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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That lift is the vertical pumping distance between the water level in a well to the land surface [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for carlsbad caverns (Keyword) returned 26 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 26 of 26
BACTERIA, FUNGI AND BIOKARST IN LECHUGUILLA CAVE, CARLSBAD-CAVERNS-NATIONAL-PARK, NEW-MEXICO, 1995, Cunningham Ki, Northup De, Pollastro Rm, Wright Wg, Larock Ej,
Lechuguilla Cave is a deep, extensive, gypsum- and sulfur-bearing hypogenic cave in Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico, most of which (> 90%) lies more than 300 m beneath the entrance. Located in the arid Guadalupe Mountains, Lechuguilla's remarkable state of preservation is partially due to the locally continuous Yates Formation siltstone that has effectively diverted most vadose water away from the cave. Allocthonous organic input to the cave is therefore very limited, but bacterial and fungal colonization is relatively extensive: (1) Aspergillus sp. fungi and unidentified bacteria are associated with iron-, manganese-, and sulfur-rich encrustations on calcitic folia near the suspected water table 466 m below the entrance; (2) 92 species of fungi in 19 genera have been identified throughout the cave in oligotrophic (nutrient-poor) ''soils'' and pools; (3) cave-air condensate contains unidentified microbes; (4) indigenous chemoheterotrophic Seliberius and Caulobacter bacteria are known from remote pool sites; and (5) at least four genera of heterotrophic bacteria with population densities near 5 x 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU) per gram are present in ceiling-bound deposits of supposedly abiogenic condensation-corrosion residues. Various lines of evidence suggest that autotrophic bacteria are present in the ceiling-bound residues and could act as primary producers in a unique subterranean microbial food chain. The suspected autotrophic bacteria are probably chemolithoautotrophic (CLA), utilizing trace iron, manganese, or sulfur in the limestone and dolomitic bedrock to mechanically (and possibly biochemically) erode the substrate to produce residual floor deposits. Because other major sources of organic matter have not been detected, we suggest that these CLA bacteria are providing requisite organic matter to the known heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in the residues. The cavewide bacterial and fungal distribution, the large volumes of corrosion residues, and the presence of ancient bacterial filaments in unusual calcite speleothems (biothems) attest to the apparent longevity of microbial occupation in this cave

Reef margin collapse, gully formation and filling within the Permian Capitan Reef: Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, USA, 1999, Harwood G. M. , Kendall A. C. ,
An area of reef margin collapse, gully formation and gully fill sedimentation has been identified and mapped within Left Hand Tunnel, Carlsbad Caverns. It demonstrates that the Capitan Reef did not, at all times, form an unbroken border to the Delaware Basin. Geopetally arranged sediments within cavities from sponge-algal framestones of the reef show that the in situ reef today has a 10 degrees basinwards structural dip. Similar dips in adjacent back-reef sediments, previously considered depositional, probably also have a structural origin. Reoriented geopetal structures have also allowed the identification of a 200-m-wide, 25-m-deep gully within the reef, which has been filled by large (some >15 m), randomly orientated and, in places, overturned blocks and boulders, surrounded by finer reef rubble, breccias and grainstones. Block supply continued throughout gully filling, implying that spalling of reef blocks was a longer term process and was not a by-product of the formation of the gully. Gully initiation was probably the result of a reef front collapse, with a continued instability of the gully bordering reef facies demonstrated by their incipient brecciation and by faults containing synsedimentary fills. Gully filling probably occurred during reef growth, and younger reef has prograded over the gully fill. Blocks contain truncated former aragonite botryoidal cements, indicating early aragonite growth within the in situ reef. In contrast, former high-magnesian calcite rind cements post-date sedimentation within the gully. The morphology of cavern passages is controlled by reef facies variation, with narrower passages cut into the in situ reef and wider passages within the gully fill. Gully fills may also constitute more permeable zones in the subsurface

