibliographic data in order to draw up a schematic representation of the biogeographical distribution of Invertebrate animals found in French karsts up to 1985. The animal population of these karsts is very varied, especially in the South of France. For many groups, there are obvious links with geological history and paleo-ecology. This text first lists the aquatic groups (from Porifera to Crustacea; the latter is the most varied and numerous in karstic water). It puts forward possible solutions to the problems posed by the ways followed by the ancestors of present-day groups, either of superficial fresh-water origin, or of marine origin during the Tertiary, and whose areas were later modified by the impact of Quaternary glaciations. For the terrestrial groups (cf. Karstologia n 11), subterranean penetration followed different pathways, among which the Superficial Hypogean Compartment (MSS = Milieu Souterrain Superficiel) plays an obvious role; this shows that many troglobites are not limited, in the underground environment, to just caves and the karst. The Arthropods, and among them the Insects, are of course the most varied and the best known. Their biogeographical distribution reflects the problems of speciation, ecology and endemism, which are discussed in the text.

Le peuplement animal des karsts de France (deuxime partie : lments de biogographie pour les Invertbrs terrestres), 1988, Ginet R. , Juberthie C.
THE BIOGEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS IN FRENCH KARSTS. SECOND PART THE TERRESTRIAL FAUNA - This text analyses the bibliographic data in order to draw up a schematic representation of the biogeographical distribution of Invertebrate animals found in french karsts up to 1985. The animal population of these karsts is very varied, especially in the south of France. For many groups, there are obvious links with geological history and paleo-ecology. This text first (cf. Karstologia n 10) lists the aquatic groups (from Porifera to Crustacea; the latter is the most varied and numerous in karstic water). It puts forward possible solutions to the problems posed by the ways followed by the ancestors of present-day groups, either of superficial freshwater origin, or of marine origin during the Tertiary, and whose areas were later modified by the impact of quaternary glaciations. This second part concerns the terrestrial groups, subterranean penetration followed different pathways, among which the Superficial Hypogean Compartment (MSS = Milieu Souterrain Superficiel) plays an obvious role; this shows that many troglobites are not limited in the underground environment, just to caves and karst. The Arthropods, and among them the Insects, are of course the most varied and the best known. Their bio-geographical distribution reflects the problems of speciation, ecology and endemism, which are discussed in the text.

Le karst du compartiment oriental de la basse Cvenne carbonate (Gard), 1988, Martin, Ph.
The karst of the Eastern compartment of the carbonated Lower Cvenne (Gard) - This text summarises 10 years of exploration and study of the eastern karst of the Gardon river basin above Als. Karst concerns 5 facies: Trias, Hettangian-Sinemurian (rich in limonite and pyrites), Upper Bajocian - Lower Bathonian (rich in pyrites), Upper Jurassic and Barremian. This lager is broken into more or less rolling panels, which have collapsed towards the Als rift. Tridimensional systems draining this karst are considered to be evolving toward better performance. It is a remarkable case of natural organisation. Structure is deduced from function. A morphologic approach explains the systems history. Three of the four identified karstic systems are simple. They are partial a natural models of the fourth: the Fonts karstic system. We describe on detail some elements of its structure (caves for ex.) and of its functio-ning (hydrodynamic, hydrochemistry). We show through pumping that the Cauvel river feeds the Fonts spring and the Carabiole spring. The effect of geological and geomorphologic characteristics of the spring site on water output is mentioned. We describe the realisation of a pumping station driving subterranean Cauvel river water a 100m back and point out the usefulness of speleological information.

Introduction une histoire des tudes karstiques, 1990, Renault, Ph.
History of speleo-karstology: an introduction - Before any historical study, it seems important to recall some general notions, studied in recent publications. History of sciences does not limit itself to a repertory of events or to statistics, even when those matters give the basic and main notions. It traces back the evolution of a thought acting upon nature. The historico-critical analysis shows that the noticed trajectories are irregular and moved by crisis for instance with Newton, Lavoisier, Einstein correspond to theory conflicts. Bachelard, Khun, Piaget, etc., bring the analytic elements particularly the notion of paradigm explaining the constant readjustments of scientific system. History of science, behind the stories, must identify the elements of epistemology, which explains the successive points of view of a discipline.

KIMMERIDGIAN TITHONIAN EUSTACY AND ITS IMPRINTS ON CARBONATE ROCKS FROM THE DINARIC AND THE JURA CARBONATE PLATFORMS, 1991, Strohmenger C. , Deville Q. , Fookes E. ,
The Upper Jurassic stratigraphy and the facies development of the Dinaric carbonate platform of Slovenia (northwest Yugoslavia) are compared with the Jura carbonate platform of southern Jura (southeast France). The similar facies development between the two platforms during the Kimmeridgian and the Tithonian, as well as a pronounced discontinuity in the same stratigraphical position (controlled by dasycladacean algae and/or ammonites), made it reasonable to correlate the two regions. This discontinuity is marked by a bauxite horizon and a karst breccia in south Slovenia (inner platform), and by a black-pebble conglomerate (inner platform) and a reef breccia (outer platform) in the southern Jura. These features are interpreted as type 1 sequence boundaries related to a global fall of sea level. In southern Jura, biostratigraphical elements situate the sequence boundary between the Eudoxus and the <> ( = Elegans) zones, most probably at the end of the Beckeri ( = Autissiodorensis) zone. Integrating this discontinuity into the eustatic sea level curve proposed by the Exxon group (version 3.1) is difficult because the only suitable sequence boundaries, SB 139 and SB 142, are respectively too young (younger than the <> zone) or too old (older than the Eudoxus zone). We therefore suggest to introduce a new sequence boundary within the upper part of the Beckeri zone which would correspond to a <> sequence boundary SB 140. The investigations further show that Clypeina jurassica FAVRE and Campbelliella striata (CAROZZI) BERNIER most likely appear in the Beckeri zone in the realm of the Jura carbonate platform. The same dasycladacean algae assemblage defines a cenozone identified as <> in Slovenia. It therefore seems possible to correlate the stratigraphic limit between <> and <> of the Dinaric carbonate platform with the beginning of the Beckeri zone

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