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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That stream bed is the bottom of a stream covered by water [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for monitoring (Keyword) returned 226 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 226
RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR KARST AQUIFERS: (2) SOLUTE-TRANSPORT MODELING, 1997, Field Ms,

Risk assessment methodology for karst aquifers .1. Estimating karst conduit-flow parameters, 1997, Field Ms, Nash Sg,
Quantitative ground-water tracing of conduit-dominated karst aquifers allows for reliable and practical interpretation of karst ground-water flow. Insights into the hydraulic geometry of the karst aquifer may be acquired that otherwise could not be obtained by such conventional methods as potentiometric-surface mapping and aquifer testing. Contamination of karst aquifers requires that a comprehensive tracer budget be performed so that karst conduit hydraulic-flow and geometric parameters be obtained. Acquisition of these parameters is necessary for estimating contaminant fate-and-transport. A FORTRAN computer program for estimating total tracer recovery from tracer-breakthrough curves is proposed as a standard method. Estimated hydraulic-flow parameters include mean residence time, mean flow velocity, longitudinal dispersivity, Peclet number, Reynolds number, and Froude number. Estimated geometric parameters include karst conduit sinuous distance, conduit volume, cross-sectional area, diameter, and hydraulic depth. These parameters may be used to (1) develop structural models of the aquifer, (2) improve aquifer resource management, (3) improve ground-water monitoring systems design, (4) improve aquifer remediation, and (5) assess contaminant fate-and-transport. A companion paper demonstrates the use of these hydraulic-flow and geometric parameters in a surface-water model for estimating contaminant fate-and-transport in a karst conduit. Two ground-water tracing studies demonstrate the utility of this program for reliable estimation of necessary karst conduit hydraulic-flow and geometric parameters

RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR KARST AQUIFERS: (1) ESTIMATING KARST CONDUIT-FLOW PARAMETERS, 1997, Field Ms, Nash Sg,

Radon transport phenomena studied in Karst caves-international experiences on radon levels and exposures, 1997, Hakl J. , Hunyadi I. , Csige I. , Geczy G. , Lenart L. , Varhegyi A. ,
The results of radon measurements in caves obtained by using of nuclear track detectors are summarized. Mean radon concentrations are ranging worldwide from 0.1 to 20 kBqm-3 with 2.8 kBqm-3 arithmetic average. From long-term extended radon measurements in caves not only a detailed dosimetric picture can be drawn, but using radon gas as a radioactive tracer, the subsurface and near-to-surface transport processes can be studied, too. It will be shown that long-term radon monitoring by nuclear track detectors, in conjunctions with active detectors which enables detection of fast dynamic changes, offers very important information for naturally-occurring transport processes

Monitoring of percolation water to discriminate surficial inputs in a karst aquifer, 1998, Covelli S, Cucchi F, Mosca R,

Changes in the isotopic and chemical composition of ground water resulting from a recharge pulse from a sinking stream, 1998, Katz B. G. , Catches J. S. , Bullen T. D. , Michel R. L. ,
The Little River, an ephemeral stream that drains a watershed of approximately ss km(2) in northern Florida, disappears into a series of sinkholes along the Cody Scarp and flows directly into the carbonate Upper Floridan aquifer, the source of water supply in northern Florida. The changes in the geochemistry of ground water caused by a major recharge pulse from the sinking stream were investigated using chemical and isotopic tracers and mass-balance modeling techniques, Nine monitoring wells were installed open to the uppermost part of the aquifer in areas near the sinks where numerous subterranean karst solution features were identified using ground penetrating radar. During high-flow conditions in the Little River, the chemistry of water in some of the monitoring wells changed, reflecting the mixing of river water with ground water. Rapid recharge of river water into some parts of the aquifer during high-flow conditions was indicated by enriched values of delta O-18 and delta deuterium (-1.67 to -3.17 per mil and -9.2 to -15.6 per mil, respectively), elevated concentrations of tannic acid, higher (more radiogenic) Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios, and lower concentrations of Rn-222, silica, and alkalinity compared to low-how conditions. The proportion of river water that mixed with ground water ranged from 0.10 to 0.67 based on binary mixing models using the tracers O-18, deuterium, tannic acid, silica, Rn-222, and Sr-87/Sr-86. On the basis of mass-balance modeling during steady-state how conditions, the dominant processes controlling carbon cycling in ground water are the dissolution of calcite and dolomite in aquifer material, and aerobic degradation of organic matter. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