A minimum age for canyon incision and for the extinct Molossid bat, Tadarida constantinei, from Carlsbad Cavers National Park, New Mexico, 2006, Lundberg J. , Mcfarlane D. A.
Slaughter Canyon Cave (or New Cave), Carlsbad Caverns National Park, southeastern New Mexico, opens in the wall of Slaughter Canyon, 174 m above the present level of the canyon floor. It contains bone-bearing, water-laid sediments capped by a double layer of calcite. TIMS U-Th dates on the two layers are 66.0 0.3 ka and 209 9 ka. Deposition of these two laterallyextensive calcite layers suggests wet periods in this currently-arid region during MIS 4 and 7. The date on the lower layer suggests that the clastic deposit was emplaced no later than MIS 8. This yields a maximum estimate for downcutting rate of the canyon of ~0.87 mm yr-1during the Late Pleistocene. The clastic deposit contains bones of the molossid bat Tadarida constantinei Lawrence 1960: the date of 209 9 ka is thus a minimum age for this extinct bat.

Got moonmilk? The characterization of moonmilk in Spider Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico, 2006, Perrone Vogt M. , Giles K.

An Investigation of Meromixis in Cave Pools, Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, 2008, Levy D. B.
Chemical characteristics of permanent stratification in cave pools (meromixis) may provide insight into the geochemical origin and evolution of cave pool waters. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that some pools in Lechuguilla Cave may be subject to ectogenic meromixis, where permanent chemical stratification is induced by input of relatively saline or fresh water from an external source. However, because organic C concentrations in Lechuguilla waters are low (typically < 1 mg L-1), biogenic meromixis resulting in O2(g)-depleted subsurface waters is not expected. Four pools at various depths below ground surface (0 m) were studied: (1) Lake Chandalar (-221 m), (2) Lake of the Blue Giants (LOBG) (- 277 m), (3) Lake Margaret (- 319 m), and (4) Lake of the White Roses (LOWR) (- 439 m). Water column profiles of temperature, pH, dissolved O2(g), and electrical conductivity (EC) were collected down to a maximum depth of 13.1 m using a multi-parameter sonde. Opposite pH gradients were observed at Lake Chandalar and LOBG, where pH at the surface (0.3 m) varied by 0.20 units compared to the subsurface (> 0.9 m), and are probably the result of localized and transient atmospheric CO2(g) concentrations. At LOBG, an EC increase of 93 ?S cm-1 at the 0.9-m depth suggests meromictic conditions which are ectogenic, possibly due to surface inflow of fresh water as drips or seepage into a preexisting layer of higher salinity.

An Investigation of Meromixis in Cave Pools, Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico., 2008, Levy, D. B.

Chemical characteristics of permanent stratification in cave pools (meromixis) may provide insight into the geochemical origin and evolution of cave pool waters. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that some pools in Lechuguilla Cave may be subject to ectogenic meromixis, where permanent chemical stratification is induced by input of relatively saline or fresh water from an external source. However, because organic C concentrations in Lechuguilla waters are low (typically < 1 mg L-1), biogenic meromixis resulting in O2(g)-depleted subsurface waters is not expected. Four pools at various depths below ground surface (0 m)
were studied: (1) Lake Chandalar (-221 m), (2) Lake of the Blue Giants (LOBG) (- 277 m), (3) Lake Margaret (- 319 m), and (4) Lake of the White Roses (LOWR) (- 439 m). Water column profiles of temperature, pH, dissolved O2(g), and electrical conductivity (EC) were collected down to a maximum depth of 13.1 m using a multi-parameter sonde. Opposite pH gradients were observed at Lake Chandalar and LOBG, where pH at the surface (0.3 m) varied by ±0.20 units compared to the subsurface (> 0.9 m), and are probably
the result of localized and transient atmospheric CO2(g) concentrations. At LOBG, an EC increase of 93 μS cm-1 at the 0.9-m depth suggests meromictic conditions which are ectogenic, possibly due to surface inflow of fresh water as drips or seepage into a preexisting layer of higher salinity.


An Investigation of Meromixis in Cave Pools, Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, 2008, Levy, D. B.

