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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That isopiestic line is a contour on a piezometric surface connecting points of equal static level [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for turbidity (Keyword) returned 21 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 21 of 21
Hydrologic characterization of two karst recharge areas in Boone County, Missouri., 2005, Lerch R. N. , Wicks C. M. , Moss Ph. L.
The Bonne Femme watershed, located in central Missouri, is a karst watershed in a rapidly urbanizing area. This study was undertaken to characterize the hydrology of two karst aquifers within this watershed before significant increases in impervious surfaces take place. The specific objectives of this study were to: 1) use dye tracing to delineate the recharge area for Hunters Cave (HC); 2) quantify and summarize annual and monthly stream discharge at the resurgence of HC and Devils Icebox (DI) caves; and 3) characterize the chemical and physical status of the cave streams relative to temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity. The quantity and quality of the water at the resurgence of both cave streams was monitored from April 1999 to March 2002. Both recharge areas were determined to be of similar size (33.3 km for HC and 34.0 km for DI) and were formed in the same geologic strata. Average annual discharge was 55,900 m km- at DI and 35,200 m km- at HC. Relative discharge, as a percent of annual precipitation, averaged 6.1% at DI and 3.8% at HC. Average monthly discharge was 2,930 m km- at HC and 4,650 m km- at DI; however, median instantaneous discharge over the three years was about 18% higher at HC (74 m h-) compared to DI (63 m h-). Turbidity and pH showed the largest differences between sites over the three years. The higher turbidity and lower pH at DI reflected the greater magnitude and duration of runoff events for this system. The physical characteristics of the two recharge areas explained the observed differences in discharge. The HC recharge area is characterized by limited sub-surface conduit development, small conduits, short flow paths from surface to resurgence, and predominantly allogenic recharge. The DI recharge area is characterized by extensive sub-surface conduit development, large conduits, long flow paths to the resurgence, and autogenic and allogenic recharge.

Analysis of karst hydrodynamics through comparison of dissolved and suspended solids transport, 2005, Valdes D. , Dupont J. P. , Laignel B. , Rodet J. ,
In karst systems, rain events often result in a decrease of the conductivity (a tracer of dissolved phase transport) and an increase in turbidity (a tracer of suspended solids transport) at wells and springs. This study shows that the comparison of suspended solids and solute transport by the coupled approach of T-C curves (Turbidity-Conductivity) and autocorrelations gives evidence of the transport processes in the karst network and allows understanding the karst hydrodynamics. To cite this article: D. Valdes et al., C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005). (c) 2005 Academie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved

Dynamics and interaction of organic carbon, turbidity and bacteria in a karst aquifer system, 2006, Pronk Michiel, Goldscheider Nico, Zopfi Jakob,

Influence of depositional setting and sedimentary fabric on mechanical layer evolution in carbonate aquifers, 2006, Graham Wall Brita R. ,
Carbonate aquifers in fold-thrust belt settings often have low-matrix porosity and permeability, and thus groundwater flow pathways depend on high porosity and permeability fracture and fault zones. Methods from sedimentology and structural geology are combined to understand the evolution of fracture controlled flow pathways and determine their spatial distribution. Through this process bed-parallel pressure-solution surfaces (PS1) are identified as a fracture type which influences fragmentation in peritidal and basinal carbonate, and upon shearing provides a major flow pathway in fold-thrust belt carbonate aquifers. Through stratigraphic analysis and fracture mapping, depositional setting is determined to play a critical role in PS1 localization and spacing where peritidal strata have closer spaced and less laterally continuous PS1 than basinal strata. In the peritidal platform facies, units with planar lamination have bed-parallel pressure-solution seams along mudstone laminae. In contrast, burrowed units of peritidal strata have solution seams with irregular and anastamosing geometries. Laminated units with closely spaced bed-parallel solution seams are more fragmented than bioturbated units with anastamosing solution seams. In the deeper-water depositional environment, pelagic settling and turbidity currents are the dominant sedimentation processes, resulting in laterally continuous deposits relative to the peritidal platform environment. To quantify the fracture patterns in the basinal environment, mechanical layer thickness values were measured from regions of low to high bed dip. The results define a trend in which mechanical layer thickness decreases as layer dip increases. A conceptual model is presented that emphasizes the link between sedimentary and structural fabric for the peritidal and basinal environments, where solution seams localize in mud-rich intervals, and the resulting pressure-solution surface geometry is influenced by sedimentary geometry (i.e., stacked fining upward cycles, burrows, planar laminations). In both facies types, laterally continuous PS1 can behave as mechanical layer boundaries. As layer-parallel slip increases to accommodate shear strain in the fold-thrust belt, more PS1 behave as mechanical layer boundaries

Percolation and Particle Transport in the Unsaturated Zone of a Karst Aquifer, 2009, Pronk M. , Goldscheider N. , Zopfi J. , Zwahlen F.

Recharge and contamination of karst aquifers often occur via the unsaturated zone, but the functioning of this zone has not yet been fully understood. Therefore, irrigation and tracer experiments, along with monitoring of rainfall events, were used to examine water percolation and the transport of solutes, particles, and fecal bacteria between the land surface and a water outlet into a shallow cave. Monitored parameters included discharge, electrical conductivity, temperature, organic carbon, turbidity, particle-size distribution (PSD), fecal indicator bacteria, chloride, bromide, and uranine. Percolation following rainfall or irrigation can be subdivided into a lag phase (no response at the outlet), a piston-flow phase (release of epikarst storage water by pressure transfer), and a mixed-flow phase (increasing contribution of freshly infiltrated water), starting between 20 min and a few hours after the start of recharge event. Concerning particle and bacteria transport, results demonstrate that (1) a first turbidity signal occurs during increasing discharge due to remobilization of particles from fractures (pulse-through turbidity); (2) a second turbidity signal is caused by direct particle transfer from the soil (flow-through turbidity), often accompanied by high levels of fecal indicator bacteria, up to 17,000 Escherichia coli/100 mL; and (3) PSD allows differentiation between the two types of turbidity. A relative increase of fine particles (0.9 to 1.5 lm) coincides with microbial contamination. These findings help quantify water storage and percolation in the epikarst and better understand contaminant transport and attenuation. The use of PSD as ‘‘early-warning parameter’’ for microbial contamination in karst water is confirmed.


A dye-tracing investigation in the Poshte-Naz Karstic aquifer, Alburz Mountain, northern Iran, 2011, Kalantari N. , Mohammadi R.

The tracing technique has been recently used in karstified Zagros structural belt in northern Iran. A tracer study (uranine injection) was conducted in Jurassic limestone of the Poshte-Naz area in the Alborz belt to evaluate aquifer parameters and hydraulic relations between a large (about 100 m in diameter) sinkhole and springs. A main goal of the project was to find out the source of turbidity of the Emarate drinking water supply spring (SP4) in rainy seasons. Eight springs, three wells and the Neka River were selected for monitoring and totally 989 samples in 107 days were collected. In order to select reliable sampling stations, hydrochemical analysis of major ions was carried out and for better interpretation of concentration-time curve, spring discharge was also measured. The results of the tracing by sampling water indicated only a hydraulic connection between the injection point and the Sange-Nou spring (SP8) and, whereas the charcoal bags analysis revealed tracer exits also from spring SP1, SP3, SP4, SP5, SP8, in wells W1 and W2, and in the Neka River. This paper discuses concentration/time curves from charcoal bags for qualitative analysis and tracer exit curves for quantitative analysis.


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