The hydrogeological effect of quarrying karstified limestone: options for prediction and mitigation, 1998, Hobbs S. L. , Gunn J. ,
The hydrogeological effect of limestone extraction from open pits (quarries) depends on the location of the site in the landscape, the vertical and horizontal extent of the excavation, the methods used to excavate the stone, and the extent of karstification. Groundwater quality is commonly affected by quarrying through increased fine sediment concentrations and accidental spillages. Removal of any soil cover allows direct access for pollutants into the aquifer, a problem which may be exacerbated by licensed or illegal tipping of waste following cessation of stone extraction. Quarrying also removes the entire subcutaneous (epikarstic) zone which is an important ground-water store, together with part or all of the unsaturated zone. Pumping of water from the excavation will change the ground-water balance and can alter the direction and amounts of conduit flow, particularly if the quarry extends beneath the water table. Prediction of such impacts is difficult, especially when the limestone is karstified, such that there will always be a degree of uncertainty associated with the impact of the workings. Hence, it is essential that for new quarries monitoring is undertaken prior to, throughout, and following mineral working, with options for mitigation if mineral working causes an unacceptable impact. When a quarry ceases to be worked, the direct impacts on groundwater quality may rapidly decrease but there are important implications for after-use of the site. Impacts on groundwater quantity are likely to be more long-term

Seasonal Effects on the Geochemical Evolution of the Logsdon River, Mammoth Cave, Kentucky., 1998, Anthony, Darlene M. , Ms

The following research describes the collection and evaluation of geochemical data from the Logsdon River, an open-flow conduit that drains a portion of the Turnhole Spring drainage basin within the Mammoth Cave karst aquifer of south-central Kentucky. This spatial survey of nearly 10 km of continuous base-level conduit included seasonal sampling of carbon dioxide partial pressures (PCO2), dissolved ions, and saturation indices for calcite (SIcal). The highest PCO2 are found at the upstream site closest to the Sinkhole Plain recharge area, which creates undersaturated conditions. Rapid outgassing of CO2 into the cave atmosphere creates oversaturated conditions for several thousand meters. This change in chemistry results in the accumulation of travertine in these areas. A boost in PCO2 roughly half-way through the flow path returns the water to slightly undersaturated conditions. The most likely source for additional CO2 is in-cave organic decay, as the boost also occurs during winter months when microbial activity in the soil is at a minimum. A general decline in Ca2+, Mg2+, and HCO3- concentrations occurred over the distance through the Logsdon River conduit. This decline may reflect a diluting of water by localized inputs from the Mammoth Cave Plateau and precipitation of travertine along the flow path. Although values for all parameters are greater in summer than winter, the trend in evolution is similar for both seasonal extremes.
The nature of the transition from summer to winter conditions in the aquifer was investigated by way of an intensive study of the geochemistry at the Logsdon River monitoring well. The relationship between conductivity (spC) and pH was evaluated during both seasons in an attempt to predict the activity of hydrogen for any given water sample, based on continuous spC measurements at the well. Data collected during the 1997-98 seasonal transitions supported a single, nonlinear regression equation that may represent two distinct seasonal regimes.


Influence of Pedo-chemical Field on Epi-karstification in Subtropical Humid Region-Field Monitoring and Laboratory Experiment , 1998, Pan Genxing, Tao Yuxiang, Teng Yogzhong, Xu Shenyou, Sun Yuhua, Han Fushun

The influence of pedo-chemical conditions on epi-karstification in a karst hydrogeochemical experiment site near Guilin was studied. The dissolution of limestone, and pH, CO2, HCO3- in soil and karst water under soil cover conditions was monitored by using filter tubes containing reference rock plate, and by using portable pH meter, CO2 gas meter and Aqumerck Kit. Laboratory experiments of dissolution under different soil conditions were also conducted by using leaching cylinders. In addition, 13C tracing was carried out on the samples of plant- litter- SOM-soil CO2-spring water-travertine-rock in the karst system. Soil pH, SOM status (subsequently CO2 concentration) and Ca+2 saturation constitutes a pedo-chemical field vigorously affecting the rock dissolution. The carbon in the form of HCO3- in the spring water and of CaCO3 in the travertine was closely related with the soil CO2 gas. Thus, soil carbon through the transferring pathway of air CO2-plant carbon-SOC-soil CO2 was involved in the epi-karstification process, and interface exchange of soil Ca+2, HCO3- with karst water existed in the karst hydrogeochemical flow. A modified model for epi-karstification in the studied area was suggested.