Chemical characteristics of permanent stratification in cave pools (meromixis) may provide insight into the geochemical origin and evolution of cave pool waters. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that some pools in Lechuguilla Cave may be subject to ectogenic meromixis, where permanent chemical stratification is induced by input of relatively saline or fresh water from an external source. However, because organic C concentrations in Lechuguilla waters are low (typically < 1 mg L-1), biogenic meromixis resulting in O2(g)-depleted subsurface waters is not expected. Four pools at various depths below ground surface (0 m) were studied: (1) Lake Chandalar (-221 m), (2) Lake of the Blue Giants (LOBG) (- 277 m), (3) Lake Margaret (- 319 m), and (4) Lake of the White Roses (LOWR) (- 439 m). Water column profiles of temperature, pH, dissolved O2(g), and electrical conductivity (EC) were collected down to a maximum depth of 13.1 m using a multi-parameter sonde. Opposite pH gradients were observed at Lake Chandalar and LOBG, where pH at the surface (0.3 m) varied by ±0.20 units compared to the subsurface (> 0.9 m), and are probably the result of localized and transient atmospheric CO2(g) concentrations. At LOBG, an EC increase of 93 μS cm-1 at the 0.9-m depth suggests meromictic conditions which are ectogenic, possibly due to surface inflow of fresh water as drips or seepage into a preexisting layer of higher salinity


New peculiar cave ceiling forms from Carlsbad Caverns (New Mexico, USA): The zenithal ceiling tube-holes, 2011, Calaforra Josemaria, De Waele Jo

During a trip to the Hall of the White Giant, Carlsbad Caverns (NM, USA) cigar-shaped vertically upward developing holes were observed on the ceiling at different heights of the passages. They have a circular cross-section with diameters of 1 to some centimetres and taper out towards their upper end. Their walls are smooth and their bottom edges are sharp, while their length can reach several decimetres. Sometimes gypsum can be found inside. They often occur randomly distributed in groups and their development is not necessarily controlled by fractures or other bedrock structures.

We name these peculiar karren-like cave microforms “zenithal ceiling tube-holes” because of their origin by H2S environment corrosion processes and their vertical (zenithal) upward growth in ceilings. A comparison is made between zenithal ceiling tube-holes and other karstic or non karstic similar forms such as bell holes, oxidation vents, snailholes, Korrosionskolke (mixture-solution hollows) or pockets, röhrenkarren, light-oriented photokarren, borings of (often marine) organisms and negative stalactites.

Zenithal ceiling tube-holes are created by the corrosive effect of sulphuric acid. H2S(g) dissolves in water giving rise to widespread sulphuric acid corrosion. When H2S bubbles are trapped underneath overhanging surfaces or ceilings and water level rises steadily the corrosive effect is concentrated vertically upwards, drilling vertical holes that can also completely pass overhanging rock ledges.


Sulfuric Acid Caves, 2012, Palmer A, Hill C.

Most caves owe their origin to carbonic acid generated in the soil. In contrast, sulfuric acid caves are produced by the oxidation of sulfides beneath the surface. Although sulfuric acid caves are relatively few, they include some large and well-known examples, such as Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico. They also provide evidence for a variety of deep-seated processes that are important to petroleum geology, ore geology, tectonic history, and the nascent field of karst geomicrobiology.


Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, U.S.A., 2012, Kambesis, Patricia

Lechuguilla Cave in Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, has a 2010 surveyed length of 130 km. It is a hypogene cave, formed by uprising H2S-bearing fluids which oxidize to form sulfuric acid when they reach oxygen-bearing meteoric water. The cave is formed in the Permian Capitan Reef Complex. Argon-argon dating suggests that the cave is on the order of 5 million years old. Lechuguilla Cave exhibits dramatic mineralization, particularly gypsum chandeliers, native sulfur, and many massive calcite speleothems. Of particular interest is the microbiology of the cave where microbes, present and past, formed without surface interactions.


A critical description of Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, USA, in 1931, 2012, Craven, Stephen A.

An account is given of the 1931 visit of the young South African academic geographer Vernon Forbes to the American show cave Carlsbad Caverns. In a subsequent newspaper article he compared the busy Carlsbad Caverns to the much less frequented Cango Cave in South Africa, which he had never seen.


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