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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That celestite is a cave mineral - srso4 [11].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for hydrogeochemistry (Keyword) returned 22 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 22 of 22
SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATION OF HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY AND KARST FLOW PROPERTIES TO CHARACTERIZE KARST DYNAMIC SYSTEM IN BRIBIN UNDERGROUND RIVER, GUNUNG KIDUL REGENCY, DIY PROVINCE, 2010, Adji, Tjahyo Nugroho

This research is conducted in karst area, which is particularly enclosed by Bribin Underground River Catchment, Gunungkidul Regency. The objectives of this study are: (1) to understand spatial and temporal variation of flow characteristic as well as Diffuse Flow Proportion (PAD) of Bribin River; (2) to assess hydrogeochemistry and to recognize the relationship between hydrogeochemistry and flow characteristics of Bribin River, and (3) to define water agressivity of Bribin River with respect to carbonate mineral and to express the components of Karst Dynamic System (KDS) one-year behavior.
To define flow characteristic and PAD, three water level data loggers are installed within upper, lower and the leakage point along Bribin River continued by discharge measurement with the purpose of attaining stage-discharge rating curve. Afterwards, PAD is defined by conducting digital filtering baseflow separation approach after calculation of diffuse, fissure, and conduit recession constant. Next, to figure out hydrogeochemical condition, 120 sample of karst water are analyzed including rain, underground-river, and drip water. After that, scatter plots between hydrogeochemical parameters are conducted to achieve the correlation between PAD and hydrogeochemistry as well as to figure out hydrogeochemical processes to occur. Subsequently, Saturation Indices analysis with respect to calcite mineral and KDS components correlation is carried out to define karst water agressivity and its manners along flowpath of Bribin River.
The research’s result demonstrates that there is spatial and temporal differentiation of flow characteristics along Bribin River attributable to the comportment of karst aquifer toward discharging its diffuse, fissure, or conduit flow components, which consequence to the dissimilarity of PAD distribution along Bribin River. Accordingly, PAD characteristics result to dry season hydrogeochemical condition of Bribin River. However, wet season hydrogeochemical condition is more influenced by means of dilution by precipitation process within flood events, which exaggerates CO2 content of water. Generally, the upper-stream cave tend to more aggressive in dissolving limestone, contrast to down-steam cave that be inclined to precipitate carbonate mineral as a result of their differentiation of cavities configuration. In addition, down-stream cave is characterized by open system cavities, subsequent to the CO2 discharge to preserve dissolution process.


Hypogean microclimatology and hydrogology of the 800-900 m asl level in the Monte Corchia cave (Tuscany, Italy): Preliminary considerations and implications for paleoclimatological studies, 2011, Ilaria Baneschi, Leonardo Piccini, Eleonora Regattieri, Ilaria Isola, Massimo Guidi, Licia Lotti, Francesco Mantelli, Marco Menichetti, Russell N. Drysdale & Giovanni Zanchetta:

The Monte Corchia Cave is one of the most promising sites for studying the paleoclimate of the Mediterranean basin, but its hydrology and hydrogeochemistry are still poorly known. In this paper, we report some meteoclimatic and hydrochemical data for different parts of the cave. Conductivity and water level data from La Gronda channel show that this system reacts rapidly to external meteoric events, indicating the presence of a conductive epikarst. Data on two different drips indicate that the physicochemical parameters, such as conductivity, pH, δ13CDIC and drip rate depend on the local structural setting and water path length. The data presented show that Galleria delle Stalattiti (the focus of the paleoclimate research) has the most stable conditions in terms of temperature, and the dripwaters show constant pH, electrical conductivity, alkalinity, calcium and magnesium content and δ18O. Drip rate is not affected by rain events and displays long-term trends that require a longer period of monitoring for elucidating their nature. The preliminary data presented here corroborate the hypotheses suggesting Galleria delle Stalattiti as a good example of a “deep” hypogean system of Fairchild et al. (2007).