Radiation doses due to radon and progeny in the Postojna Cave, 1998, Vaupotič, Janja, Dujmovič, Petra, Kobal Ivan

In 1996 in the Postojna Cave etched-track detectors were exposed every month at five locations along the route of the guided tourist tour to measure average radon concentrations, and in every season radon, its progeny and equilibrium factor were continuously monitored for 5-10 days. The evaluation of the data revealed a negligible radiation dose for a visitor and yearly doses of up to 15 mSv for workers in the cave (guides, train drivers, maintenance workers, and kiosk workers). These high doses require the restriction of time spent by a worker in the cave and regular radon monitoring in the cave.


Monitoring von Triphosa spec. in Hhlen des Hagengebirges (Nationalpark Berchtesgaden, Deutschland)., 1999, Menne B. , Menne S(andra).
[Deutschland, Gamsbemmerl-Labyrinth (1335/153)]

A Laboratory Investigation of the Relative Dissolution Rates of the Lirio Limestone and the Isla de Mona Dolomite and Implications for Cave and Karst Development on Isla de Mona., 1999, Martinez, M. I. , White, W. B.
The relative dissolution kinetics of the Lirio Limestone and the Isla de Mona Dolomite were determined by dissolving discs of various samples in CO2 -saturated solutions. Rate curves for carbonate dissolution were determined by monitoring pH and specific conductance as a function of time. Dissolution rates for limestone samples were distinctly higher than rates for dolomite samples but the rate curves had similar shapes. Initial rates for limestones averaged 12.53 mmol m-2 sec-1 compared with 8.53 for dolomite. The limestone rates are comparable with those measured on single crystal calcite but the dolomite rates are higher than rates measured on Paleozoic dolomites. The relative dissolution rates are sufficient to be a factor in explaining the concentration of caves at the limestone/dolomite contact but may not be the only controlling factor

Les stalagmites : archives environnementales et climatiques haute rsolution, prsentation des protocoles dtudes et premiers rsultats sur des splothmes du Vercors, 1999, Perrette, Yves
Since the late 80's, the detailed study of speleothem has deve_loped from the crossing of two main approachs; one comes from the ques_tions of speleologists confronted with magnificent cave scenery, the other comes from citizen questions about climatic and environmental changes. The aim of this paper is to show the diversity and the relevance of the data collected by such studies on stalagmitic samples from the Vercors -France. The knowledge of the chemical processes of the H20 - CaCO3 - C02 system in the perspective of the karst infiltration leads to ques_tions about the role of the "supstrat". This word has been used to describe the "roofrock" rather than the bedrock. So, to better unders_tand the different modes of drainage in karst, a global hydrologic study of the Choranche cave vadose zone has been realised, e.g. seepage water rates have been monitoring. These recent studies allow us to model the structural and functional hydrologic network of such a well developed karst system. Actually we demonstrated the hierar_chisation of the drainage and the relation between a transmissive system and a capacitive one. They have been used to propose a graphical typology leading to a better appreciation of the various environmental interests of speleothems. Understanding the processes of speleothem environmental and climatic archiving, needs to know the processes of calcite crystal growth. They are briefly presented through some usual fabrics like columnar, palissadic or dendritic ones and through the optical relation between macroscopic colours and crys_talline porosity. It is the evolution of these crystalline features, which creates the laminae. To explain what are laminae, the diffe_rent type of emission by a solid after a laser irradiation are shown. It justifies the choice of two kinds of laminae measurement i.e. reflectance and fluorescence. Then, results of spectroscopic studies which show a covariation between Mn2+ concentration, the maximum intensity wave length of fluorescence spectra and the reflec_tance trend, allow us to consider reflectance measurement as a water excess proxy. This experimental approach is confirmed by the infra annual laminae. The hydrological interest of "visible" laminae (i.e. reflectance one) is increased by the fluorescence "invisible" lami_nae. In fact, the presence of a wide diversity of organic molecule in the calcite lead us to consider the fluorescence lamina as a temporal proxy controlled by the annual leaf fall and biopedological degradation. To measure these two proxies, an original experimental set has been developed in collaboration with the PhLAM laboratory (Lille, France). Particularly, this experimental set up permits to realise simultaneously a reflectance and a fluorescence image. The data collected are processed and are analysed in the frequency domain. All these data allow us to extract different proxies from speleothems. These proxies have been studied for some Vercors samples. We present the global environmental and climatic data archiving of the post_wurmian (isotopic stage 1) warming. At a higher resolution, the Vercors climate forcing is shown through the spectral analysis of the reflectance of a well laminated sample. The solar (T=22y) and atmospheric (NAO, T=17y) forcings are clearly distinguished. The climate analysis of this sample is limited by an anthropic mask. We show the similarity of the crystal facies evolution of two samples located around the Alps but far from more than 100 km. We would like to interpret this changes as an archiving of the post Little Ice Age warming but here too, Man interfere with climate to induce environmental changes. We show an example of the possibility for distinguishing climate from anthropic changes in environmental evolutions. The wealth of data of the speleothem allows us to appreciate the environ_ment stability of the Vercors which is confirmed in the spectral analysis of the growth rates of a Gouffre Berger sample. The diversity of the data collected in speleothems is directly linked to the diversity of the way of archiving in a karst system. It is why only a global approach seems to be relevant for answering environmental hydrological or morphological karst questions.