Ferruginous thermal spring complexes, northwest Tasmania: Evidence that far-field stresses acting on a fracture mesh can open and maintain vertical flow in carbonate terrains, 2011, Davidson G. J. , Bavea M. , Harris K.

Far-field stress changes in the southern Australian plate since 5 Ma have produced significant areas of uplift and seismicity. In northwest Tasmania, there is evidence that this stress reorientation to maximum horizontal NW-SE stress has influenced meteoric-derived thermal (15-20°C) discharge patterns of confined karstic aquifers, by placing pre-existing NW-trending faults/fractures into a dilated state or a critically stressed state. Previous studies have shown that spring discharge has operated continuously for at least 65,000 years, and has transported large volumes of solutes to the surface to be deposited as mounds of calcite-goethite-silica up to 7 m high. The thermal spring chemistry at one site, Mella, is consistent with descent to at least 1.2-1. 5 km, although the hinterland within 50 km is less than 500 m elevation. Thermal spring chemistry is consistent with most of the deep water-rock interaction occurring in low-strontium Smithton Dolomite. While some of this water is discharged at springs, some instead intersects shallow zones of NE-fracture-controlled rock (2 ? 4 km in area) with karstic permeability where, although confined and subject to a NE-directed hydraulic gradient, it circulates and cools to ambient temperature, with only minor mixing with other groundwaters


Ferruginous thermal spring complexes, northwest Tasmania: evidence that far-field stresses acting on a fracture mesh can open and maintain vertical flow in carbonate terrains, 2011, Davidson Garry J. , Bavea Michael, Harris Kathryn

Far-field stress changes in the southern Australian plate since 5 Ma have produced significant areas of uplift and seismicity. In northwest Tasmania, there is evidence that this stress reorientation to maximum horizontal NW–SE stress has influenced meteoricderived thermal (15–20°C) discharge patterns of confined karstic aquifers, by placing pre-existing NWtrending faults/fractures into a dilated state or a critically stressed state. Previous studies have shown that spring discharge has operated continuously for at least 65,000 years, and has transported large volumes of solutes to the surface to be deposited as mounds of calcite-goethite-silica up to 7 m high. The thermal spring chemistry at one site, Mella, is consistent with descent to at least 1.2–1.5 km, although the hinterland within 50 km is less than 500 m elevation. Thermal spring chemistry is consistent with most of the deep water–rock interaction occurring in low-strontium Smithton Dolomite. While some of this water is discharged at springs, some instead intersects shallow zones of NE-fracture-controlled rock (2×4 km in area) with karstic permeability where, although confined and subject to a NE-directed hydraulic gradient, it circulates and cools to ambient temperature, with only minor mixing with other groundwaters. 


Hydrogeochemistry and possible sulfate sources in karst groundwater in Chongqing, China, 2012, Pu J. , Yuan D. , Zhang Ch. , Zhao H.

Groundwater from karst subterranean streams is among the world’s most important sources of drinking water supplies, and the hydrochemical characteristics of karst water are affected by both natural environment and people. Therefore, the study of karst groundwater hydrochemistry and its solutes’ sources is very important to ensure the normal function of life support systems. This paper focused on the major ion chemistry and sulfate isotope of karst groundwater in Chongqing for tracing the sulfate sources and related hydrochemical processes. Hydrochemical types of karst groundwater in Chongqing were mainly of the Ca-HCO3 type or Ca(Mg)-HCO3 type. However, some hydrochemical types were the K ? Na ? Ca-SO4 type (G25 site) or Ca-HCO3 ? SO4 type (G26 and G14 sites), indicating that the hydrochemistry of these sites may be strongly influenced by anthropogenic activities or unique geological characteristics. The d34S-SO4 2- of collected karst groundwater sample fell into a range of -6.8 to 21.5 %, with a mean value of 5.6 %. In dolomite aquifer, the d34S-SO4 2- value ranges from -4.3 to 11.0 %, and in limestone aquifer, it ranged from -6.8 to 21.5 %. The groundwater samples from different land use types showed distinctive d34S-SO4 2- value. The d34S-SO4 2- value of groundwater samples had range of -6.8 to 16.7 % (mean 4.0 %, n = 11) in cultivated land areas, 1.5–21.5 %(mean 7.2 %, n = 20) in forested land areas, and -4.3 to 0.8 % (mean -1.7 %, n = 2) in coalmine areas. The d34S-SO4 2- values of groundwater samples collected from factory area and town area were 2.2 and 9.9 %, respectively. According to the d34S information of potential sulfate sources, this paper discussed the possible sulfate sources of collected karst groundwater samples in Chongqing. The variations of both d34S and 1/SO4 2- values of the groundwater samples indicated that the atmospheric acid deposition (AAD), dissolution of gypsum (GD), oxidation of sulfide mineral (OS) or anthropogenic inputs (SF: sewage or fertilizer) contributed to sulfate in karst groundwater. The influence of oxidation of sulfide mineral, atmospheric acid deposit and anthropogenic inputs to groundwater in Chongqing karst areas was much widespread. For protecting, sustaining, and utilizing the groundwater resources, the sewage possibly originating from urban, mine or industrial area must be controlled and treated, and the use of fertilizer should be limited