Highway stormwater runoff in karst areas - preliminary results of baseline monitoring and design of a treatment system for a sinkhole in Knoxville, Tennessee, 1999, Stephenson J. B. , Zhou W. F. , Beck B. F. , Green T. S. ,
Groundwater is vulnerable to contamination in karst areas where highway stormwater runoff may flow directly into karst aquifers with little or no natural attenuation and transport highway-derived contaminants rapidly from sinkholes to locations in the aquifer. The primary goal of this investigation is the development and evaluation of practical remedial measures for treating highway runoff draining into sinkholes. Field testing sites are located in Knoxville, TN, and Frederick, MD. This paper presents a summary of preliminary results of baseline monitoring in Knoxville. Quantitative dye tracing and hydrograph analyses have demonstrated that water draining into the I-40/I-640 sinkhole passes through a phreatic conduit and resurges at Holston Spring ca 128 m (420 ft) from the sinkhole. Stormwater quantity has been monitored continuously for more than 1.5 years, and runoff quality has been monitored during a storm event. For most of the contaminants analyzed, peak contaminant loading at Holston Spring lagged behind the peak at the sinkhole by approximately 1 hour. The movement of stormwater from other sinkholes in the drainage basin to Holston Spring is regulated by partial blockage of the conduit-dominated flow system. Urban development of the karst terrane in eastern Knoxville may be responsible for this observed phenomenon. A pilot-scale stormwater runoff treatment system has been designed using peat, sand, and rock to remove contaminants by sedimentation, filtration, and adsorption. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Hydrochemical approach to the alterations of the recharge of a karst aquifer consecutive to a long pumping period: Example taken from Pinchinade graben (Mouans-Sartoux, French Riviera), 1999, Reynaud A. , Guglielmi Y. , Mudry J. , Mangan C. ,
The carbonate aquifer of the Pinchinade graben, which has a well-delimited geometry, involves water,vith well-defined chemical types from calcium sulfate to magnesium bicarbonate. Each ground water type corresponds to a well-delimited area of the aquifer: the magnesium bicarbonate for the Liassic and Rhetian limestone water (with 10 to 30 mg L-1 of sulfate) and calcium sulfate for the water of the relatively impermeable layer of the underlying Keuper (with 300 to 1500 mg L-1 of sulfate). A four-year pumping test,vith a bimonthly to daily monitoring of water chemistry has allowed evaluation of the renewal of the exploitable water reserve. During the four-year period, the survey shows that the average discharge is balanced by natural recharge (2.8 to 105 m(3) y(-1)). A change in the chemical character of the water was observed from Rhetian to Keuper type (from 35 to 167 mg L-1 of sulfate), Such a change indicates a progressive exhaustion of the Rhetian reserves, which are the greater part of the exploitable reserve in the area. The same phenomenon is observed daily depending on the pumped discharge and the season. For pumping rates below 26 m(3) h(-1), the borehole drains the Rehetian inflows to a degree depending on high or low water levels. For pumping rates above 26 m(3) h(-1), whatever the period, the permeable Keuper layers are pumped and sulfate peaks ensue

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