Partial pressures of CO2 in epikarstic zone deduced from hydrogeochemistry of permanent drips, the Moravian Karst, Czech Republic, 2012, Faimon Jiř, , Lič, Binsk Monika, Zajč, Ek Petr, Sracek Ondra

Permanent drips from straw stalactites of selected caves of the Moravian Karst were studied during one-year period. A hypothetical partial pressure of CO2 that has participated in limestone dissolution, PCO2(H)=10-1.53±0.04, was calculated from the dripwater chemistry. The value significantly exceeds the partial pressures generally measured in relevant shallow karst soils, PCO2(soil)=10-2.72±0.02. This finding may have important implications for karst/cave conservation and paleoenvironmental reconstructions.


Evidences of hypogenic speleogenesis in Slovenian caves , 2013, Otoničar, B.

 In Slovenia, known as the country of classical karst, thinking about caves of predominantly hypogenic origin have been treated almost as a heresy. Although we may agree that only on the basis of cave morphology and wall rock features parts of some “common” caves especially close to allogenic inflow and past epipheratic zones cannot be simply related to some past hypogenic phase of cave development (e. g. Osborne 2008; Knez & Slabe 2009) some caves in Slovenia host too many features diagnostic for hypogenic, hydrothermal or at least ascending water flow that such interpretations shouldn’t be considered.

We will present preliminary studies on caves from different karstic regions of Slovenia where cave morphology, wall rock features, mineralogy, general geological setting of the area and partly hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry suggest, at least on a level of hypothesis, their partial development with hypogenic processes in a wider sense (sensu Palmer 2011). In each of the discussed karstic regions different phenomena diagnostic for some of the hypogenic processes prevails over the others.

In Jelovica high karstic plateau (Julian pre-Alps) and Raduha Mt. (Kamniško-Savinjske Alpe) many caves are locally decorated with big calcite crystals commonly found also as veins on the karstic surface.

The Vrh Svetih Treh Kraljev in Rovtarsko Hribovje, the Pre-alpine region in the western part of central Slovenia, hosts few caves which channels exhibit ramiform and maze like orientation guided by faults and joints with wall rock features characteristic for dissolution with slowly flowing ascending water. A large part of at least one cave is developed in dedolomite while the biggest cave in the area has no known natural entrance. In addition, three wells in the area discharge “sulphuric” water.

In Slovenia many caves show wall rock features that can also be diagnostic for hypogenic speleogenesis or at least to ascending flow. However, such features are most often found in places where high fluctuation of karstic waters mainly with allogenic river inflow occurs. Perhaps some exceptions could be found in the foothills of Jelovica Plateau where especially in one particular maze or anastomotic cave (Jeralovo brezno) no evidence of substantial allogenic inflow occurs although in the lower parts some smaller channels are partly filled by predominately fine grained sandy stream related allogenic deposits.

For more detail information of the above mentioned karstic regions with potential traces of hypogenic spelogenesis see the guidebook of the excursions.


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